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Frederick Herzberg

(1923–2000)

Biographical Sketch

Frederick Herzberg was a clinical psychologist born in Massachusetts, USA, on April 18, 1923. His initial education took place at the City College of New

York. He graduated from here in 1946. Thereafter, he went to the University of

Pittsburgh to undertake a postgraduate course in science and public health. He did his PhD in psychology on the topic ‘Prognostic Variables for Electroshock

Therapy’. He later undertook a teaching job at Case Western Reserve

University as a professor of psychology. Here, he established the Department of Industrial and Mental Health. Thereafter, he joined the University of

Utah in 1972 where he held the position of professor of management in the

College of Business.

Herzberg’s writings deal primarily with employee’s motivation at the work place. His first book The Motivation to Work came out in 1959. This was written with the research assistance coming from his two colleagues, Bernard

Mausner and Barbara Bloch Snyderman. It was in this book that he developed the famous two-factor motivation theory. In his subsequent works, such as,

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Woodrow Wilson

(1856–1924)

Biographical Sketch

Woodrow Wilson is rated among one of the finest presidents the United States of America has ever produced. Wilson was born in Virginia, in December

1856, in a wealthy and politically active family and spent his early childhood in Georgia and South Carolina. Since his father was very active politically and supported the ‘South Secession from the Union’, Wilson was exposed to a virulent political atmosphere of civil war in America since childhood. This also affected his childhood education which happened primarily at home. Wilson joined Princeton in 1875 and graduated in 1879. Subsequently, he joined the law school at University of Virginia. But the profession did not attract him much and he left it to join Johns Hopkins University, where he earned a PhD in history and political science in 1886. Wilson worked as a professor at Bryn

Mawr, Wesleyan and Princeton. He was elected as the President of Princeton in 1902. He brought in significant reforms in the college. This elevated his public image and he was invited by the Democrats of New Jersey in 1910 to be their candidate for the governor’s post. He earned a lot of repute during his tenure as a governor due to his pro-reforms policies. In 1912, he became the candidate of the Democratic Party for the president’s post of USA and won the election. The split within the Conservative Party helped him win the elections.

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Kautilya

Biographical Sketch

Kautilya was one of the leading thinkers of ancient India. His seminal work,

Arthashastra, is rated as a treatise on political science and statecraft. Historians, however, still continue to debate who Kautilya was, where was he born and whether the Arthashastra was actually written by him or someone else.1 This is precisely because of scattered and littered oral account of references, both of converging and diverging kinds. Thus, people still debate whether Vishnu

Gupta or Chanakya are the same.2 Similarly, some historians do not accept his birth in Magadh. They trace it in South India. So one account suggests that he was a Nambudiri Brahmin, to the same section from which Adi Shankar belonged to, from Kerala. Some argue that Chanakya was a Tamil Brahmin, he was actually Dramila, i.e. Dravid. Several mouths, several stories and legends.

So is the case about his death. The Jain account is that he was deceitfully burnt to death by one of the close courtier of Bindusara, named Subandhu, who did not like Chanakya. Yet another account is that, in the last leg of his life when

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Chris Argyris (1923–2013)  245

effectiveness. Chris studied the behaviour of the senior executives in order to know how they influence the effectiveness of the organization. A book came out to this effect in 1962 with the title Interpersonal Competence and Organizational

Effectiveness. But the most significant works of him came out in a joint exercise with scholars like Robert Putman, D.M. Smith and Donald Schon. He laid the idea of action science and the famous concepts like organizations by learning, single-loop and double-loop learning. Some of the famous works of Argyris, other than those mentioned above, are: Organization and Innovation (1965),

Theory in Practice (1974) and Organizational Learning: A theory of Action

Perspective I (1978) and Organizational Learning II (1996) with Donald Schon,

Action Science, Concepts, Methods and Skills for Research and Intervention (1985) with Robert Putman and Diana Mclain Smith.

Argyris is indeed credited with several conceptual contributions to the field of the business organization. He believed in the strength and maturity of the employees and suggested that the management should treat them as an adult and mature person. He held that if the employees are treated positively and as mature they would behave in more responsible ways and will display a better sense of participation and commitment to the goals and objectives of an organization.

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Chester Irving

Barnard (1886–1961)

Biographical Sketch

Chester Irving Barnard was born on November 7, 1886 in Malden,

Massachusetts in America in a poor family. When he was barely five years old, he lost his mother and he was taken care of primarily by his father and grandfather. Though he was educated at Harvard but he was not the one who was born with a silver spoon. His father was a blacksmith. The family earning thus was not very high, yet he was intellectually very vibrant. Barnard himself recalls that there were always intellectual discussions on philosophical writings of people like Herbert Spencer, in his family. That certainly shaped his intellectual mind. Philosophy became a lifelong hobby for him. He also served as the member of the American Philosophical Society. Besides philosophy, what attracted him as a hobby was music. He learnt it while he joined a piano factory at the age of fifteen. He earned money from work and used it to get formal school education by enrolling himself at Mount Herman

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