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3 Climate Change and Plant Pathogen Invasions

Ziska, L.H., Editor CAB International PDF


Climate Change and Plant

Pathogen Invasions

Karen A. Garrett,1,3 Sara Thomas-Sharma,1 Greg A.

Forbes2 and John Hernandez Nopsa1,3


of Plant Pathology, Kansas State University,

Manhattan, Kansas, USA; 2International Potato Center, Beijing,

China; 3Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre, Bruce,

ACT, Australia


Climate Change and Pathogen

Invasions: An Overview

Climate has an important effect on plant disease and the probability of plant pathogen invasions, through effects on hosts and pathogen vectors as well as on the pathogens themselves. Aerially dispersed pathogens are an important group of plant pathogens, and their dispersal and invasion may be modified by changes in wind patterns.

Pathogens vectored by arthropods may be affected by weather impacts on their vectors, often through the filter of vector behaviour.

Soilborne pathogens have more challenges to rapid invasion, but human transport can introduce them quickly into novel settings.

For pathogens, variability within a species may be of great importance, and many important pathogen invasions are invasions of new genotypes of ubiquitous pathogen species. The connectivity of a landscape for pathogen movement is determined by the spatial distribution of host, pathogen and environmental conditions, and connectivity may also be affected by climate change.

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12 Invasive Species of China and Th eir Responses to Climate Change

Ziska, L.H., Editor CAB International PDF


Invasive Species of China and their Responses to Climate


Bo Li, Shujuan Wei, Hui Li, Qiang Yang and Meng


Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of Yangtze River Estuary,

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, The Institute of Biodiversity Science,

Fudan University, Shanghai, PR China


projects on global change could begin to address critical research needs in this area.

China is a rapidly developing country with the largest share of the world’s population.

The extent of human activity, combined with diverse climates and landscapes, may allow for greater risk of biological invasions.

To date, at least 529 invasive species have been identified, including 270 species of higher plants, 198 species of animals and 61 species of microbes, resulting in an estimated annual economic loss of US$18.9 billion.

Evidence to date suggests that different components of climate change (i.e. temperature, altered precipitation, extreme weather events and rising CO2 concentration) have already influenced the biology of invasive species in China. The influence of climate change may increase the negative economic or environmental consequences of some invasives; however, others may become disadvantaged. Although we are still at the earliest stages of understanding the consequences of climate change on invasive species biology, China is one of the countries that may be affected most dramatically by invasive species. Overall, understanding the interactions between climate change and invasive species biology is an important scientific challenge, but one in which

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4 Analysis of Invasive Insects: Links to Climate Change

Ziska, L.H., Editor CAB International PDF


Analysis of Invasive Insects: Links to Climate Change

Andrew Paul Gutierrez1,2 and Luigi Ponti1,3


for the Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Systems

(CASAS Global NGO), Kensington, California, USA; 2Division of

Ecosystem Science, College of Natural Resources, University of

California, Berkeley, California, USA; 3Laboratorio Gestione

Sostenibile degli Agro-Ecosistemi (UTAGRI-ECO), Agenzia

Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l’Energia e lo Sviluppo

Economico Sostenibile (ENEA), Centro Ricerche Casaccia,

Rome, Italy


Climate change is expected to alter the geographic distribution and abundance of many species, to increase the invasion of new areas by exotic species and, in some cases, to lead to species extinction. This chapter reviews some of the links between invasive insects and climate change. The effects of climate change on insect pest populations can be direct, through impacts on their physiology and behaviour, or indirect, through biotic interactions (i.e. bottom-up and top-down effects). Anthropogenic climate and global change is expected to be a major driver in the introduction, establishment, distribution, impact and changes in the efficacy of mitigation strategies for invasive species. To address these problems, we must be able to predict climate change impacts on species distribution and abundance. Commonly used ecological niche modelling approaches have implicit assumptions about the biology of the target species and attempt to characterize the ecological niche using aggregate weather and other factors in the area of recorded distribution.

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18 Climate, CO[(sub)2] and Invasive Weed Management

Ziska, L.H., Editor CAB International PDF


Climate, CO2 and Invasive Weed


Lewis H. Ziska

Crop Systems and Global Change Laboratory, USDA-ARS,

Beltsville, Maryland, USA



Given the economic and environmental harm caused by invasive weeds, one of the fundamental objectives of weed biologists is to manage invasive populations in order to minimize their impact following introduction. At present, in most developed countries, chemical application remains the principal means of management regarding spread and impact. Yet, it is becoming increasingly clear that there are a number of direct and indirect effects between climate change and rising carbon dioxide levels

[CO2] that are likely to alter herbicide efficacy. For those data that suggest a reduction in effectiveness, primarily with rising CO2 levels, there are several (as yet untested) possible physiological and/or physical mechanisms. At present, it appears that a single ubiquitous explanation for reduced efficacy in the context of climate change is unlikely. A number of alternative non-chemical weed control methods are available, and a combination of available management methods under the rubric of integrated pest management may provide a robust strategy to minimize climate change/

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8 Ragweed in Eastern Europe

Ziska, L.H., Editor CAB International PDF


Ragweed in Eastern Europe

László Makra,1 István Matyasovszky2 and Áron

József Deák3


of Climatology and Landscape Ecology, University of

Szeged, Szeged, Hungary; 2Department of Meteorology, Eötvös

Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary; 3Department of Physical

Geography and Geoinformatics, University of Szeged, Szeged,



Ambrosia artemisiifolia, common ragweed, is an invasive plant species whose introduction and spread in Eastern Europe has resulted in enormous environmental and economic losses in agriculture and public health in recent decades. The aim of this chapter is: (i) to provide an overview on the origin and distribution of Ambrosia from North

America to Europe, with special focus on

Eastern Europe, particularly Hungary; and

(ii) to identify and quantify those humanrelated factors on either a regional or global basis that may act to facilitate the spread and pollen production of this plant species.

The chapter shows that socio-economic changes, particularly in agriculture following the fall of the Soviet Union, may be factors in contributing to the degree of soil disturbance necessary for ragweed establishment and spread. In addition, a temporal analysis is conducted of ragweed pollen characteristics and local meteorological factors from Szeged, Hungary (located in the biogeographical region of Hungary with the highest recorded ragweed pollen counts).

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