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238 A Practical Manual of Pharmaceutical Engineering


1. R.H Perry, D. Green, Perry�s chemical engineer�s handbook, 6th edition, Mcgraw-Hill book Company, Singapore, 1984.

2. W.L. Mc- Cabe , J.T.Smith, P.Harriott, Unit operations of chemical enginnering, 5th edition, McGrawHill Book company, Singapore, 1993.

3. M.E Aulton, Pharmaceutics, ELBS Edition, Churchill Livingstone Ltd, Hongkong, 1990.

4. W.L. Badger, J.T Banchero, Introduction to chemical engineering, Mc Graw-Hill Book Company,


5. E.A. Raswlis, Bentley�s Textbook of pharmaceutics, 8th edition, Bailiere Tindal, London, 1977.

6. S.J carter, Cooper and Gunn�s Tutorial pharmacy, 6th edition, Kothari Book Depot, Bombay, 1972.

7. L.Lachman, H.A. Liberman, J.L Kanig, The theory and practice of industrial pharmacy, 3rd edition,Lea&

Febiger, Philadelphia,1985.

8. Martin, J.Swarbrick, A.Cammarata, Physical Pharmacy, 3rd edition, Varghese publishing house,

Bombay, 1991.

9. C.V.S Subramanyam,J.Thimmasetty,Sarasija suresh, V KusumDevi, Textbook of pharmaceutical engineering, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi, 2000.

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First Edition: 2015


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74 A Practical Manual of Pharmaceutical Engineering

Where, d rs ro g

= Diameter of the particle (m)

= Density of the particle(g/cc)

= Density of liquid (g/cc)

= Acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)

From this equation it is possible to determine the terminal velocity of particles of known diameter.

Say suppose particle of size 40 mm, 20 mm etc.

If a suspension taken in a container of known volume, let the height of the suspension in the container is Ho. It is possible to determine the velocity of settling,

V = Ho/t

� (Eq: 18.2)

After rearranging the equation one can find out the settling time for particles of interest. By applying this concept it is easy to separate particles of different size by pre calculating the time for them to settle completely. This experiment allows an easy mode of separation of particle of interest by performing simple decantation procedure.


1. Prepare slurry of calcium carbonate in water (5 g/100 ml).

2. Add this slurry into a beaker (I) and make up to the mark depending upon the capacity of the beaker.

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182 A Practical Manual of Pharmaceutical Engineering







To evaluate the given packaging material (Corrugated board).


Corrugated board

(Cut in to pieces of 5 inch ¥ 4 inch)

(2 pieces)

Screw gauge








Fractional weight box



Corrugated board can be defined as the structure formed by gluing one or more fluted corrugated medium to one or more flat facings of liner board. It has been used as a packaging material for more than 100 years and still maintains a healthy share in the market despite increasing competition from plastics. The major advantages of the corrugated boards are:

1. High stiffness to weight ratio

2. Reasonable shock resistance and cushioning properties

3. Fully biodegradable and recyclable

4. It is versatile and can be used for various packaging requirements of different industries

Corrugated board usually consists of two basic components. Line board and corrugating medium.

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