68 Chapters
Medium 9789383828432

Appdiex_I

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Medium 9789383828432

Ch_35_F

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Centrifugation—Determination of the Yield Stress of Centrifuged Cake

EXPERIMENT

133

35

CENTRIFUGATION—DETERMINATION

OF THE YIELD STRESS OF

CENTRIFUGED CAKE

AIM

To determine the yield stress of centrifuged cake.

To demonstrate the buoyancy effect with help of rods of different density and diameter.

REQUIREMENTS

Centrifuge

(1)

Glass, aluminum, wood rods

(Different diameter and length)

(3)

Burette stands

(3)

Cotton

CaCO3

PRINCIPLE

Buoyancy is the phenomenon (discovered by Archimedes) that an object less dense than a fluid will float in the fluid. More generally, Archimedes� principle states that a fluid will exert an upward force on an object immersed in it equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. By definition, sedimentation force (FS) is the downward force of weight due to linear acceleration (mg) minus buoyancy (FB) minus frictional forces opposing downward motion (FF).

The objective of the spin tube test is to check the settling ability of solids in slurry under centrifugation. A small or equal amount of feed is introduced into a number of test tubes with a volume of

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Medium 9789383828432

Appdiex_VIII

P.S.Sona Laxmi Publications PDF
Medium 9789383828432

Ch_40_F

P.S.Sona Laxmi Publications PDF

152 A Practical Manual of Pharmaceutical Engineering

EXPERIMENT

40

STEAM DISTILLATION—DETERMINATION

OF EFFICIENCY OF DISTILLATION

AIM

To perform the steam distillation of clove oil.

To determine the percentage recovery of the clove oil during steam distillation.

To determine the % efficiency of steam distillation.

REQUIREMENTS

Steam distillation assemble

(1)

(Round bottom flask, Measuring cylinder, Steam can, Adaptors, Bend tubes, Burette stands,

Thermometer)

Weighing balance

(1)

Beakers (250 ml)

(2)

Separating funnel

(1)

Clove oil

Water

PRINCIPLE

Steam distillation refers to a process in which live steam is in direct contact with the distilling system in either batch or continuous operation. The basis of steam distillation rest on the fact that water forms immiscible mixtures with most organic substances and these mixtures will boil at a temperature below that of either water or the other materials. This is a very desirable feature, especially if the organic compound has a high boiling point at which it may be unstable or decompose. As long as liquid water is present, the high boiling component will vaporize at a temperature well below its normal boiling point. Steam distillation is mainly used for:

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Ch_1_F

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Determination of Radiation Constant of Metal Cylinder

EXPERIMENT

1

1

DETERMINATION OF RADIATION

CONSTANT OF METAL CYLINDER

AIM

To determine the radiation constant of the given metal cylinder.

To demonstrate the cooling pattern during natural cooling of a hot body.

REQUIREMENTS

Metal cylinder

(1)

(made up of any metal for example iron, aluminum, brass, copper of 1 inch diameter, 1.5 inch length which is having drilled hole half way down, so that thermometer would fit nicely).

Hotplate

(1)

Digital thermometer

(1)

Vernier calipers

(1)

Weighing balance

(1)

Weight box

(1)

Tongs

(1)

Hot pad

(1)

PRINCIPLE

Heat transfer process plays an important role in science and engineering. When two objects at different temperature are brought into contact, heat flow occurs from the object having higher temperature to the object having lower temperature. The total heat loss from the body to its surroundings often includes appreciable losses by conduction, convection, and radiation. If the body is not in contact with any surfaces the heat transfer by conduction is neglected. So the heat transfer is mainly by convection and radiation. The present experiment demonstrates the pattern of cooling of a hot body by combined convection and radiation.

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