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8 Ragweed in Eastern Europe

Ziska, L.H., Editor CAB International PDF

8

Ragweed in Eastern Europe

László Makra,1 István Matyasovszky2 and Áron

József Deák3

1Department

of Climatology and Landscape Ecology, University of

Szeged, Szeged, Hungary; 2Department of Meteorology, Eötvös

Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary; 3Department of Physical

Geography and Geoinformatics, University of Szeged, Szeged,

Hungary

Abstract

Ambrosia artemisiifolia, common ragweed, is an invasive plant species whose introduction and spread in Eastern Europe has resulted in enormous environmental and economic losses in agriculture and public health in recent decades. The aim of this chapter is: (i) to provide an overview on the origin and distribution of Ambrosia from North

America to Europe, with special focus on

Eastern Europe, particularly Hungary; and

(ii) to identify and quantify those humanrelated factors on either a regional or global basis that may act to facilitate the spread and pollen production of this plant species.

The chapter shows that socio-economic changes, particularly in agriculture following the fall of the Soviet Union, may be factors in contributing to the degree of soil disturbance necessary for ragweed establishment and spread. In addition, a temporal analysis is conducted of ragweed pollen characteristics and local meteorological factors from Szeged, Hungary (located in the biogeographical region of Hungary with the highest recorded ragweed pollen counts).

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11 Invasive Plants in a Rapidly Changing Climate: An Australian Perspective

Ziska, L.H., Editor CAB International PDF

11

Invasive Plants in a Rapidly

Changing Climate: An Australian

Perspective

Bruce L. Webber,1,2 Rieks D. van Klinken3 and John

K. Scott1

1CSIRO

Ecosystem Sciences and Climate Adaptation Flagship,

Wembley, Western Australia, Australia; 2School of Plant Biology,

The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia,

Australia; 3CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, Brisbane, Queensland,

Australia

Abstract

Invasive plants in Australia are currently among the greatest threats to native biological diversity and a significant cost to agriculture. The impact of climate change is projected to be particularly significant for

Australia and will add to and change the impact of invasive plants on natural and managed ecosystems. Australia is a large country incorporating a wide variety of climates that often experience significant disturbance events, is likely to undergo significant land-use change with climate change and has a long history of some

26,000 plant species introductions and about 2700 established alien plant species.

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1 Introduction

Ziska, L.H., Editor CAB International PDF

1

Introduction

Jeffrey S. Dukes1 and Lewis H. Ziska2

1Department

of Forestry and Natural Resources & Department of

Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana,

USA; 2Crop Systems and Global Change Laboratory, USDA-ARS,

Beltsville, Maryland, USA

As we write this, the global population has reached 7.1 billion. At present rates, approximately 5 million new individuals will be added each month, every month, for the foreseeable future. (www.census.gov/ popclock).

Ultimately, it is our rapidly increasing population and our need to increase the production of food, feed, fibre and fuel from a finite set of natural resources that are driving the environmental issues in this book, and that give these issues urgency. We need to transition to a sustainable society if we are to provide for this population (or even a smaller one) into the future. Such sustainability is necessary if we are to preserve our planet’s ecosystem services, maintain its capacity to produce food and protect its biodiversity.

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14 Global Identifi cation of Invasive Species: Th e CABI Invasive Species Compendium as a Resource

Ziska, L.H., Editor CAB International PDF

14

Global Identification of Invasive

Species: The CABI Invasive

Species Compendium as a

Resource

Hilda Diaz-Soltero1 and Peter R. Scott2

1USDA, Office of the Secretary, Washington, DC, USA; 2CAB

International, Wallingford, UK

Abstract

Introduction

The number, spread and impact of invasive species in the latter half of the 20th century has been without historical precedent. Now, as human activity causes a precipitous rise in greenhouse gas emissions (e.g. CO2), there is growing concern that climate change may also be a significant, long-term driver enhancing invasive species introduction and spread. New and more powerful tools that facilitate linking invasive species and climate change are required to identify and manage these consequences. One such tool, which exploits a wide range of traditional and social media, is the Invasive Species

Compendium, or ISC. The ISC is a scientific, web-based encyclopedia that compiles the latest information on the invasive species that have the most negative impacts on the environment, the economy and/or animal or human health. The information in the ISC, updated weekly with the latest scientific findings, can be used; to infer future climate change impacts on an invasive species; to understand the potential environmental and/or economic impacts of the species, and to identify ways to control and manage the species in question. This chapter discusses the value and efficacy of the ISC, with a particular emphasis on its application in a globally warmed future.

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4 Analysis of Invasive Insects: Links to Climate Change

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4

Analysis of Invasive Insects: Links to Climate Change

Andrew Paul Gutierrez1,2 and Luigi Ponti1,3

1Center

for the Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Systems

(CASAS Global NGO), Kensington, California, USA; 2Division of

Ecosystem Science, College of Natural Resources, University of

California, Berkeley, California, USA; 3Laboratorio Gestione

Sostenibile degli Agro-Ecosistemi (UTAGRI-ECO), Agenzia

Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l’Energia e lo Sviluppo

Economico Sostenibile (ENEA), Centro Ricerche Casaccia,

Rome, Italy

Abstract

Climate change is expected to alter the geographic distribution and abundance of many species, to increase the invasion of new areas by exotic species and, in some cases, to lead to species extinction. This chapter reviews some of the links between invasive insects and climate change. The effects of climate change on insect pest populations can be direct, through impacts on their physiology and behaviour, or indirect, through biotic interactions (i.e. bottom-up and top-down effects). Anthropogenic climate and global change is expected to be a major driver in the introduction, establishment, distribution, impact and changes in the efficacy of mitigation strategies for invasive species. To address these problems, we must be able to predict climate change impacts on species distribution and abundance. Commonly used ecological niche modelling approaches have implicit assumptions about the biology of the target species and attempt to characterize the ecological niche using aggregate weather and other factors in the area of recorded distribution.

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