23 Chapters
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23. Insect Life Cycle Modelling (ILCYM) Software – A New Tool for Regional and Global Insect Pest Risk Assessments under Current and Future Climate Change Scenarios

Pena, J.E., Editor CAB International PDF

23 

Insect Life Cycle Modelling

(ILCYM) Software – A New Tool for

Regional and Global Insect Pest Risk

Assessments under Current and Future

Climate Change Scenarios

Marc Sporleder, Henri E.Z. Tonnang, Pablo Carhuapoma,

Juan C. Gonzales, Henry Juarez and Jürgen Kroschel

International Potato Center (CIP), Apartado 1558, Lima 12, Peru

23.1  Introduction

The relationship between aspects of an insect’s life-history such as development, survival and reproduction, and environmental variables (e.g., temperature) can be well described by processbased phenology models. These models can be used to identify environments where insects might persist, and they are realistic and preferable tools to predict the risks of establishment and population growth potential of invasive insect species. This chapter describes a software tool,

Insect Life Cycle Modelling (ILCYM), to support the development of process-based temperaturedriven and age-stage structured insect phenology models, and to apply these models for insect

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9. Copitarsia spp.: Biology and Risk Posed by Potentially Invasive Lepidoptera from South and Central America

Pena, J.E., Editor CAB International PDF

9 

1

Copitarsia spp.: Biology and Risk

Posed by Potentially Invasive

Lepidoptera from South and Central America

Juli Gould,1 Rebecca Simmons2 and Robert Venette3

USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, USA; 2University of North Dakota,

Grand Forks, North Dakota, USA; 3USDA Forest Service, Northern Research,

St. Paul, Minnesota, USA

9.1  Introduction

9.2  Taxonomy

Members of the genus Copitarsia (Lepidoptera:

Noctuidae) represent a potential threat to US agriculture. Although they are not known to be established in the USA, they are frequently intercepted on vegetables and cut flowers at ports of entry. These species are not generally outbreak pests in their native ranges; however, it is possible that these moths could greatly impact domestic agriculture after invasion, due to the release from selection pressures posed by native predators and parasitoids. This threat is complicated by difficulties in identifying species and understanding their life history and host preferences. Here we summarize the state of knowledge for members of this genus in terms of their pest status and control. We have reviewed the taxonomic difficulties involved with members of Copitarsia, their geographic range, host plant preferences and associated economic impacts. We have summarized the life  histories of these species and procedures for  rearing them in colonies for future study.

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13. Signature Chemicals for Detection of Citrus Infestation by Fruit Fly Larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Pena, J.E., Editor CAB International PDF

13 

Signature Chemicals for Detection of Citrus Infestation by Fruit Fly Larvae

(Diptera: Tephritidae)

Paul E. Kendra,1* Amy L. Roda,2 Wayne S. Montgomery,1 Elena Q. Schnell,1

Jerome Niogret,1 Nancy D. Epsky1 and Robert R. Heath1

1

USDA-ARS, Subtropical Horticulture Research Station, Miami, Florida 33158,

USA; 2USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology,

Miami, Florida 33158, USA

13.1  Introduction

Tropical tephritid fruit flies are invasive pests that impact fruit production and global export.

Current US appropriations for exotic fruit fly risk  management programs exceed US$57

­million  per annum (USDA-APHIS, 2006).

Primary  threats to US agriculture include the

Anastrepha species, which occur throughout the

American tropics and subtropics (Aluja, 1994), and the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata

(Wiedemann), considered one of the most destructive agricultural pests worldwide, with several hundred recognized hosts (Liquido et al.,

1991). Outbreaks of C. capitata have occurred in

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5. Potential Lepidopteran Pests Associated with Avocado Fruit in Parts of the Home Range of Persea americana

Pena, J.E., Editor CAB International PDF

5 

Potential Lepidopteran Pests

Associated with Avocado Fruit in Parts of the Home Range of Persea americana

Mark S. Hoddle1 and J.R.P. Parra2

Department of Entomology, and Center for Invasive Species Research, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA; 2Departamento de Entomologia,

Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agrícola, Escola Superior de Agricultura ‘Luiz de Queiroz’,

Universidade de São Paulo, 13418-900, Brazil

1

5.1  Introduction

Legal imports of fresh avocado (Persea americana

Miller [Lauraceae]) fruit entering the USA, including California (the largest domestic producer of

‘Hass’), are increasing steadily because of cumulative imports from several countries such as México,

Chile, Perú, New Zealand and the Dominican

Republic. Increasing avocado imports into the USA are due to advertising and promotion under the

Hass Avocado Promotion and Research Order, and by the California Avocado Commission, along with various import associations realizing new business opportunities (Hoddle et al., 2010). Another reason the USA market is rapidly expanding is the growing Hispanic population in the USA that

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8. The Tomato Fruit Borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an Insect Pest of Neotropical Solanaceous Fruits

Pena, J.E., Editor CAB International PDF

8 

The Tomato Fruit Borer,

Neoleucinodes elegantalis

(Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an Insect Pest of Neotropical

Solanaceous Fruits

Ana Elizabeth Diaz Montilla,1 Maria Alma Solis2 and Takumasa Kondo1

Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria, Corpoica, Colombia;

2

USDA/ARS, SEL, Room 133, Building 005, BARC-West, 10300 Baltimore Ave.,

Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA

1

8.1  Introduction

The tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis

(Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the  most important pests in the production of

Solanaceae in South America. The larva of this insect develops inside the fruit, feeding on the mesocarp and the endosperm and caused

­damage that fluctuates between 13 and 77%

(Costa Lima, 1949). This insect is considered a quarantine pest for several countries in the

Americas (ICA and SOCOLEN, 1998; SAG, 2005;

USDA et al., 2005; SENASA, 2007). The objective of this chapter is to report several aspects of its biology, dynamics, damage, geographical range and integrated pest management and to provide information on species of the same genus.

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