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Appendix: Glossary of Foucauldian Terms Used in Chapter 4 and in the Companion Chapter 3

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Appendix Glossary of Foucauldian

Terms Used in Chapter 4 and in the

Companion Chapter 3

Keith Hollinshead, Milka Ivanova and Kellee Caton

Apparatus. In writing of and about sexuality,

Foucault makes much of the dispositif (apparatus) that regulates what we know and understand about the subject; the dispositif is that body of discourse(s), practices, propositions, laws, institutions and scientific statements about sexuality (1>1). It is the dispositif that constitutes a network which ties these understandings and actions together (1>2). Other writers have adapted Foucault’s views on the dispositif to the production of knowledge and practice of and about other subjects – in particular where these subjects are repressed (1>3), though Davidson suggests it is more consistent with Foucauldian thought to suggest that things are ‘normalized’ rather than ‘repressed’, per se, by such dispositifs of power (1>4). Thus, the dispositif within any field is that apparatus which is immanent to that field of understanding, and which tends to oversee and regulate things without itself routinely being ‘seen’ or perhaps ‘suspected’

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1 Reflections on Life Purpose

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Reflections on Life Purpose

Yvette Reisinger

Gulf University for Science and Technology, Kuwait

Searching for Purpose of Life

What is the purpose of life is a philosophical and spiritual question concerning the significance of life or human existence. Questions about the purpose of life can be expressed in a variety of ways, such as ‘Who are we?’, ‘Why are we here?’, ‘What are we here for?’, ‘Why do we live?’, ‘What sense does life have?’, ‘What is the significance of life?’, ‘What is the value of life?’, ‘What is the meaning of life?’ and ‘What is the purpose of our existence?’. The question about the purpose of life has been the subject of many philosophical, scientific, cultural, ideological, theological and spiritual discussions throughout history. There has been a large number of competing answers to these questions, and arguments from many different perspectives that have provided a wide range of explanations.

The questions about the purpose of human existence challenge and haunt every human being as we continue upon life’s journey (Kroth and Boverie, 2000). Human beings ask ourselves these questions at some point during our lives regardless of stage of life or intellectual development. Young and old, scientists and blue-collar workers, poets and ordinary people on the street wonder about the purpose of life and seek the answer to it in their own way

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7 Tourism, Transformation and Urban Ethnic Communities: The Case of Matonge, Brussels

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Tourism, Transformation and

Urban Ethnic Communities: The Case of

Matonge, Brussels

Anya Diekmann and Isabelle Cloquet

Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium

Over the past few decades, the urban precinct of ‘Matonge’ in Brussels has undergone several socio-cultural and economic transformations to become the busy African-oriented commercial belt we know today. Its visitors are mainly part of the African community (referred to by the authors as ‘intern tourists’) and come from other cities in Belgium and neighbouring countries. Since 2007 and with ‘extern (Western) tourists’ as the sole target, Brussels’ tourist authorities have promoted Matonge as an

‘exotic’ African quarter, stressing the multiculturalism of Brussels as a destination. While those extern tourists come to gaze at the otherness of the host community, the intern tourists come to purchase specific cultural goods and meet people from their community, exchange information and share cultural traditions. The expectations, needs and behaviours of these two types of tourist groups are extremely different and so is the impact of the encounter between the visitors and the hosts. Both visitor groups have contributed to varying extents to shaping the destination of Matonge and transforming its community. Focusing on the transformation theory of McLennan et al. (2012), this chapter examines the transformation of the

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8 The Travelling Favela: Cosmopolitanisms from Above and from Below

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The Travelling Favela:

Cosmopolitanisms from Above and from Below

Bianca Freire-Medeiros and Gabriel Cohen

Getulio Vargas Foundation, Brazil

Introduction

The present chapter reflects upon the potentialities and limits of tourism on transforming local residents and their worldviews in a context of economic inequality and social segregation. We do so by confronting two notions, one that is widely used – ‘cosmopolitanism’, and another

– ‘travelling favela’ (Freire-Medeiros, 2013), which intends to be an unassuming contribution to the New Mobilities Paradigm (Sheller and Urry, 2006; Urry, 2007). This paradigmatic shift helps us to rethink understandings of place, power and politics within relational ontologies that highlight openness and change rather than boundedness and permanence. We are especially interested on the idea that mobilities are always complex and never restricted to a mere dislocation between two points and need to be considered in differential and relational ways.

The combined use of the notions of cosmopolitanism and travelling favela in this chapter, therefore, attempts to highlight that mobilities carry a co-relationality between material and symbolic issues involved in the very act of moving.

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3 Destination under Discipline: Foucault and the Transformation of Place Makers

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Destination under Discipline: Foucault and the Transformation of Place Makers

Keith Hollinshead,1 Milka Ivanova1 and Kellee Caton2

1University

of Bedfordshire, UK and 2Thompson Rivers University, Canada

Introduction

This chapter argues that although Foucault wrote nothing explicitly about ‘tourism’ per se, his work as a philosopher of the everyday governmentality of things has much relevance for those who work in tourism management and tourism studies. The chapter is premised on the view that Foucault’s subversive ways of thinking about undersuspected normalizing processes are important for those who ply their trade in global travel, as (for instance) the predominant

‘Western’ or ‘North Atlantic’ thoughtlines of industrially scripted tourism have historically suppressed other ways of seeing the world.

Likewise, it is founded on the assessment that

Foucault’s deep insights into the vogue practices of ‘total institutions’ like asylums, prisons, clinics, etc., are also crucially important for those employed within (for example) large corporations or state promotional bureaux in tourism, where those sorts of bodies may similarly serve as enormously prejudiced totalizing institutions as they select and produce local places.

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