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Ch-6

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Chapter

FUNDING AGENCIES

SCIENCE FUNDING ORGANIZATIONS

Biotechnology companies especially those profitable today, face a coming decade that may be even painful than the past decade was for global pharma, when many saw their valuations cut in half, not to mention all restructuring and management havoc. Most biotech companies achieved their success behind just one or two block busting drugs that are priced boldly and marketed aggressively. In spite of billions in R and D, large pharma have failed to produce much in the way of next round of innovations. It seems increasingly clear that once a biotechnology company reaches a certain size, it, like its large pharma counterparts, becomes unable to get much out of its heavy R&D spending.

Since life science product life cycles are short, so companies should extract as much value from their products as possible and this is possible by R and D and careful planning and adequate knowledge of R and D funding and skill to draw funding help in survival of company.

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Ch-11

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Chapter

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

CONCEPTS AND RELEVANCE

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY (IP)

IP arises from an application of intellect and ingenuity and is usually in the form of an idea, concept, design, process etc. to generate a product ultimately. With emergence of modern technology, intellectual property is legal characterization and treatment of trade-related biotechnological processes and products.

Under biotechnology, important examples of intellectual property is processes and products that result from development of genetic engineering techniques (using restriction enzymes) to create recombinant DNA. These IPs can be copied and used by others, thereby reducing the benefits of original inventors.

The right of an individual to derive from intellectual property and to exclude others from doing so is referred to as INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS.

UTILITY PATENTS for genetic materials (both plants and animals) have been allowed in some countries so that patented material cannot be used for further breeding or cultivation (in case of seeds) without paying a fees to the patent holder.

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Ch-10

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Chapter

MARKETING STRATEGIES FOR

BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS

The key survival of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies is to place successful products on the market place. Project managers are becoming an increasingly integral part of that strategy.

Biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies face constant challenges in the course of developing new pharmaceuticals or other products.

WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Project management is application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to a broad range of activities in order to meet the requirements of the particular project.

These results are defined in terms of four factors : cost, schedule, performance and scope.

Factors Affecting Project Management

Cost

budget allocated to the project.

Schedule

timeline for the project’s deliverables.

Scope

magnitude of the job.

Performance

how well the team members do their work.

Project management of a project in pharmaceutical companies.

It focusses on the following points:

1. Setting project goal.

2. Putting strategic plans into practice.

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Ch-5

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Scientific Literature

information about nucleic acid and protein sequences, predicting protein structure, seeking research methodology and searching databases of genome program.

Title

Authors

Affiliation

Abstract

Background

Aim

Methods

Results

Discussion

Conclusion

(100–400 words)

Figure 5.1 Preparation of abstract for oral presentation.

Computer and Internet

By using computers one can greatly broaden it use to some of the following:

(i) Searching the biomedical literature for pertinent books and journal articles.

(ii) Accessing biological databases that provide nucleic acid and protein sequences and structures.

Once connected to internet, many programs are available as free ware, softwares are provided without charge by its creator.

Basic Facilities Available for Use on Internet for Researchers e-mail (electronic mail)

One can communicate by e-mail. Messages containing text, files, and graphics may be sent to anyone who has a computer with an internet link and e-mail address. Communications among scientists is now done primarily by e-mail. Also, one can join list server discussion groups such as USE NET.

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Ch-7

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Chapter

PREPARATION OF R & D

PROJECTS FOR FUNDING

ORGANIZATION OF RESEARCH PROJECT

1st step in research project is generation of research idea. This idea develops only after extensive reading and studying the relevant literature.

A research project usually begins in the form of a problem to be solved. For ease, this problem project should be divided into questions that may be answered by experimentation.

Key Questions for a Project

— What is the current state of knowledge in the area?

— What are the significant unknowns?

— What will be the possible outcome of project?

Basic Requirements for Project

— Knowledge of literature for design of experiment.

— Knowledge of techniques and laboratory procedures.

— Knowledge of relevant information of related parameter.

Core Capabilities Required in Field of Genomics

— Collection of comprehensive data set using technologically advanced laboratory tools.

— Searching for subtle relationships within them by using computationally sophisticated analytical methods.

CERTAIN CONSIDERATIONS

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