12 Slices
Medium 9788131805381

Ch-7

Dr. Simmi Kharb Laxmi Publications PDF

Chapter

PREPARATION OF R & D

PROJECTS FOR FUNDING

ORGANIZATION OF RESEARCH PROJECT

1st step in research project is generation of research idea. This idea develops only after extensive reading and studying the relevant literature.

A research project usually begins in the form of a problem to be solved. For ease, this problem project should be divided into questions that may be answered by experimentation.

Key Questions for a Project

— What is the current state of knowledge in the area?

— What are the significant unknowns?

— What will be the possible outcome of project?

Basic Requirements for Project

— Knowledge of literature for design of experiment.

— Knowledge of techniques and laboratory procedures.

— Knowledge of relevant information of related parameter.

Core Capabilities Required in Field of Genomics

— Collection of comprehensive data set using technologically advanced laboratory tools.

— Searching for subtle relationships within them by using computationally sophisticated analytical methods.

CERTAIN CONSIDERATIONS

See All Chapters
Medium 9788131805381

Ch-8

Dr. Simmi Kharb Laxmi Publications PDF

Chapter

BIOLOGICAL RESOURCE

CENTRES & BIORESOURCES

INTRODUCTION

“Biological resource centres BRCs are an essential part of the infrastructure underpinning life sciences and biotechnology. They consist of service providers and repositories of the living cells, genomes of organism, and information relating to heredity and the functions of biological systems. BRCs contain collections of culturable organisms (e.g., micro-organisms, plant, animal and human cells), replicable parts of these (e.g., genomes, plasmids, viruses, cDNAs), viable but not yet culturable organisms, cells and tissues, as well as databases containing molecular, physiological and structural information relevant to these collections and related bioinformatics”.

Human health

Environment

BRC

Agriculture

Biotechnology

R and D

Figure 8.1 Essential fields linked to BRC

(Definition based on the one adopted at the 1999 Tokyo Workshop on Biological

Resource Centres, where the concept of BRCs as an outgrowth of conventional pregenomics ex situ collections of biological materials was developed–and incorporating scientific developments since 1999.) BRCs must meet the high standards of quality and expertise demanded by the international community of scientists and industry for the delivery of biological information and materials. They must provide access to biological resources on which R&D in the life sciences and the advancement of biotechnology depends.

See All Chapters
Medium 9788131805381

Ch-6

Dr. Simmi Kharb Laxmi Publications PDF

Chapter

FUNDING AGENCIES

SCIENCE FUNDING ORGANIZATIONS

Biotechnology companies especially those profitable today, face a coming decade that may be even painful than the past decade was for global pharma, when many saw their valuations cut in half, not to mention all restructuring and management havoc. Most biotech companies achieved their success behind just one or two block busting drugs that are priced boldly and marketed aggressively. In spite of billions in R and D, large pharma have failed to produce much in the way of next round of innovations. It seems increasingly clear that once a biotechnology company reaches a certain size, it, like its large pharma counterparts, becomes unable to get much out of its heavy R&D spending.

Since life science product life cycles are short, so companies should extract as much value from their products as possible and this is possible by R and D and careful planning and adequate knowledge of R and D funding and skill to draw funding help in survival of company.

See All Chapters
Medium 9788131805381

Ch-5

Dr. Simmi Kharb Laxmi Publications PDF

177

Scientific Literature

information about nucleic acid and protein sequences, predicting protein structure, seeking research methodology and searching databases of genome program.

Title

Authors

Affiliation

Abstract

Background

Aim

Methods

Results

Discussion

Conclusion

(100–400 words)

Figure 5.1 Preparation of abstract for oral presentation.

Computer and Internet

By using computers one can greatly broaden it use to some of the following:

(i) Searching the biomedical literature for pertinent books and journal articles.

(ii) Accessing biological databases that provide nucleic acid and protein sequences and structures.

Once connected to internet, many programs are available as free ware, softwares are provided without charge by its creator.

Basic Facilities Available for Use on Internet for Researchers e-mail (electronic mail)

One can communicate by e-mail. Messages containing text, files, and graphics may be sent to anyone who has a computer with an internet link and e-mail address. Communications among scientists is now done primarily by e-mail. Also, one can join list server discussion groups such as USE NET.

See All Chapters
Medium 9788131805381

Ch-1

Dr. Simmi Kharb Laxmi Publications PDF

Chapter

TECHNIQUES IN

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

INTRODUCTION

Amazing developments in biotechnology in late twentieth century include—decoding of human genome, cloning, gene therapy, progress in stem cell research and RNA interference.

Many earlier landmark discoveries that unveiled the mysteries of genetics and paved way for modern molecular biology. Beginning with Mendel’s experiments with garden peas published in 1866, suggesting concept of genes as discrete units of heredity. Morgan in

1910 revealed chromosomes as units of heredity and Avery in 1944 confirmed through bacterial studies that DNA carried genetic information with Watson Crick’s DNA double-helical model of DNA in 1953, Smith demonstrated that DNA can be cleaved by restriction enzymes. This facilitated the subsequent development of RECOMBINANT DNA

TECHNOLOGIES.

With construction of genetic map using restricting enzymes by Nathans, Southern

Blot was invented in 1975 to detect specific DNA sequences. This led to development of

DNA sequencing methodologies and first complete DNA sequence of bacteriophage was discovered. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) was developed by Mullis and Coworkers in

See All Chapters

See All Slices