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Ch-9

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CAPITAL INVESTMENT

COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

Biotechnology has unlimited potential due to its capability to generate unlimited range of and useful products/services concerned with virtually every aspect of human existence. e.g., in mid-90s, over 130 biotechnologically derived pharmaceuticals aimed at everything from hemophilia to AIDS, and from anaemia to leukaemia, were under regulatory review in USA. The contribution of biotechnological products to global market is rising rapidly and is expected to increase from US $ 100 billion/year in 2000 to further higher.

Also, the biotechnology industry in India is growing rapidly in the wake of liberalization of the economy that fostered alliances between India companies and multinationals. The demand for biotechnological products in India has been estimated at around Rs. 55 billion

(US $ 1.85 billion) in 2000 and may double up by 2007 year end. The major share of this demand would be in the areas of human and animal health (72%), followed by that for industrial products (27%), agricultural sectors account for a very small portion (7%) of the demand.

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Ch-6

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FUNDING AGENCIES

SCIENCE FUNDING ORGANIZATIONS

Biotechnology companies especially those profitable today, face a coming decade that may be even painful than the past decade was for global pharma, when many saw their valuations cut in half, not to mention all restructuring and management havoc. Most biotech companies achieved their success behind just one or two block busting drugs that are priced boldly and marketed aggressively. In spite of billions in R and D, large pharma have failed to produce much in the way of next round of innovations. It seems increasingly clear that once a biotechnology company reaches a certain size, it, like its large pharma counterparts, becomes unable to get much out of its heavy R&D spending.

Since life science product life cycles are short, so companies should extract as much value from their products as possible and this is possible by R and D and careful planning and adequate knowledge of R and D funding and skill to draw funding help in survival of company.

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Ch-3

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BIOINFORMATICS AND

COMPUTER APPLICATIONS

BIOINFORMATICS : INTRODUCTION

It is the science of using information to understand biology. It is conceptualizing biology in terms of molecules and applying informatics techniques (computer science, applied mathematics and statistics) to organize the information associated with these molecules. Bioinformatics and data mining are two latest areas of research involving computer-assisted management of data generated for biotechnology applications. The information generated in genomics is enormous and its interpretation requires the use of powerful computers and specific softwares.

Computer Network

The internet is a global network of computer networks that link government, academic and business institutions. Computer within the network are referred to as nodes and these communicate with each other by transferring data packets. Each computer or network mode has a unique address (IP address) by which it can be identified and can communicate with other nodes.

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Ch-1

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TECHNIQUES IN

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

INTRODUCTION

Amazing developments in biotechnology in late twentieth century include—decoding of human genome, cloning, gene therapy, progress in stem cell research and RNA interference.

Many earlier landmark discoveries that unveiled the mysteries of genetics and paved way for modern molecular biology. Beginning with Mendel’s experiments with garden peas published in 1866, suggesting concept of genes as discrete units of heredity. Morgan in

1910 revealed chromosomes as units of heredity and Avery in 1944 confirmed through bacterial studies that DNA carried genetic information with Watson Crick’s DNA double-helical model of DNA in 1953, Smith demonstrated that DNA can be cleaved by restriction enzymes. This facilitated the subsequent development of RECOMBINANT DNA

TECHNOLOGIES.

With construction of genetic map using restricting enzymes by Nathans, Southern

Blot was invented in 1975 to detect specific DNA sequences. This led to development of

DNA sequencing methodologies and first complete DNA sequence of bacteriophage was discovered. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) was developed by Mullis and Coworkers in

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Ch-7

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PREPARATION OF R & D

PROJECTS FOR FUNDING

ORGANIZATION OF RESEARCH PROJECT

1st step in research project is generation of research idea. This idea develops only after extensive reading and studying the relevant literature.

A research project usually begins in the form of a problem to be solved. For ease, this problem project should be divided into questions that may be answered by experimentation.

Key Questions for a Project

— What is the current state of knowledge in the area?

— What are the significant unknowns?

— What will be the possible outcome of project?

Basic Requirements for Project

— Knowledge of literature for design of experiment.

— Knowledge of techniques and laboratory procedures.

— Knowledge of relevant information of related parameter.

Core Capabilities Required in Field of Genomics

— Collection of comprehensive data set using technologically advanced laboratory tools.

— Searching for subtle relationships within them by using computationally sophisticated analytical methods.

CERTAIN CONSIDERATIONS

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