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Human Genomic Project deciphered 3 billion base pairs that make up the genetic code. In 1988, US National Research Council’s special committee formulated a 15-years human genome project, costing some $ 200 million a year. In September 1994, a genetic map with 1 cM resolution was accomplished and a physical map involving 52,000 sequencetagged sites (STSs) was completed in October 1998.

International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium consisting of investigators from 20 centres located in six countries—UK, US, Japan, France, Germany and China announced completion of a draft sequence in June 2000. The final sequence was accomplished in April 2003, with 99.99% sequence accuracy, with no gaps.

Human Genome

Of the total 3.2 Gb DNA of human genome, 2.9 Gb consists of, weakly staining generich enchromatic proteins, and only 1.1–1.4% sequence encodes proteins.

Estimated number of genes in human genome are between 26,000 and 31,000.

With the decoding of basic sequence, even more difficult task is elucidation of biological functions of these stretches of DNA.

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“Biological resource centres BRCs are an essential part of the infrastructure underpinning life sciences and biotechnology. They consist of service providers and repositories of the living cells, genomes of organism, and information relating to heredity and the functions of biological systems. BRCs contain collections of culturable organisms (e.g., micro-organisms, plant, animal and human cells), replicable parts of these (e.g., genomes, plasmids, viruses, cDNAs), viable but not yet culturable organisms, cells and tissues, as well as databases containing molecular, physiological and structural information relevant to these collections and related bioinformatics”.

Human health





R and D

Figure 8.1 Essential fields linked to BRC

(Definition based on the one adopted at the 1999 Tokyo Workshop on Biological

Resource Centres, where the concept of BRCs as an outgrowth of conventional pregenomics ex situ collections of biological materials was developed–and incorporating scientific developments since 1999.) BRCs must meet the high standards of quality and expertise demanded by the international community of scientists and industry for the delivery of biological information and materials. They must provide access to biological resources on which R&D in the life sciences and the advancement of biotechnology depends.

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Do not let me tell you how to write a paper, let me try to improve Your Writing!


What is a Scientific Paper

A scientific paper is not a technical report or term paper. It is a paper worth writing only if it has general implications for knowledge. One should think of his role as guiding future efforts of scholars since others will come after you with newer data and better models!

Need to Write Scientific Papers

Scientists are motivated for writing papers two ways namely, to understand the world and to get credit for it. In academic and public sectors, scientific papers are means of expansion of human knowledge. PUBLISH or PERISH should be the rule for scientists working as individuals professional survival: you do not publish, you are out.

Determinants of Quality of Scientific Paper

Nowadays, quality of a scientific paper is measured by citation index. It depends on:

(i) originality and importance of ideas.

(ii) effectiveness of communication to flag new ideas.

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Biotechnology companies especially those profitable today, face a coming decade that may be even painful than the past decade was for global pharma, when many saw their valuations cut in half, not to mention all restructuring and management havoc. Most biotech companies achieved their success behind just one or two block busting drugs that are priced boldly and marketed aggressively. In spite of billions in R and D, large pharma have failed to produce much in the way of next round of innovations. It seems increasingly clear that once a biotechnology company reaches a certain size, it, like its large pharma counterparts, becomes unable to get much out of its heavy R&D spending.

Since life science product life cycles are short, so companies should extract as much value from their products as possible and this is possible by R and D and careful planning and adequate knowledge of R and D funding and skill to draw funding help in survival of company.

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IP arises from an application of intellect and ingenuity and is usually in the form of an idea, concept, design, process etc. to generate a product ultimately. With emergence of modern technology, intellectual property is legal characterization and treatment of trade-related biotechnological processes and products.

Under biotechnology, important examples of intellectual property is processes and products that result from development of genetic engineering techniques (using restriction enzymes) to create recombinant DNA. These IPs can be copied and used by others, thereby reducing the benefits of original inventors.

The right of an individual to derive from intellectual property and to exclude others from doing so is referred to as INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS.

UTILITY PATENTS for genetic materials (both plants and animals) have been allowed in some countries so that patented material cannot be used for further breeding or cultivation (in case of seeds) without paying a fees to the patent holder.

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