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Ch-5

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177

Scientific Literature

information about nucleic acid and protein sequences, predicting protein structure, seeking research methodology and searching databases of genome program.

Title

Authors

Affiliation

Abstract

Background

Aim

Methods

Results

Discussion

Conclusion

(100–400 words)

Figure 5.1 Preparation of abstract for oral presentation.

Computer and Internet

By using computers one can greatly broaden it use to some of the following:

(i) Searching the biomedical literature for pertinent books and journal articles.

(ii) Accessing biological databases that provide nucleic acid and protein sequences and structures.

Once connected to internet, many programs are available as free ware, softwares are provided without charge by its creator.

Basic Facilities Available for Use on Internet for Researchers e-mail (electronic mail)

One can communicate by e-mail. Messages containing text, files, and graphics may be sent to anyone who has a computer with an internet link and e-mail address. Communications among scientists is now done primarily by e-mail. Also, one can join list server discussion groups such as USE NET.

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Ch-9

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Chapter

CAPITAL INVESTMENT

COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

Biotechnology has unlimited potential due to its capability to generate unlimited range of and useful products/services concerned with virtually every aspect of human existence. e.g., in mid-90s, over 130 biotechnologically derived pharmaceuticals aimed at everything from hemophilia to AIDS, and from anaemia to leukaemia, were under regulatory review in USA. The contribution of biotechnological products to global market is rising rapidly and is expected to increase from US $ 100 billion/year in 2000 to further higher.

Also, the biotechnology industry in India is growing rapidly in the wake of liberalization of the economy that fostered alliances between India companies and multinationals. The demand for biotechnological products in India has been estimated at around Rs. 55 billion

(US $ 1.85 billion) in 2000 and may double up by 2007 year end. The major share of this demand would be in the areas of human and animal health (72%), followed by that for industrial products (27%), agricultural sectors account for a very small portion (7%) of the demand.

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Ch-2

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TECHNIQUES IN RECOMBINANT

DNA TECHNOLOGY

HUMAN GENOMIC PROJECT

Human Genomic Project deciphered 3 billion base pairs that make up the genetic code. In 1988, US National Research Council’s special committee formulated a 15-years human genome project, costing some $ 200 million a year. In September 1994, a genetic map with 1 cM resolution was accomplished and a physical map involving 52,000 sequencetagged sites (STSs) was completed in October 1998.

International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium consisting of investigators from 20 centres located in six countries—UK, US, Japan, France, Germany and China announced completion of a draft sequence in June 2000. The final sequence was accomplished in April 2003, with 99.99% sequence accuracy, with no gaps.

Human Genome

Of the total 3.2 Gb DNA of human genome, 2.9 Gb consists of, weakly staining generich enchromatic proteins, and only 1.1–1.4% sequence encodes proteins.

Estimated number of genes in human genome are between 26,000 and 31,000.

With the decoding of basic sequence, even more difficult task is elucidation of biological functions of these stretches of DNA.

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Ch-7

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PREPARATION OF R & D

PROJECTS FOR FUNDING

ORGANIZATION OF RESEARCH PROJECT

1st step in research project is generation of research idea. This idea develops only after extensive reading and studying the relevant literature.

A research project usually begins in the form of a problem to be solved. For ease, this problem project should be divided into questions that may be answered by experimentation.

Key Questions for a Project

— What is the current state of knowledge in the area?

— What are the significant unknowns?

— What will be the possible outcome of project?

Basic Requirements for Project

— Knowledge of literature for design of experiment.

— Knowledge of techniques and laboratory procedures.

— Knowledge of relevant information of related parameter.

Core Capabilities Required in Field of Genomics

— Collection of comprehensive data set using technologically advanced laboratory tools.

— Searching for subtle relationships within them by using computationally sophisticated analytical methods.

CERTAIN CONSIDERATIONS

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Ch-11

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Chapter

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

CONCEPTS AND RELEVANCE

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY (IP)

IP arises from an application of intellect and ingenuity and is usually in the form of an idea, concept, design, process etc. to generate a product ultimately. With emergence of modern technology, intellectual property is legal characterization and treatment of trade-related biotechnological processes and products.

Under biotechnology, important examples of intellectual property is processes and products that result from development of genetic engineering techniques (using restriction enzymes) to create recombinant DNA. These IPs can be copied and used by others, thereby reducing the benefits of original inventors.

The right of an individual to derive from intellectual property and to exclude others from doing so is referred to as INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS.

UTILITY PATENTS for genetic materials (both plants and animals) have been allowed in some countries so that patented material cannot be used for further breeding or cultivation (in case of seeds) without paying a fees to the patent holder.

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