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3: Nematophagous Fungi as Biocontrol Agents of Phytonematodes

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF

3 

Nematophagous Fungi as Biocontrol

Agents of Phytonematodes

Tarique Hassan Askary*

Division of Entomology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural

Sciences and Technology, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

3.1  Introduction

Plant parasitic nematodes are recognized a serious threat to crop production throughout the world. They cause significant damage to field crops (Luc et al., 2005), fruit and horticultural trees (Askary et al., 2000; Askary and

Haider, 2010). All crop plants are susceptible to at least one nematode species and it is considered that the damage potential of nematodes exists in all climates on any crop (Bridge and

Starr, 2007). Globally, agricultural losses due to plant parasitic nematodes have been estimated at US$358 billion annually (see Abd-Elgawad and Askary, Chapter 1, this volume). Plants infected with nematodes are often overlooked and mis-­diagnosed as the symptoms shown by the plants are not clear and are very much similar to fungal diseases or nutritional disorders. In some cases crop yield suppression occurs prior to the expression of explicit disease symptoms. The extent of damage caused to plants by these tiny creatures varies with the genera and species (Askary et al., 2012).

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11 Nematophagous Bacteria: Survival Biology

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF

11 

Nematophagous Bacteria:

Survival Biology

Fabio Ramos Alves1* and Ricardo Moreira de Souza2

Department of Vegetable Production, Federal University of Espirito Santo,

Alegre, Brazil; 2Laboratory of Entomology and Phytopathology,

Centre for Agricultural Sciences and Technology, State University of

North Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

1

11.1  Introduction

Plant-parasitic nematodes play an important role among the pathogens that cause serious damage directly to the plants and indirectly to the growers. Their destructive action on the root system or aerial part affects the absorption and translocation of nutrients to the plant, altering its physiology and predisposing it to other complex diseases and environmental stresses (Paula et al., 2011). The great majority of plant-parasitic nematodes pass at least part of their life cycle in the soil, and their activity is influenced by the variation of physical (temperature, humidity and aeration), chemical (defensives and fertilizers) and physiological (Alves and Campos, 2003; Ferraz et al.,

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8: Nematophagous Fungi: Regulations and Safety

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF

8 

1

Nematophagous Fungi: Regulations and Safety

Tabo Mubyana-John1* and Joanne Taylor2

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone,

­Botswana; 2Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK

8.1  Introduction

Biocontrol of phytonematodes involves the use of biopesticides (also known as biocontrol agents; BCA), which, in the case of nematodes, are mainly their natural fungal predators

(Stirling and Smith, 1998). Historically, phytonematodes were controlled using soil chemical fumigants such as methyl bromide, dazomet,

1,3-dichloropropene, telone, metam sodium and chloropicrin (Bell et al., 1998; Sardanelli and Elision, 2005). However, recently there has been a shift from chemical control to biological methods of controlling nematodes due to several reasons. These include general awareness of the environmental pollution ­aspects associated with chemical control and banning of the use of methyl bromide (Chaves, 2003) and other organochlorides implicated in the depletion of the ozone layer (Sikora, 2002).

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12: Nematophagous Bacteria: Field Application and Commercialization

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF

12 

Nematophagous Bacteria: Field

Application and Commercialization

1

Mahfouz M.M. Abd-Elgawad1* and Ioannis K. Vagelas2

Phytopathology Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt;

2

Technological Education Institute of Larissa, Department of Plant

Production, Larissa, Greece

12.1  Introduction

In our world there is an uncountable variety of nematodes, which are usually classified into feeding types according to their main sources of nutrition. Kimpinski and Sturz (2003) considered them as the most numerous multicellular animals on earth. Among their major groups are plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs), which can cause considerable losses to a wide variety of economically important crops (see

Abd-Elgawad and Askary, Chapter 1, this volume). Chemical control is a widely used option for PPN management. However, chemical nematicides are now being reappraised with a clear aim at the avoidance of their hazards to  human beings. It is widely known that many such chemicals demonstrated environmental hazards, high costs, limited availability in numerous countries, or their reduced effectiveness following repeated applications.

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13: Novel Bacteria Species in Nematode Biocontrol

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF

13 

Novel Bacteria Species in Nematode

Biocontrol

Ioannis K. Vagelas*

Technological Education Institute of Larissa,

Department of Plant Production, Larissa, Greece

13.1  Introduction

Plant parasitic nematodes (PPN), especially the root-knot nematodes (RKN), are considered a limiting factor in crop production, causing considerable annual losses among a wide variety of crops grown in the world

(Sasser and Freckman, 1987). Among the different PPNs, Meloidogyne spp. are of much significance. Multiple invasions of plant roots by Meloidogyne spp. cause poor development of root system, interfering primarily with water and nutrient absorption. It is clear that

Meloidogyne spp. can reduce yields substantially, particularly where susceptible crops are grown intensively without fallow periods

(Sasser, 1980; Sasser and Freckman, 1987).

Among the different methods used to control PPNs, the main three are: (i) the cultural method (e.g. fallow, crop rotation, sanitation, manuring, water management, trap and resistant crops); (ii) the chemical method (soil fumigants and non-fumigants); and (iii) the biological method. The cultural method, which implies crop rotation with non-host plants, can be an effective method to reduce nematode population densities but non-host crops

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