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10

Chester Irving

Barnard (1886–1961)

Biographical Sketch

Chester Irving Barnard was born on November 7, 1886 in Malden,

Massachusetts in America in a poor family. When he was barely five years old, he lost his mother and he was taken care of primarily by his father and grandfather. Though he was educated at Harvard but he was not the one who was born with a silver spoon. His father was a blacksmith. The family earning thus was not very high, yet he was intellectually very vibrant. Barnard himself recalls that there were always intellectual discussions on philosophical writings of people like Herbert Spencer, in his family. That certainly shaped his intellectual mind. Philosophy became a lifelong hobby for him. He also served as the member of the American Philosophical Society. Besides philosophy, what attracted him as a hobby was music. He learnt it while he joined a piano factory at the age of fifteen. He earned money from work and used it to get formal school education by enrolling himself at Mount Herman

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Fred W. Riggs

(1917–2008)

Biographical sketch

The homepage of Riggs’ website carries the logo of a prism encircled by a snake. This is a carefully crafted combination of symbols. Riggs was born in a year which is considered to be a snake year in the Chinese mythology. And prism marks the confession of his intellectual journey. Fred W. Riggs, a social scientist of world repute who wrote extensively in the field of political science and public administration is known actually for his Prismatic Model. He himself acknowledges in his intellectual autobiography that this has been his most important contribution to the world of social science and specially the discipline of public administration. Prismatic model and Riggs have become synonymous to each other.

Riggs was born in Kuling, a beautiful mountain resort in China on the Yangtze river, on July 3, 1917. His parents were American missionaries who had come to China in 1916 to help the local peasants improve their agricultural productivity by using American methods.1 In the absence of any English speaking missionary school in the near vicinity, he had to rely upon home tuition and study material mailed from Baltimore by the Calvert School.

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Mary Parker Follett

Biographical Sketch

Mary Parker Follett was an American political scientist and a management thinker. An author rightly commented that she carried several hats at the same time.1 She was a multifaceted personality indeed. She was a prolific writer, an untiring social and political activist, an academician of great repute and a great organization and management thinker. She wrote extensively and on diverse issues ranging from women empowerment to political democracy to resolving conflicts in the organization to crowd psychology. All her writings bear the stamp of her practical experience in the field and her emotional and penchant fervor for democracy in all walks of life starting from nearby organizations to industry to the political system. As monopolization of power anywhere is antithetical and incongruent to democracy Follett strongly argued in favour of pluralism and decentralization of authority.

Parker was born in a rich family at Quincy in Massachusetts. She did her schooling from Thayer Academy. Though she was born in a relatively affluent family, her childhood was witness to several storms. While she was too young her father died. Her mother was already a disabled person. She had to take up a lot of responsibility at home as well. In 1892, she joined the Society for

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Index

A

Abilities  87

Absence of industrialization  153

Academic formalism  154

Acceptance theory of authority  225

Accounting activites  79, 81

Accounting, production  112

Actionable research  148

Administration  128

Administrative and economic man  295 arrangement  39 domains  40 ecology  147 efficiency  136 formalism  154 questions  39 science literature  95 structure  11, 29 system  153 system of prismatic societies  158 techniques  283 theory  274 thought  122

Agraria-industria model  152

Agricultural civilizations  176

Akardhyaksa  11

Akranda  25

Akrandasara  25

All-to-human situations  114

Amatya  9

American Association of Mechanical

Engineers  95

American Congress  34

American management theorist  78

American models  148

American system of governance  165

Amitrabala  24

Amos Tuck School of Administration and Finance  68

Anatomy of foreign governments  43

Anti-worker  139

Apathy  248

A piece-rate system (1895)  73

Apparatus of government  41

Application of standard tools  57

A pro management bias  117

Arimitra  25

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Woodrow Wilson

(1856–1924)

Biographical Sketch

Woodrow Wilson is rated among one of the finest presidents the United States of America has ever produced. Wilson was born in Virginia, in December

1856, in a wealthy and politically active family and spent his early childhood in Georgia and South Carolina. Since his father was very active politically and supported the ‘South Secession from the Union’, Wilson was exposed to a virulent political atmosphere of civil war in America since childhood. This also affected his childhood education which happened primarily at home. Wilson joined Princeton in 1875 and graduated in 1879. Subsequently, he joined the law school at University of Virginia. But the profession did not attract him much and he left it to join Johns Hopkins University, where he earned a PhD in history and political science in 1886. Wilson worked as a professor at Bryn

Mawr, Wesleyan and Princeton. He was elected as the President of Princeton in 1902. He brought in significant reforms in the college. This elevated his public image and he was invited by the Democrats of New Jersey in 1910 to be their candidate for the governor’s post. He earned a lot of repute during his tenure as a governor due to his pro-reforms policies. In 1912, he became the candidate of the Democratic Party for the president’s post of USA and won the election. The split within the Conservative Party helped him win the elections.

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