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Appdiex_XV

P.S.Sona Laxmi Publications PDF
Medium 9789383828432

Ch_10_F

P.S.Sona Laxmi Publications PDF

Determination of Frictional Pressure Loss during Fluid Flow through a Pipe

EXPERIMENT

35

10

DETERMINATION OF FRICTIONAL

PRESSURE LOSS DURING FLUID

FLOW THROUGH A PIPE

AIM

To determine the pressure loss due to friction during the flow through a pipe.

To determine the relative roughness of the pipe using the Moody�s diagram.

To determine the fanning frictional Factor.

REQUIREMENTS

Long PVC pipe connected to a tap/long PVC pipe connected to a pump with regulating valve (1)

Collecting tank (measuring tank)

(1)

Stop clock

(1)

Long scale

(1)

Vernier calipers

(1)

PRINCIPLE

As the Fluid flows through a pipe from a point A to B the pressure decreases due to frictional loss between the flowing liquid and the pipe. The extent of pressure loss designated in feet depends on many factors. These factors include liquid flow rate, liquid specific gravity and viscosity, diameter of pipe (inside), length, and internal conditions of the pipe( smooth -rough). In order to find out the frictional loss, the fanning�s frictional equation is used,

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Ch_41_F

P.S.Sona Laxmi Publications PDF

156 A Practical Manual of Pharmaceutical Engineering

EXPERIMENT

41

VACUUM DISTILLATION—EFFECT OF

VACUUM ON DISTILLATION OF

ASPIRIN REACTION MIXTURE

AIM

To perform the vacuum distillation at varying pressure.

To find out the rate of distillation at varying pressure (vacuum).

To determine the effect of vacuum on the distillation of thermo labile drug (aspirin).

REQUIREMENTS

Vacuum distillation assemble (Vacuum pump, claisen flask, Round bottom flask, Measuring cylinder, Separating funnel, Stop cock, Adaptors, Bend tubes Thermometer, Condenser)

Heating mantle

(1)

Tripod stand

(2)

Burette stands

(3)

Ethanol

Water

Aspirin

PRINCIPLE

Vacuum distillation is a distillation process used for materials that have very high boiling-points or are likely to decompose at their boiling-points. Vacuum distillation is a distillation at reduced pressure. Since the boiling point of a compound is lower at a lower external pressure, the compound will not have to be heated to as high a temperature in order for it to boil. The vacuum is provided either by a water aspirator or by a mechanical pump, and the vacuum so formed causes the materials being heated to boil at a temperature lower than they would under normal atmospheric pressure. This enables distillation to take place at lower temperatures. A reliable vacuum

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Ch_14_F

P.S.Sona Laxmi Publications PDF

56 A Practical Manual of Pharmaceutical Engineering

EXPERIMENT

14

DETERMINATION OF EFFECT OF

NUMBER OF BALLS ON GRINDING

OPERATION OF BALL MILL

AIM

To study the effect of number of balls on grinding operation of a ball mill.

REQUIREMENTS

Ball mill

(1)

Balls (same size and density)

(Quantity sufficient)

Sieve 120 mesh

(1)

Weighing balance

(1)

Butter paper

(1)

Spatula

(1)

Weighing box

(1)

Sugar

PRINCIPLE

Ball mill consist of a horizontally rotating hollow cylinder with length slightly greater than its diameter. The mill is partially filled with balls of steel or pebbles. In ball mill size reduction happens by impact and attrition.

The speed of rotation of the mill is important, as the slow speed of rotation contribute only a sliding action and high speed a centrifugal action. At both this speed, no significant size reduction happens. The ideal speed of a ball mill is a speed at which the balls just begins to centrifuge within the mill contributing a cascading action and hence a significant size reduction. The critical speed of rotation can be determined by the following equation.

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Ch_22_F

P.S.Sona Laxmi Publications PDF

Determination of Critical Point of Settling—Sedimentation 91

EXPERIMENT

22

DETERMINATION OF CRITICAL POINT

OF SETTLING—SEDIMENTATION

AIM

To determine the critical point of settling for the given suspension of drug.

REQUIREMENTS

Measuring cylinder 100 ml

(1)

Glass rod

(1)

Motor and pestle

(1)

Beaker 250 ml

(1)

Scale

(1)

Marker pen

(1)

Stop watch

(1)

CaCO3

PRINCIPLE

If a suspension is taken in a long glass cylinder, and kept undisturbed its starts settling purely due to gravity. During settling an observer can see the following zones (See the Fig. 22.1) during the start of the experiment there is uniform concentration of drug throughout the cylinder. The coarser particle will settle immediately depending upon the size, first forming a layer of settled coarse particles (E) at the bottom of the cylinder. Next forms a layer of settling particles called as compression zone (D) with a transition zone of partially thickened layer above it (C). The next zone having original concentration (B) and the top most layer (A) is the clear water. As time proceeds changes occurred for interface between zone A & B, and C & D. The time at which the complete disappearance of B & C zone is occurred is considered as the critical point of settling.

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