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Appendix: Glossary of Foucauldian Terms Used in Chapter 4 and in the Companion Chapter 3

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Appendix Glossary of Foucauldian

Terms Used in Chapter 4 and in the

Companion Chapter 3

Keith Hollinshead, Milka Ivanova and Kellee Caton

Apparatus. In writing of and about sexuality,

Foucault makes much of the dispositif (apparatus) that regulates what we know and understand about the subject; the dispositif is that body of discourse(s), practices, propositions, laws, institutions and scientific statements about sexuality (1>1). It is the dispositif that constitutes a network which ties these understandings and actions together (1>2). Other writers have adapted Foucault’s views on the dispositif to the production of knowledge and practice of and about other subjects – in particular where these subjects are repressed (1>3), though Davidson suggests it is more consistent with Foucauldian thought to suggest that things are ‘normalized’ rather than ‘repressed’, per se, by such dispositifs of power (1>4). Thus, the dispositif within any field is that apparatus which is immanent to that field of understanding, and which tends to oversee and regulate things without itself routinely being ‘seen’ or perhaps ‘suspected’

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12 Transformation and the WWOOF Exchange: The Host Experience

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12

Transformation and the WWOOF

Exchange: The Host Experience

Adrian Deville

University of Technology, Sydney, Australia

The phenomenal growth and expansion of the

Willing Workers on Organic Farms (WWOOF) network in the mid-1990s, particularly in Australia, has been studied in a very limited fashion, but it is clear that young, mostly urban international long-term budget travellers have discovered a range of virtues in this labour exchange. Many such travellers undergo personal transformations as a result of their interactions with WWOOF hosts. It is of great interest also to consider what possibilities for similar transformation exist for hosts through engagement with WWOOFers. This chapter draws upon research conducted in Australia to explore

WWOOF hosts’ experiences during interactions with WWOOF travellers and the outcomes of these experiences. It is argued that the WWOOF exchange inherently offers transformative potential for participants and that this potential is frequently realized by hosts. Specific examples are presented. The chapter discusses the key underlying factors that recent research suggests are at play in fostering transformational processes and outcomes for hosts.

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5 Where is the Host? An Analytic Autoethnographic Inquiry in Transformational Tourism

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5

Where is the Host? An Analytic

Autoethnographic Inquiry in

Transformational Tourism

Sagar Singh

Centre for Tourism Research and Development, Lucknow, India

Studies in the relationship between tourist and host experiences often revolve round the economic aspects because it is taken for granted that, since tourism is a business, this aspect of study cannot be eliminated. Host experiences, as studied by anthropologists and sociologists, are classified as often characterized by apathy or even dislike, especially where non-business stakeholders are taken into account. As a result, no clear picture emerges as to the nature of host perspectives that can lead to transformation of selves and ‘others’. This chapter, by utilizing the analytic authoethnographic approach, seeks to explain that host experiences are as much the other side of the coin as tourist experiences, and that a better insight is gained by looking at this relationship anthropologically, without minimizing the economic aspect. This can be done by utilizing an economic anthropology approach that complements and enhances Marxian theory.

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1 Reflections on Life Purpose

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1

Reflections on Life Purpose

Yvette Reisinger

Gulf University for Science and Technology, Kuwait

Searching for Purpose of Life

What is the purpose of life is a philosophical and spiritual question concerning the significance of life or human existence. Questions about the purpose of life can be expressed in a variety of ways, such as ‘Who are we?’, ‘Why are we here?’, ‘What are we here for?’, ‘Why do we live?’, ‘What sense does life have?’, ‘What is the significance of life?’, ‘What is the value of life?’, ‘What is the meaning of life?’ and ‘What is the purpose of our existence?’. The question about the purpose of life has been the subject of many philosophical, scientific, cultural, ideological, theological and spiritual discussions throughout history. There has been a large number of competing answers to these questions, and arguments from many different perspectives that have provided a wide range of explanations.

The questions about the purpose of human existence challenge and haunt every human being as we continue upon life’s journey (Kroth and Boverie, 2000). Human beings ask ourselves these questions at some point during our lives regardless of stage of life or intellectual development. Young and old, scientists and blue-collar workers, poets and ordinary people on the street wonder about the purpose of life and seek the answer to it in their own way

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Content Previews

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Content Previews

In Chapter 1, ‘Reflections on Life Purpose’, Yvette Reisinger asks a fundamental question about the purpose of human existence. By presenting conflicting interpretations of the purpose of life she calls for a change in human perspective and attitudes towards the world. She argues that travel and tourism have great potential to change humanity and the surrounding reality.

In Chapter 2, ‘Personal Transformation and Travel and Tourism’, Yvette Reisinger explains the concept of personal transformation and how travel and tourism create conditions conducive to transformation. She argues that, although travel and tourism can enlarge a sense of ‘self’ for both tourists and the host population, tourism holds more potential to transform the host population than tourists.

In Chapter 3, ‘Destinations under Discipline: Foucault and the Transformation of Place Makers’, Keith Hollinshead, Milka Ivanova and Kellee Caton examine Foucault’s suggestions that those who ‘govern’ tourism may be regulated by forms of knowing and acting that limit what constitutes the viewable and projectable tourism product of places, and how that product can be transformed through rapport à soi (self-rapport, the relationship to oneself) to conceivably take on board other/ alternative visions of inheritance or attractivity.

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