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Herbert A. Simon


Biographical Sketch

Herbert Alexander Simon was a multifaceted American social scientist. Born on June 15, 1916, Milwaukee did his schooling from a public school before he could join the University of Chicago from where he graduated in political science in 1936 and completed his doctorate in the same discipline in 1943. In

Chicago he was trained and taught by two great masters of his time Charles E.

Merriam and Herald Lasswell. Political science and mathematical economics remained the favourites of him in the Chicago University. In the university he also worked with Clarance Ridely with whom he co-authored a book titled

Measuring Municipal Activities in 1938. This drew him towards organizational decision-making but the same became the Central premise of his doctoral thesis and his subsequent research works. The most celebrated book that he authored is still the administrative behaviour and the result of his doctoral thesis.

He started his professional career as a director of a research group at the

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Chester Irving

Barnard (1886–1961)

Biographical Sketch

Chester Irving Barnard was born on November 7, 1886 in Malden,

Massachusetts in America in a poor family. When he was barely five years old, he lost his mother and he was taken care of primarily by his father and grandfather. Though he was educated at Harvard but he was not the one who was born with a silver spoon. His father was a blacksmith. The family earning thus was not very high, yet he was intellectually very vibrant. Barnard himself recalls that there were always intellectual discussions on philosophical writings of people like Herbert Spencer, in his family. That certainly shaped his intellectual mind. Philosophy became a lifelong hobby for him. He also served as the member of the American Philosophical Society. Besides philosophy, what attracted him as a hobby was music. He learnt it while he joined a piano factory at the age of fifteen. He earned money from work and used it to get formal school education by enrolling himself at Mount Herman

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Abilities  87

Absence of industrialization  153

Academic formalism  154

Acceptance theory of authority  225

Accounting activites  79, 81

Accounting, production  112

Actionable research  148

Administration  128

Administrative and economic man  295 arrangement  39 domains  40 ecology  147 efficiency  136 formalism  154 questions  39 science literature  95 structure  11, 29 system  153 system of prismatic societies  158 techniques  283 theory  274 thought  122

Agraria-industria model  152

Agricultural civilizations  176

Akardhyaksa  11

Akranda  25

Akrandasara  25

All-to-human situations  114

Amatya  9

American Association of Mechanical

Engineers  95

American Congress  34

American management theorist  78

American models  148

American system of governance  165

Amitrabala  24

Amos Tuck School of Administration and Finance  68

Anatomy of foreign governments  43

Anti-worker  139

Apathy  248

A piece-rate system (1895)  73

Apparatus of government  41

Application of standard tools  57

A pro management bias  117

Arimitra  25

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Woodrow Wilson


Biographical Sketch

Woodrow Wilson is rated among one of the finest presidents the United States of America has ever produced. Wilson was born in Virginia, in December

1856, in a wealthy and politically active family and spent his early childhood in Georgia and South Carolina. Since his father was very active politically and supported the ‘South Secession from the Union’, Wilson was exposed to a virulent political atmosphere of civil war in America since childhood. This also affected his childhood education which happened primarily at home. Wilson joined Princeton in 1875 and graduated in 1879. Subsequently, he joined the law school at University of Virginia. But the profession did not attract him much and he left it to join Johns Hopkins University, where he earned a PhD in history and political science in 1886. Wilson worked as a professor at Bryn

Mawr, Wesleyan and Princeton. He was elected as the President of Princeton in 1902. He brought in significant reforms in the college. This elevated his public image and he was invited by the Democrats of New Jersey in 1910 to be their candidate for the governor’s post. He earned a lot of repute during his tenure as a governor due to his pro-reforms policies. In 1912, he became the candidate of the Democratic Party for the president’s post of USA and won the election. The split within the Conservative Party helped him win the elections.

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Chris Argyris (1923–2013)  245

effectiveness. Chris studied the behaviour of the senior executives in order to know how they influence the effectiveness of the organization. A book came out to this effect in 1962 with the title Interpersonal Competence and Organizational

Effectiveness. But the most significant works of him came out in a joint exercise with scholars like Robert Putman, D.M. Smith and Donald Schon. He laid the idea of action science and the famous concepts like organizations by learning, single-loop and double-loop learning. Some of the famous works of Argyris, other than those mentioned above, are: Organization and Innovation (1965),

Theory in Practice (1974) and Organizational Learning: A theory of Action

Perspective I (1978) and Organizational Learning II (1996) with Donald Schon,

Action Science, Concepts, Methods and Skills for Research and Intervention (1985) with Robert Putman and Diana Mclain Smith.

Argyris is indeed credited with several conceptual contributions to the field of the business organization. He believed in the strength and maturity of the employees and suggested that the management should treat them as an adult and mature person. He held that if the employees are treated positively and as mature they would behave in more responsible ways and will display a better sense of participation and commitment to the goals and objectives of an organization.

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