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Experiments in

Engineering Heat Transfer

16

Expt. 1 Thermal Conductivity of Metallic Rod. Expt. 2 Thermal Conductivity of Insulating Powder. Expt. 3 Thermal Conductivity of Composite Wall. Expt. 4 Natural Convection Experiment. Expt. 5 Forced Convection Experiment. Expt. 6 Heat Transfer from Pin

Fins. Expt. 7 Stefan Boltzmann Constant. Expt. 8 Measurement of Emissivity of a Test Surface. Expt. 9 Heat Exchanger Experiment.

Expt. 10 Critical Heat Flux. Expt. 11 Heat Pipe. Expt. 12 Thermocouples Calibration Test Rig—Review Questions—References

Engineering education has placed a great emphasis on the ability of an individual to perform experiments along with a theoretical analysis of the problems. The experimental methods have their own importance. They help in better understanding of the basic principles of the subject and to verify the result obtained analytically.

Therefore, in engineering curiculla, the students are expected to devote one laboratory period a week for experimentation. The students are exposed to the basic instruments and get acquainted with the methods used for measuring the physical properties.

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Conduction—Basic Equations

2

2.1. Generalised One Dimensional Heat Conduction Equation. 2.2. Three Dimensional Heat Conduction Equation—For the cartesian coordinates—Three dimensional heat conduction equation in cylindrical coordinates—Three dimensional heat conduction equation in spherical coordinates. 2.3. Initial and Boundary Conditions—Prescribed temperature boundary conditions—Prescribed heat flux boundary conditions—Convection boundary conditions : Surface energy balance—Radiation boundary condition—Interface boundary condition. 2.4. Summary—Review Questions—Problems.

The objective of this chapter is to provide a good understanding of the heat conduction equations and boundary conditions for the use in mathematical formulation of heat conduction problems.

2.1.

GENERALISED ONE DIMENSIONAL HEAT

CONDUCTION EQUATION

For the thermal analysis of the bodies having shapes such as slab, rectangle, the cartesian coordinates are used, while for cylindrical and spherical bodies, the polar and spherical coordinate systems are used.

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Principles of Convection

7

7.1. Mechanism of Heat Convection. 7.2. Classification of Convection. 7.3. Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient. 7.4. Convection

Boundary Layers—Velocity boundary layer—Thermal boundary layer—Significance of boundary layers. 7.5. Laminar and Turbulent

Flow—Laminar boundary layer—Turbulent boundary layer. 7.6. Momentum Equation for Laminar Boundary Layer. 7.7. Energy Equation for the Laminar Boundary Layer. 7.8. Boundary Layer Similarities—Friction coefficient—Nusselt number. 7.9. Determination of

Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient—Dimensional analysis—Exact mathematical solutions—Approximate analysis of boundary layers—

Analogy between heat and momentum transfer—Numerical analysis. 7.10. Dimensional Analysis—Primary dimensions and dimensional formulae—Dimensional homogeneity—Rayleigh’s method of dimensional analysis—Buckingham π theorem—Dimensional analysis for forced convection—Dimensional analysis for natural convection. 7.11. Physical Significance of the Dimensionless Parameters—Reynolds number—Critical reynolds number Recr—Prandtl number—Grashof number—Nusselt number—Stanton number—Peclet number—Graetz number. 7.12. Turbulent Boundary Layer Heat Transfer—Prandtl mixing length concept—Turbulent heat transfer. 7.13. Reynolds Colburn

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13

Radiation Exchange between Surfaces

13.1. Radiation View Factor—View factor integral—The view factor relations—The cross string method. 13.2. Black body Radiation

Exchange. 13.3. Radiation from Cavities. 13.4. Radiation Heat Exchange between Diffuse, Gray Surfaces—The net radiation exchange by a surface—Radiation exchange between two gray surfaces—Radiation heat exchange between two parallel infinite planes. 13.5. The

Radiation Exchange between Three Surfaces Enclosure. 13.6. Radiation Heat Transfer in Three Surface Enclosure. 13.7. Radiation

Shields. 13.8. Temperature Measurement of a Gas by Thermocouple: Combined Convective and Radiation Heat Transfer

13.9. Summary—Review Questions—Problems—References and Suggested Reading.

In the previous chapter, our discussion was restricted to radiation properties, physical relation, and radiation processes that occur at a single surface. In this chapter, we will consider the radiation heat exchange between two or more surfaces. Such type of radiation exchange depends on the surface geometries, surface orientation as well as their temperatures and radiative properties.

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1

Concepts and Mechanisms of Heat Flow

1.1. What is Heat Transfer ? 1.2. Modes of Heat Transfer. 1.3. Physical Mechanism of Modes of Heat Transfer—Conduction

—Convection—Radiation. 1.4. Laws of Heat Transfer—Law of conservation of mass : Continuity equation—Newton’s second law of motion—Laws of thermodynamics—Fourier law of heat conduction—Newton’s law of cooling—The Stefan Boltzmann law of thermal radiation. 1.5. Combined Convective and Radiation Heat Transfer—Equation of state. 1.6. Thermal

Conductivity—Variation in thermal conductivity—Determination of thermal conductivity—Variable thermal conductivity.

1.7. Isotropic Material and Anisotropic Material. 1.8. Insulation Materials—Superinsulators—Selection of insulating materials—The R-Value of insulation—Economic thickness of insulation. 1.9. Thermal Diffusivity. 1.10. Heat Transfer in

Boiling and Condensation. 1.11. Mass Transfer. 1.12. Summary—Review Questions—Problems—Multiple Choice Questions.

Objective of this chapter is to:

• give an introduction to heat transfer rate, heat flux,

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