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Ch-1

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Chapter

TECHNIQUES IN

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

INTRODUCTION

Amazing developments in biotechnology in late twentieth century include—decoding of human genome, cloning, gene therapy, progress in stem cell research and RNA interference.

Many earlier landmark discoveries that unveiled the mysteries of genetics and paved way for modern molecular biology. Beginning with Mendel’s experiments with garden peas published in 1866, suggesting concept of genes as discrete units of heredity. Morgan in

1910 revealed chromosomes as units of heredity and Avery in 1944 confirmed through bacterial studies that DNA carried genetic information with Watson Crick’s DNA double-helical model of DNA in 1953, Smith demonstrated that DNA can be cleaved by restriction enzymes. This facilitated the subsequent development of RECOMBINANT DNA

TECHNOLOGIES.

With construction of genetic map using restricting enzymes by Nathans, Southern

Blot was invented in 1975 to detect specific DNA sequences. This led to development of

DNA sequencing methodologies and first complete DNA sequence of bacteriophage was discovered. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) was developed by Mullis and Coworkers in

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Ch-11

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Chapter

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

CONCEPTS AND RELEVANCE

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY (IP)

IP arises from an application of intellect and ingenuity and is usually in the form of an idea, concept, design, process etc. to generate a product ultimately. With emergence of modern technology, intellectual property is legal characterization and treatment of trade-related biotechnological processes and products.

Under biotechnology, important examples of intellectual property is processes and products that result from development of genetic engineering techniques (using restriction enzymes) to create recombinant DNA. These IPs can be copied and used by others, thereby reducing the benefits of original inventors.

The right of an individual to derive from intellectual property and to exclude others from doing so is referred to as INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS.

UTILITY PATENTS for genetic materials (both plants and animals) have been allowed in some countries so that patented material cannot be used for further breeding or cultivation (in case of seeds) without paying a fees to the patent holder.

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Ch-10

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Chapter

MARKETING STRATEGIES FOR

BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS

The key survival of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies is to place successful products on the market place. Project managers are becoming an increasingly integral part of that strategy.

Biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies face constant challenges in the course of developing new pharmaceuticals or other products.

WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Project management is application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to a broad range of activities in order to meet the requirements of the particular project.

These results are defined in terms of four factors : cost, schedule, performance and scope.

Factors Affecting Project Management

Cost

budget allocated to the project.

Schedule

timeline for the project’s deliverables.

Scope

magnitude of the job.

Performance

how well the team members do their work.

Project management of a project in pharmaceutical companies.

It focusses on the following points:

1. Setting project goal.

2. Putting strategic plans into practice.

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Ch-5

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177

Scientific Literature

information about nucleic acid and protein sequences, predicting protein structure, seeking research methodology and searching databases of genome program.

Title

Authors

Affiliation

Abstract

Background

Aim

Methods

Results

Discussion

Conclusion

(100–400 words)

Figure 5.1 Preparation of abstract for oral presentation.

Computer and Internet

By using computers one can greatly broaden it use to some of the following:

(i) Searching the biomedical literature for pertinent books and journal articles.

(ii) Accessing biological databases that provide nucleic acid and protein sequences and structures.

Once connected to internet, many programs are available as free ware, softwares are provided without charge by its creator.

Basic Facilities Available for Use on Internet for Researchers e-mail (electronic mail)

One can communicate by e-mail. Messages containing text, files, and graphics may be sent to anyone who has a computer with an internet link and e-mail address. Communications among scientists is now done primarily by e-mail. Also, one can join list server discussion groups such as USE NET.

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Ch-2

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Chapter

TECHNIQUES IN RECOMBINANT

DNA TECHNOLOGY

HUMAN GENOMIC PROJECT

Human Genomic Project deciphered 3 billion base pairs that make up the genetic code. In 1988, US National Research Council’s special committee formulated a 15-years human genome project, costing some $ 200 million a year. In September 1994, a genetic map with 1 cM resolution was accomplished and a physical map involving 52,000 sequencetagged sites (STSs) was completed in October 1998.

International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium consisting of investigators from 20 centres located in six countries—UK, US, Japan, France, Germany and China announced completion of a draft sequence in June 2000. The final sequence was accomplished in April 2003, with 99.99% sequence accuracy, with no gaps.

Human Genome

Of the total 3.2 Gb DNA of human genome, 2.9 Gb consists of, weakly staining generich enchromatic proteins, and only 1.1–1.4% sequence encodes proteins.

Estimated number of genes in human genome are between 26,000 and 31,000.

With the decoding of basic sequence, even more difficult task is elucidation of biological functions of these stretches of DNA.

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