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Woodrow Wilson

(1856–1924)

Biographical Sketch

Woodrow Wilson is rated among one of the finest presidents the United States of America has ever produced. Wilson was born in Virginia, in December

1856, in a wealthy and politically active family and spent his early childhood in Georgia and South Carolina. Since his father was very active politically and supported the ‘South Secession from the Union’, Wilson was exposed to a virulent political atmosphere of civil war in America since childhood. This also affected his childhood education which happened primarily at home. Wilson joined Princeton in 1875 and graduated in 1879. Subsequently, he joined the law school at University of Virginia. But the profession did not attract him much and he left it to join Johns Hopkins University, where he earned a PhD in history and political science in 1886. Wilson worked as a professor at Bryn

Mawr, Wesleyan and Princeton. He was elected as the President of Princeton in 1902. He brought in significant reforms in the college. This elevated his public image and he was invited by the Democrats of New Jersey in 1910 to be their candidate for the governor’s post. He earned a lot of repute during his tenure as a governor due to his pro-reforms policies. In 1912, he became the candidate of the Democratic Party for the president’s post of USA and won the election. The split within the Conservative Party helped him win the elections.

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Frederick W. Taylor

(1856–1915)

Biographical sketch

Frederick W. Taylor, popularly known as the father of scientific management, was born at Germantown in Philadelphia, in a relatively rich family, on

March 20, 1856. His mother was a feminist activist while his father was a lawyer. He grew up in a disciplined family background. It is learnt that he was a good student but could not pursue higher studies, probably due to an eyesight problem which he had since childhood. In 1874, he started his career as an apprentice in a company. However, the zeal for the knowledge could not completely keep him cut off from higher academics. He joined Steven

Institute of Technology and graduated from the same in 1883 in Mechanical

Engineering through correspondence course.

Though he started his career as an apprentice, he reached the top echelons of management with his hard work and an innovative mind. As a Chief Engineer and Consultant, he served several famous firms and companies of his time.

Some of his big clients were Midvale Steel Company, Cramp’s Shipbuilding

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George Elton Mayo

(1880–1949)

Biographical sketch

George Elton Mayo was an Australian, born in 1880 at Adelaide. He was trained in several subjects like Logic, Philosophy, Medicine, and Psychology.

After completing his MA in Philosophy from the University of Adelaide in

1899 he went to Scotland, where he studied medicine and psychopathology, which later on established him as a world-renowned industrial psychologist and a pioneer of a new school of thought in the field of administration and management science. Mayo also taught philosophy at Queensland University for a brief time. However, his real professional career started with coming to

United States of America on a research grant from Rockefeller Foundation.

First, he joined the famous Wharton School of Finance and Commerce at the University of Pennsylvania and later on he was appointed as professor and head of the Department of Industrial Research at Harvard in 1926 where he worked in this capacity till retirement in 1947. After retirement he went to

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Index

A

Abilities  87

Absence of industrialization  153

Academic formalism  154

Acceptance theory of authority  225

Accounting activites  79, 81

Accounting, production  112

Actionable research  148

Administration  128

Administrative and economic man  295 arrangement  39 domains  40 ecology  147 efficiency  136 formalism  154 questions  39 science literature  95 structure  11, 29 system  153 system of prismatic societies  158 techniques  283 theory  274 thought  122

Agraria-industria model  152

Agricultural civilizations  176

Akardhyaksa  11

Akranda  25

Akrandasara  25

All-to-human situations  114

Amatya  9

American Association of Mechanical

Engineers  95

American Congress  34

American management theorist  78

American models  148

American system of governance  165

Amitrabala  24

Amos Tuck School of Administration and Finance  68

Anatomy of foreign governments  43

Anti-worker  139

Apathy  248

A piece-rate system (1895)  73

Apparatus of government  41

Application of standard tools  57

A pro management bias  117

Arimitra  25

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Kautilya

Biographical Sketch

Kautilya was one of the leading thinkers of ancient India. His seminal work,

Arthashastra, is rated as a treatise on political science and statecraft. Historians, however, still continue to debate who Kautilya was, where was he born and whether the Arthashastra was actually written by him or someone else.1 This is precisely because of scattered and littered oral account of references, both of converging and diverging kinds. Thus, people still debate whether Vishnu

Gupta or Chanakya are the same.2 Similarly, some historians do not accept his birth in Magadh. They trace it in South India. So one account suggests that he was a Nambudiri Brahmin, to the same section from which Adi Shankar belonged to, from Kerala. Some argue that Chanakya was a Tamil Brahmin, he was actually Dramila, i.e. Dravid. Several mouths, several stories and legends.

So is the case about his death. The Jain account is that he was deceitfully burnt to death by one of the close courtier of Bindusara, named Subandhu, who did not like Chanakya. Yet another account is that, in the last leg of his life when

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