59 Chapters
Medium 9781780644202

9: Integrative Breeding Strategy for Making Climate-smart Potato Varieties for Sub-Saharan Africa

Low, J. CABI PDF

9 

Integrative Breeding Strategy for Making Climate-smart Potato

Varieties for Sub-Saharan Africa

1

A. Asfaw,1* M. Bonierbale2 and M.A. Khan2

International Potato Center (CIP), Nairobi, Kenya; 2CIP, Lima, Peru

Abstract

Breeding potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is becoming increasingly complicated because of the growing number of requirements for new varieties, particularly the added concern of adapting potato to climate variability, especially in regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Combining the right genes to overcome constraints of climate variability in a potato crop, together with an enhanced level of other desirable traits such as consumer and commercial preferences, yield and resistance to biotic stresses requires an integrated breeding strategy that makes use of the knowledge of scientists as well as farmers. This chapter discusses the design of a breeding strategy that incorporates adaptation traits with the commercial and home-use characteristics preferred by potato farmers for varieties to be grown in diverse environments.

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44: Unlocking the Potential of the Potato Subsector in Kenya – a Roadmap for Revitalizing the Subsector

Low, J. CABI PDF

44 

Unlocking the Potential of the Potato

Subsector in Kenya – a Roadmap for

Revitalizing the Subsector

C. Lung’aho,1* D. Kipkoech,2 N. Ng’ang’a,2 W. Kaguongo,3

M. Nyongesa2 and E. Schulte-Geldermann3

1

International Potato center Sub-Saharan Africa (CIP-SSA), Chimoio,

­Mozambique; 2Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization

(KALRO), Limuru, Kenya; 3National Potato Council of Kenya (NPCK),

Nairobi, Kenya; 4International Potato Center Sub-Saharan Africa

(CIP-SSA), Nairobi, Kenya

Abstract

The potato subsector in Kenya has an unexploited potential which, if properly harnessed, can make significant contributions to Kenya’s development aspirations – particularly those related to food and nutrition security, and economic development – as articulated in the country’s two main policy

­documents: Kenya Vision 2030 and the Agriculture Sector Development Strategy (ASDS) 2010–2020.

Despite the investments made in the potato subsector in the last several years, its growth has been unsatisfactory. The subsector is currently characterized by: (i) low commercialization; (ii) low average yields; (iii) poor competitiveness; (iv) high wastage; and (v) low value addition with limited processing and limited agribusiness activities. There are very few contractual arrangements between producers and end users of potatoes (e.g. processors, fast food restaurants or supermarkets). In order to transform the potato subsector from subsistence to a vibrant, commercially oriented subsector, a new roadmap – one which leverages available resources to deliver economic growth and opportunity, improved food security and nutrition, and environmental sustainability is required. This chapter presents a roadmap that provides a guide on the core investment areas necessary to revitalize the potato subsector. The roadmap is anchored on three investment areas, namely: (i) the seed potato value chain; (ii) the ware potato value chain; and (iii) the processed potato value chain. The targets of the roadmap are to increase yields by at least 20% in the next 10 years to achieve three overarching objectives, namely: (i) a 15% increase in farm incomes; (ii) improved food security; and (iii) more business opportunities for at least 10% of potato-growing households. These growth targets will be achieved through implementation of several flagship projects in each of the priority value chains

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Medium 9781780644202

27: Potato Virus Y in South Africa: Isolate Characterization and Assessment of Potato Cultivar Resistance

Low, J. CABI PDF

27 

Potato Virus Y in South Africa: Isolate

Characterization and Assessment of

Potato Cultivar Resistance

J.C. Visser and D.U. Bellstedt*

University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa

Abstract

Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most serious viral threats to potato production worldwide and throughout Africa, resulting in severe yield reduction. Management of this virus is key to sustainable potato production. The virus is spread by infected tuber material and aphid vectors. In South Africa, the pathology of PVY infections has changed in recent years. Disease diagnosis based on leaf symptoms became problematic, and diagnosis by means of ELISA testing was the only way to eliminate diseased mother tuber material. The PVYNTN strain has recently been found in South Africa which can cause potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD) and this can lead to crop failure as tubers showing necrosis are unacceptable to the consumer.

In this study we characterized the PVY strains which are currently responsible for infections in

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30: Shortage of Sweetpotato Planting Material Caused by Prolonged Dry Seasons in Africa: Strategies to Increase its Availability in Uganda

Low, J. CABI PDF

30 

Shortage of Sweetpotato Planting

Material Caused by Prolonged Dry Seasons in Africa: Strategies to Increase its

Availability in Uganda

1

S. Namanda1* and R.W. Gibson2

International Potato Center (CIP), Kampala, Uganda;

2

Natural Resources Institute, Chatham Maritime, UK

Abstract

Farmers in Bukedea and Soroti districts in Uganda normally experience 3–4 months of dry weather between mid-November and March. During the dry period, vegetation of the sweetpotato crop is completely desiccated, leading to difficulties in securing vines as planting material at the onset of the rains.

Failure to plant results in lack of food for vulnerable farming families, particularly before the grain harvest. The objectives of the study were: (i) to investigate the extent of lack of planting material in different agroecologies and the implications for early sweetpotato planting especially in areas that experience prolonged dry seasons; and (ii) to assess the effect of using longer cuttings and fertilizer application in high density vine beds for production of planting material.

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10: New Elite Potato Clones with Heat Tolerance, Late Blight and Virus Resistance to Address Climate Change

Low, J. CABI PDF

10 

New Elite Potato Clones with

Heat Tolerance, Late Blight and Virus Resistance to Address

Climate Change

M. Gastelo,* L. Diaz, J.A. Landeo and M. Bonierbale

International Potato Center (CIP), Lima, Peru

Abstract

Potato production in developing countries is expanding to warmer environments as farmers search for income opportunities and food security. Meanwhile, climate change is already affecting weather

­patterns in traditional potato-growing areas, where unpredictable rains and pressure from pests and disease are increasing farmers’ risk. Since 2004, the International Potato Center (CIP) has sought to develop new, more heat-tolerant generations of its tropical highland-adapted late-blight resistant population. Late-blight resistant parents were crossed with early maturing and virus resistant progenitors, and selection practised under warm temperatures, water deficit and mid-latitude conditions.

During the 2005–2006 summer season (January–March) 20,000 genotypes were exposed to heat in a screenhouse at CIP’s experimental station in San Ramon, a warm rain forest environment at 800 m above sea level (masl) and latitude 11° 08¢ S. Selected clones were assessed in the field in the same location, where average night and day temperatures during tuberization were 21°C and 27°C, respectively; the resulting heat tolerant clones were exposed to high, endemic late blight pressure in Oxapampa

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