59 Chapters
Medium 9781780644202

58: Sweetpotato-based Formulation: An Alternative Food Blend for Complementary Feeding

Low, J. CABI PDF

58 

Sweetpotato-based Formulation:

An Alternative Food Blend for

Complementary Feeding

F.K. Amagloh1* and J. Coad2

University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana;

2

Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

1

Abstract

In an effort to reduce the prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition among older infants, cereal-legume blends are being promoted as suitable complementary foods instead of cereal-only porridges. An example of such blend is Weanimix, which is a blend of non-dehulled maize, groundnut and non-dehulled soybean/cowpea. Although Weanimix has adequate protein and energy densities, it contains a significant level of phytate (an antinutrient that reduces iron, zinc and calcium biovailability) and virtually no

β-carotene (vitamin A precursor) when white maize is used for processing. Additionally, cereal-based infant foods form a very thick porridge that requires dilution with water to get the desirable viscosity, leading to ‘energy and nutrient thinning’ (i.e. reduction of energy and nutrient densities). This chapter summarizes the potential of an alternative complementary food formulated from sweetpotato (denoted as ComFa) using both household- and industrial-level processing methods. Both ComFa formulations

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49: Sweetpotato Value Chain Development in West Africa: Matching Products with Farmer Typology

Low, J. CABI PDF

49 

Sweetpotato Value Chain

Development in West Africa: Matching

Products with Farmer Typology

D. Peters*

Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Abstract

Sweetpotato value chain studies conducted in 2012 in three West African countries – Ghana, Nigeria and Burkina Faso – indicated three types of sweetpotato producers. Type I farmers specialize in sweetpotato production, making it the most important cash crop for their farm. Type II farmers grow sweetpotato as one of the cash crops and sweetpotato may rank second or third among these cash crops. Type III farmers are those who grow it mainly for home consumption though still sell a part of the roots due to perishability. The marketing assessment indicated three potential product value chains worth developing, each appropriate for different types of producers.

The fresh root value chain is well suited for Types I and II farmers for obvious reasons. Potential interventions to improve the system include: (i) breeding/selection of high-yielding varieties with the characteristics acceptable to the markets; (ii) best practices for production including ridging and weeding technologies to reduce labour inputs, appropriate fertilizer application, identifying best intercropping practices; and (iii) organizing farmers to connect to the national collectors directly to reduce costs and time spent on individual marketing efforts.

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22: An Alternative Technology for Pre-basic Seed Potato Production – Sand Hydroponics

Low, J. CABI PDF

22 

An Alternative Technology for

Pre-basic Seed Potato Production –

Sand Hydroponics

D. Mbiri,1* E. Schulte-Geldermann,1 V. Otazu,2

R. Kakuhenzire,3 P. Demo4 and S. Schulz5

1

International Potato Center Sub-Saharan Africa (CIP-SSA), Nairobi, Kenya;

2

International Potato Center (CIP), Lima, Peru; 3CIP-Tanzania, Mbeya, Tanzania;

4

CIP, Lilongwe, Malawi; 5CIP, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Abstract

Conventional systems of seed potato production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) started to have serious challenges concerning substrate sterilization particularly with the threats from Ralstonia solanacearum

(Gildemacher, 2012). At the same time over the last two decades there has been an increase in consumption of processed potatoes in the region (Tesfaye et al., 2010). One strategy for overcoming this challenge was to increase the area under production and yields per unit area. An intervention strategy for increasing yield per unit area was making disease-free planting seed potatos available to farmers.

In SSA, the International Potato Center (CIP) intervened through introduction of aeroponics technology in the year 2008 under the 3G project (Landeo et al., 2009). Aeroponics technology revolutionized production of pre-basic seed potato production in SSA. However, this technology requires a constant supply of electricity and specialized attendants over the growing period of the crop. In many SSA countries infrastructural challenges such as unreliable supply of electricity and expensive boiler-based sterilization methods for the growing media are a major difficulty in the adoption of this technology

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16: Potato Yield Variation as Affected by Virus Seed Degeneration and Growth Conditions in Tunisia

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16 

Potato Yield Variation as Affected by

Virus Seed Degeneration and Growth

Conditions in Tunisia

N. Khamassy,* I. Riadh and S. Boukhris-Bouhachem

National Agricultural Research Institute of Tunisia, Ariana, Tunisia

Abstract

Virus diseases mainly affect crop growth by reducing the size of the canopy, thus inhibiting the interaction of the incoming solar radiation. Additional yield reduction may be caused by effects on the radiation use efficiency or on the dry matter allocation to the tubers. Research plots were established in

2012 at the Ariana Research Station Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT) to determine the effect of seed-borne potato virus Y (PVY) and poor growing conditions on the yield of cultivar Spunta (fairly good resistance to virus PVYn) during the spring crop season (February–­June).

Five potato seed origins were evaluated. They have five levels of PVY infection: 0%, 2%, 4%, 8% and

50%. They were grown under poor conditions: 50% of the normal fertilization doses, 0% added organic matter and high water salinity (around 4 g/l). The results showed significant general effects of the poor growing conditions on yield reduction whatever the infection level. The differences between yield origins were statistically significant and yields were negatively affected at 8% and 50% infection levels. Thus, the PVY infection levels have a negative effect on yield losses under poor crop management.

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53: Promotion of Vitamin A-enriched Sweetpotato for Production by Small-scale Commercial Farmers in South Africa

Low, J. CABI PDF

53 

Promotion of Vitamin A-enriched

Sweetpotato for Production by Small-scale

Commercial Farmers in South Africa

S.M. Laurie,* M.M. Mtileni, W.M. Mphela, A.A. Van den Berg,

T. Ramathavhana, L. Sediane, T. Maraganedzha and C.P. du Plooy

Agricultural Research Council-Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental

Plant Institute (ARC-VOPI), Pretoria, South Africa

Abstract

The National Department of Science and Technology funded a project on demonstration agronomy of vitamin A-enriched sweetpotato in South Africa for job creation, enterprise development and ultimately addressing food security and malnutrition, particularly vitamin A deficiency. This chapter reports on a competitive system for small-scale commercial farmers for the informal market, based on experiences of the well-developed commercial sweetpotato industry in South Africa. Capacity was developed in nursery management and handling practices for good quality cuttings, and agronomic and postharvest practices for fresh produce. Improved cultivars (high yield, dry texture) were promoted, focusing on orange-fleshed cultivars, but not excluding cream-fleshed cultivars. A gross margin analysis of cutting production was performed and market information collected through informal interviews. The project resulted in setting up of infrastructure at four nursery sites in four provinces

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