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Ch-2

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Chapter

TECHNIQUES IN RECOMBINANT

DNA TECHNOLOGY

HUMAN GENOMIC PROJECT

Human Genomic Project deciphered 3 billion base pairs that make up the genetic code. In 1988, US National Research Council’s special committee formulated a 15-years human genome project, costing some $ 200 million a year. In September 1994, a genetic map with 1 cM resolution was accomplished and a physical map involving 52,000 sequencetagged sites (STSs) was completed in October 1998.

International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium consisting of investigators from 20 centres located in six countries—UK, US, Japan, France, Germany and China announced completion of a draft sequence in June 2000. The final sequence was accomplished in April 2003, with 99.99% sequence accuracy, with no gaps.

Human Genome

Of the total 3.2 Gb DNA of human genome, 2.9 Gb consists of, weakly staining generich enchromatic proteins, and only 1.1–1.4% sequence encodes proteins.

Estimated number of genes in human genome are between 26,000 and 31,000.

With the decoding of basic sequence, even more difficult task is elucidation of biological functions of these stretches of DNA.

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Ch-10

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MARKETING STRATEGIES FOR

BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS

The key survival of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies is to place successful products on the market place. Project managers are becoming an increasingly integral part of that strategy.

Biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies face constant challenges in the course of developing new pharmaceuticals or other products.

WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Project management is application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to a broad range of activities in order to meet the requirements of the particular project.

These results are defined in terms of four factors : cost, schedule, performance and scope.

Factors Affecting Project Management

Cost

budget allocated to the project.

Schedule

timeline for the project’s deliverables.

Scope

magnitude of the job.

Performance

how well the team members do their work.

Project management of a project in pharmaceutical companies.

It focusses on the following points:

1. Setting project goal.

2. Putting strategic plans into practice.

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Ch-9

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CAPITAL INVESTMENT

COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

Biotechnology has unlimited potential due to its capability to generate unlimited range of and useful products/services concerned with virtually every aspect of human existence. e.g., in mid-90s, over 130 biotechnologically derived pharmaceuticals aimed at everything from hemophilia to AIDS, and from anaemia to leukaemia, were under regulatory review in USA. The contribution of biotechnological products to global market is rising rapidly and is expected to increase from US $ 100 billion/year in 2000 to further higher.

Also, the biotechnology industry in India is growing rapidly in the wake of liberalization of the economy that fostered alliances between India companies and multinationals. The demand for biotechnological products in India has been estimated at around Rs. 55 billion

(US $ 1.85 billion) in 2000 and may double up by 2007 year end. The major share of this demand would be in the areas of human and animal health (72%), followed by that for industrial products (27%), agricultural sectors account for a very small portion (7%) of the demand.

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Ch-11

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INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

CONCEPTS AND RELEVANCE

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY (IP)

IP arises from an application of intellect and ingenuity and is usually in the form of an idea, concept, design, process etc. to generate a product ultimately. With emergence of modern technology, intellectual property is legal characterization and treatment of trade-related biotechnological processes and products.

Under biotechnology, important examples of intellectual property is processes and products that result from development of genetic engineering techniques (using restriction enzymes) to create recombinant DNA. These IPs can be copied and used by others, thereby reducing the benefits of original inventors.

The right of an individual to derive from intellectual property and to exclude others from doing so is referred to as INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS.

UTILITY PATENTS for genetic materials (both plants and animals) have been allowed in some countries so that patented material cannot be used for further breeding or cultivation (in case of seeds) without paying a fees to the patent holder.

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Ch-4

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SCIENTIFIC WRITING

Do not let me tell you how to write a paper, let me try to improve Your Writing!

SCIENTIFIC PAPER

What is a Scientific Paper

A scientific paper is not a technical report or term paper. It is a paper worth writing only if it has general implications for knowledge. One should think of his role as guiding future efforts of scholars since others will come after you with newer data and better models!

Need to Write Scientific Papers

Scientists are motivated for writing papers two ways namely, to understand the world and to get credit for it. In academic and public sectors, scientific papers are means of expansion of human knowledge. PUBLISH or PERISH should be the rule for scientists working as individuals professional survival: you do not publish, you are out.

Determinants of Quality of Scientific Paper

Nowadays, quality of a scientific paper is measured by citation index. It depends on:

(i) originality and importance of ideas.

(ii) effectiveness of communication to flag new ideas.

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