23 Chapters
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9. Copitarsia spp.: Biology and Risk Posed by Potentially Invasive Lepidoptera from South and Central America

Pena, J.E., Editor CAB International PDF

9 

1

Copitarsia spp.: Biology and Risk

Posed by Potentially Invasive

Lepidoptera from South and Central America

Juli Gould,1 Rebecca Simmons2 and Robert Venette3

USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, USA; 2University of North Dakota,

Grand Forks, North Dakota, USA; 3USDA Forest Service, Northern Research,

St. Paul, Minnesota, USA

9.1  Introduction

9.2  Taxonomy

Members of the genus Copitarsia (Lepidoptera:

Noctuidae) represent a potential threat to US agriculture. Although they are not known to be established in the USA, they are frequently intercepted on vegetables and cut flowers at ports of entry. These species are not generally outbreak pests in their native ranges; however, it is possible that these moths could greatly impact domestic agriculture after invasion, due to the release from selection pressures posed by native predators and parasitoids. This threat is complicated by difficulties in identifying species and understanding their life history and host preferences. Here we summarize the state of knowledge for members of this genus in terms of their pest status and control. We have reviewed the taxonomic difficulties involved with members of Copitarsia, their geographic range, host plant preferences and associated economic impacts. We have summarized the life  histories of these species and procedures for  rearing them in colonies for future study.

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22. Likelihood of Dispersal of the Armored Scale, Aonidiella orientalis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), to Avocado Trees from Infested Fruit Discarded on the Ground, and Observations on Spread by Handlers

Pena, J.E., Editor CAB International PDF

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Likelihood of Dispersal of the Armored Scale, Aonidiella orientalis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), to Avocado Trees from Infested

Fruit Discarded on the Ground, and

Observations on Spread by Handlers

M.K. Hennessey,1 J.E. Peña,2 M. Zlotina1 and K. Santos2

USDA-APHIS-PPQ, 1730 Varsity Dr., Suite 300, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606,

USA; 2Tropical Research and Education Center, University of Florida/IFAS,

Homestead, Florida 33031, USA

1

We investigated the likelihood of infestation of orchard trees by crawlers of oriental red scale,

Aonidiella orientalis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), originating from artificially infested fruit discarded into an orchard. In a favorable climate, the percentage of crawlers settling on a tree from very heavily infested fruit discarded when crawlers were emerging, from fruit with a long shelf life, and from fruit discarded near a tree, was low. Infestation was higher when fruit was in contact with the tree than when it was placed

2 m away. It is concluded that establishment via the pathway of commercially produced fruit for consumption is low, because such fruit has not been observed to be as heavily infested, and is not as likely to be discarded in an orchard as was the study fruit. A second part of the study investigated if fruit handlers could become infested with crawlers and be a pathway for establishment. Fruit handlers did receive a low percentage of crawlers on their clothes when they engaged in brushing crawlers from heavily

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5. Potential Lepidopteran Pests Associated with Avocado Fruit in Parts of the Home Range of Persea americana

Pena, J.E., Editor CAB International PDF

5 

Potential Lepidopteran Pests

Associated with Avocado Fruit in Parts of the Home Range of Persea americana

Mark S. Hoddle1 and J.R.P. Parra2

Department of Entomology, and Center for Invasive Species Research, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA; 2Departamento de Entomologia,

Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agrícola, Escola Superior de Agricultura ‘Luiz de Queiroz’,

Universidade de São Paulo, 13418-900, Brazil

1

5.1  Introduction

Legal imports of fresh avocado (Persea americana

Miller [Lauraceae]) fruit entering the USA, including California (the largest domestic producer of

‘Hass’), are increasing steadily because of cumulative imports from several countries such as México,

Chile, Perú, New Zealand and the Dominican

Republic. Increasing avocado imports into the USA are due to advertising and promotion under the

Hass Avocado Promotion and Research Order, and by the California Avocado Commission, along with various import associations realizing new business opportunities (Hoddle et al., 2010). Another reason the USA market is rapidly expanding is the growing Hispanic population in the USA that

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16. Planococcus minor (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae): Bioecology, Survey and Mitigation Strategies

Pena, J.E., Editor CAB International PDF

16 

Planococcus minor

(Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae):

Bioecology, Survey and Mitigation

Strategies

1

Amy Roda,1 Antonio Francis,2 Moses T.K. Kairo2 and Mark Culik3

USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, Miami,

Florida 33158, USA; 2Center for Biological Control, College of Engineering

Sciences, Technology and Agriculture, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical

University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA; 3Instituto Capixaba de Pesquisa,

Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural – INCAPER, Vitória,

Espírito Santo, Brazil

16.1  Introduction: Host Range,

Economic Impact and Pest Status

Planococcus minor (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is commonly referred to as the passionvine mealybug, pacific mealybug or guava mealybug. P. minor is one of 35 species belonging to a genus that is native to the Old World (Cox, 1989), which includes many well-known pests of economic importance

(Williams and Watson, 1988; Cox, 1989). As a phloem feeder, P. minor can cause stunting and defoliation that eventually leads to reduced yield and fruit quality. The pest also causes indirect or secondary damage due to the sooty mold growth on honeydew produced by the mealybug. P. minor is also likely to transmit plant viruses such as

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1. Biology and Management of the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus

Pena, J.E., Editor CAB International PDF

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Biology and Management of the Red

Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus

Robin M. Giblin-Davis,1 Jose Romeno Faleiro,2 Josep A. Jacas,3

Jorge E. Peña4 and P.S.P.V. Vidyasagar5

1

Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center, University of

Florida/IFAS, Davie, Florida, USA; 2Mariella, Arlem-Raia, Salcette, Goa 403 720,

India; 3Universitat Jaume I, Campus del Riu Sec, Castelló de la Plana, Spain;

4

Tropical Research and Education Center, University of Florida/IFAS, Homestead,

Florida 33031, USA; 5King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

The red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus

­ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a palm borer native to South Asia, which has spread mainly due to the movement of cryptically infested planting material to the Middle

East, Africa and the Mediterranean during the last two decades. Globally, the pest has a wide geographical distribution in diverse agro-­ climates and an extensive host range in Oceania,

Asia, Africa and Europe. The RPW is reported to attack over 40 palm species belonging to 23 different genera worldwide. Although it was first reported as a pest of coconut (Cocos nuci­ fera) in South Asia, it has become the major pest of date palm (Phoenix ­dactylifera), and the

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