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Ch_17_F

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Particle Size Separation by Sieveing 69

EXPERIMENT

17

PARTICLE SIZE SEPARATION

BY SIEVEING

AIM

To perform the particle size separation of the given sample and determine the arithmetic mean of the given sample.

REQUIREMENTS

Sieves of different mesh size

(Quantity sufficient)

Mechanical shaker

(1)

Weighing balance

(1)

Weighing box

(1)

Butter paper

Powder sample

PRINCIPLE

Size separation can be defined as a unit operation that involves the separation of various sizes of particles into two or more portions by means of screening surfaces. Performance of size reduction equipments, or crushing and grinding equipments involve the determination of the amount of material of different size present after the process. The only general and simple method for this is to determine the fraction of the sample that will go through a screen with known size of openings. A screen analysis of the sample is performed by placing a sample on the coarsest of a set of standard screens. Below this, the screens are arranged in the order of decreasing size of the openings in the mesh. The total assemble is shaken with help of a mechanical oscillator or manually, for a definite length of time and the material collected on each sieve is removed and weighed. The result obtained can be represented graphically.

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Appdiex_XVII

P.S.Sona Laxmi Publications PDF

238 A Practical Manual of Pharmaceutical Engineering

REFERENCES

1. R.H Perry, D. Green, Perry�s chemical engineer�s handbook, 6th edition, Mcgraw-Hill book Company, Singapore, 1984.

2. W.L. Mc- Cabe , J.T.Smith, P.Harriott, Unit operations of chemical enginnering, 5th edition, McGrawHill Book company, Singapore, 1993.

3. M.E Aulton, Pharmaceutics, ELBS Edition, Churchill Livingstone Ltd, Hongkong, 1990.

4. W.L. Badger, J.T Banchero, Introduction to chemical engineering, Mc Graw-Hill Book Company,

Singapore,1955.

5. E.A. Raswlis, Bentley�s Textbook of pharmaceutics, 8th edition, Bailiere Tindal, London, 1977.

6. S.J carter, Cooper and Gunn�s Tutorial pharmacy, 6th edition, Kothari Book Depot, Bombay, 1972.

7. L.Lachman, H.A. Liberman, J.L Kanig, The theory and practice of industrial pharmacy, 3rd edition,Lea&

Febiger, Philadelphia,1985.

8. Martin, J.Swarbrick, A.Cammarata, Physical Pharmacy, 3rd edition, Varghese publishing house,

Bombay, 1991.

9. C.V.S Subramanyam,J.Thimmasetty,Sarasija suresh, V KusumDevi, Textbook of pharmaceutical engineering, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi, 2000.

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Ch_11_F

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Determination of Coefficient of Discharge by Orifice Meter 39

EXPERIMENT

11

DETERMINATION OF COEFFICIENT OF

DISCHARGE BY ORIFICE METER

AIM

To demonstrate the use of orifice meter as flow meter.

To determine the coefficient of discharge.

To study the effect of flow rate on Reynolds number of the liquid.

REQUIREMENTS

Orifice Meter Assemble

(1)

Stop clock

(1)

Water supply

Drain

PRINCIPLE

An orifice meter consists of a flat circular plate with circular hole called orifice which is concentric with the pipe axis. The orifice meter is fitted with the pipe line. If a constriction is placed in a closed channel carrying a stream of fluid there will be increase in the velocity and therefore increase in kinetic energy. According to the Bernoulli�s theorem the total energy at any given point during flow is a constant. So because of the increment in the kinetic energy the pressure energy at the constriction is reduced to balance the increment in the kinetic energy. Rate of discharge from the constriction can be calculated by knowing this pressure reduction, the area at the constriction, the density of the fluid, and the coefficient of discharge.

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Ch_2_F

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Determination of Radiation Constant for Painted and Unpainted Metal Cylinders 7

M

hS hS dT

= 1 (T � Tair) + 2 (T4 � Ts4 )

C

C dt

� (Eq: 2.1)

Where,

M = Mass of the body (Kg) dT/dt = Rate of change of temperature (Rate of heat loss) (K/sec) h1 = Heat transfer coefficient for pure convection (W/ m2.K)

S = Surface area of the hot body (m2)

T = Temperature of the metal surface (K)

T air = Temperature of the surroundings (K)

Ts = Temperature of the surroundings (K) h2 = Radiation constant (W/m2.K4

C = Specific heat of the metal (J/kg K)

Substitute all other known parameters in the equation to get the radiation constant.

The present experiment explains the effect of color on the radiation constant and on the cooling pattern.

All warm objects emit electromagnetic radiation. Hotter objects emit more radiation. Objects that emit a lot will quickly cool. Objects that don�t emit as much will stay warm longer. Black will absorb more than white, shiny objects will reflect energy and not absorb it. Color also affects emission. For objects near room temperature, which emit radiation in the far infrared part of the spectrum, most are black�that is, they are good absorbers and good emitters. For instance, human skin, regardless of color, is a very good absorber and emitter of far infrared. No matter what color your skin is, you are black in the infrared. The same is true of fabrics and of painted surfaces. All colors of cloths and all colors of paints are black in the infrared; they absorb and emit quite nicely.

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Ch_50_F

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194 A Practical Manual of Pharmaceutical Engineering

EXPERIMENT

50

DETERMINATION OF FACTORS

AFFECTING CORROSION RATE—TOTAL

IMMERSION TEST

AIM

To determine the effect of different factors affecting rate of corrosion.

REQUIREMENTS

Metal pieces (iron) diameter 20 mm and thickness of 3 mm

(12)

Beaker

(6)

Round bottom flasks

(6)

Heating mantles

(6)

Glass rods

(6)

Reflux condensers

(6)

Weighing balance

(1)

Weighing Box

(1)

Concentrated solutions of acids

(1 M H2SO4, 1M HCl, 1M NaOH)

PRINCIPLE

Refer the previous experiment.

Corrosion of metals will happen at a rate that varies substantially, depending on the conditions.

Nature of the material or alloy, surface condition/roughness, material, configuration, materialmaterial spacing, composition, moisture, absorptivity, Structure, Nature of any reinforcement,

Temperature, Humidity, Corrosive elements (type, concentration) are some of the factors affecting corrosion rate. Higher levels of corrosion that occur in the presence of moisture and the hostile gas species, such as chlorine, ammonia, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and oxides of nitrogen, that are often present in the atmosphere.

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