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8: Nematophagous Fungi: Regulations and Safety

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF

8 

1

Nematophagous Fungi: Regulations and Safety

Tabo Mubyana-John1* and Joanne Taylor2

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone,

­Botswana; 2Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK

8.1  Introduction

Biocontrol of phytonematodes involves the use of biopesticides (also known as biocontrol agents; BCA), which, in the case of nematodes, are mainly their natural fungal predators

(Stirling and Smith, 1998). Historically, phytonematodes were controlled using soil chemical fumigants such as methyl bromide, dazomet,

1,3-dichloropropene, telone, metam sodium and chloropicrin (Bell et al., 1998; Sardanelli and Elision, 2005). However, recently there has been a shift from chemical control to biological methods of controlling nematodes due to several reasons. These include general awareness of the environmental pollution ­aspects associated with chemical control and banning of the use of methyl bromide (Chaves, 2003) and other organochlorides implicated in the depletion of the ozone layer (Sikora, 2002).

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19 Limitations, Research Needs and Future Prospects in the Biological Control of Phytonematodes

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF

19 

Limitations, Research Needs and Future Prospects in the Biological

Control of Phytonematodes

Tarique Hassan Askary*

Division of Entomology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural

Sciences and Technology, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

19.1  Introduction

Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) constitute one of the major limiting factors in crop production. They cause extensive losses in yield of the crop, which in monetary term has been estimated up to US$358 billion annually on a worldwide basis (see Abd-Elgawad and Askary,

Chapter 1, this volume). Besides quantity, quality of the crop is also severely affected.

Use of pesticides is a quick and effective method of nematode management but reports in the last two decades revealed that nematodes have developed resistance against most of the known pesticides, which led to the search for a new option that would be environmentally safe and economically viable

(Fernandez et al., 2001). A well known chemical, methyl bromide, which was widely used against nematodes, has now been withdrawn from the market due to its adverse effects on the ozone layer (UNEP, 2001). Under this situation, use of biocontrol agents (BCAs) seems the best alternative. BCAs are those natural living enemies that are utilized deliberately as an ecofriendly pest management strategy to reduce the target pest population. Several BCAs such as predaceous and

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6: Nematophagous Fungi: Formulation, Mass Production and Application Technology

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6 

Nematophagous Fungi: Formulation,

Mass Production and Application

Technology

Paulo Roberto Pala Martinelli,1* Pedro Luiz Martins Soares,1

Jaime Maia dos Santos1 and Arlete Jose da Silveira2

1

Department of Plant Protection, UNESP Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil;

2

Department of Agrarian and Environmental Sciences, State University of Santa Cruz, Ilheus-Bahia, Brazil

6.1  Introduction

A successful plant-parasitic nematode (PPN) management requires a combination of management tactics, such as exclusion measures, crop rotation, use of antagonistic plants, resistant varieties and chemical and biological methods. Among these, the biological method of nematode management by using nematophagous fungi has drawn considerable attention by researchers all over the world (Barron,

1977; Fattah, 1988; Maia et al., 2001; Bernardo,

2002; Corbani, 2002; Martinelli et al., 2012a,b).

These carnivorous fungi are the most studied organisms for the management of nematodes.

The first report of fungi parasitizing nematodes was reported by Zopf (1888), and the first attempt of using these microorganisms in nematode control was taken by Cobb in

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1: Impact of Phytonematodes on Agriculture Economy

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1 

Impact of Phytonematodes on

Agriculture Economy

Mahfouz M.M. Abd-Elgawad1* and Tarique Hassan Askary2

Phytopathology Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt;

2

Division of Entomology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

1

1.1  Introduction

­ roduction potential in the agricultural sector. p

Moreover, individuals and groups of mankind

It is well known that the 2008 global financial cannot save huge financial resources to continue crisis, considered by many economists to be the policy of securing reasonable development the worst financial crisis since the Great De- for other reasons widely known all over the pression of the 1930s, has played a key role in world – economic losses due to war damage hindering many small and large businesses, effected globally, new diseases which demand and causing a decline in consumer wealth ample costs to overcome, and non-optimal utiland downturn in economic activity creating ization of available resources. All these in one high unemployment, unfavourable condi- way or another minimize such resources which tions for new businesses, increase in prices of could be directed to fill in the gap of agriculgoods and services and low income per cap- tural produce. In addition, a continuous challenge ita. In this context, agriculture, as a far-reaching is to face an ever-increasing world population activity in terms of both economy and soci- with more and better food. Now, experts at ology throughout world civilization in the almost all levels in developing and more dehistory of mankind, has been adversely affected. veloped countries recognize the seriousness

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15: Plant Growth-promoting Rhizobacteria as Biocontrol Agents of Phytonematodes

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF

15 

Plant Growth-promoting

Rhizobacteria as Biocontrol

Agents of Phytonematodes

Abdul Hamid Wani*

Department of Botany, University of Kashmir,

Jammu and Kashmir, India

15.1  Introduction

Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) or phytonematodes are invertebrate obligate parasite of a large number of plants. There are about 197 genera containing 4300 species of phytonematodes. The important genera of PPN include: Meloidogyne, root-knot nematodes; Pratylenchus, lesion nematode; Heterodera and Globodera, cyst nematodes;

Tylenchulus, citrus nematode; Xiphinema, dagger nematode; Radopholus, burrowing nematode;

­Rotylenchulus, reniform nematode; Helicotylenchus, spiral nematode; and Belonolaimus, sting nematode. Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. have been found all over the world and are known to cause huge losses to crops of economic importance (Taylor and Sasser, 1978). About

90 species of root-knot nematode have been reported, but four of them, Meloidogyne incognita,

Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne arenaria and

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