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Appendix - IV 205

6. Fill the bottle with purified water and close it with the stopper. (Some water will come out from the bottle. Wipe out with the help of a clean cloth or tissue paper. )

7. Weigh the bottle along with water.

8. The weight is noted as W2 .

9. Pour out the water, and rinse the bottle with the liquid whose density to be determined.

10. Fill the density bottle with the liquid. Close it with the stopper.

11. Weight of the bottle along with the liquid is noted as W3 .

12. Repeat the experiment 2�3 times and take the average values for calculation.

OBSERVATION AND CALCULATIONS

Table 4.2: Determination of Density

Sl No

Weight of the empty bottle

(W1) g

Weight of the bottle +water

(W 2) g

Weight of bottle +liquid

(W 3)g

Density of the liquid at t °C

(g/cm 3)

1.

2.

3.

Average

Weight of empty bottle with stopper

Weight of bottle +water

Weight of bottle +liquid

Weight of water in the density bottle

Weight of liquid in the density bottle

Density of the liquid =

=

=

=

=

=

=

��..g /cm3

���.W1 g

���..W2 g

���.W3 g

W2 � W1 = ���.g

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182 A Practical Manual of Pharmaceutical Engineering

EXPERIMENT

47

EVALUATION OF MATERIALS USED

IN PHARMACEUTICAL PACKAGING—

CORRUGATED BOARD

AIM

To evaluate the given packaging material (Corrugated board).

REQUIREMENTS

Corrugated board

(Cut in to pieces of 5 inch ¥ 4 inch)

(2 pieces)

Screw gauge

(1)

Scale

(1)

Beaker

(1)

Tray

(1)

Fractional weight box

(1)

PRINCIPLE

Corrugated board can be defined as the structure formed by gluing one or more fluted corrugated medium to one or more flat facings of liner board. It has been used as a packaging material for more than 100 years and still maintains a healthy share in the market despite increasing competition from plastics. The major advantages of the corrugated boards are:

1. High stiffness to weight ratio

2. Reasonable shock resistance and cushioning properties

3. Fully biodegradable and recyclable

4. It is versatile and can be used for various packaging requirements of different industries

Corrugated board usually consists of two basic components. Line board and corrugating medium.

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186 A Practical Manual of Pharmaceutical Engineering

(in the form of sand) with two or other materials, e.g., soda ash and lime stone at very high temperatures. Glass containers for pharmaceutical use are intended to come in to direct contact with pharmaceutical preparations. Glass used for pharmaceutical containers is either a borosilicate glass or a soda lime glass. Borosilicate glass contains boric oxide, aluminum oxide, and alkali and/or alkaline earth oxides. It has a high hydraulic resistance. They are classified as Type 1 glass. On the other hand soda lime glass contains alkali metal oxides and considered to have a moderate hydraulic resistance. This will comes under Type 3 glass. If the soda lime glass is treated to improve the hydrolytic resistance they are categorized under Type 2 glasses. The quality of the glass containers is dependent on their resistance to chemical attack.

One of the major problems with the glass container is the alkali extraction when aqueous preparations are stored for a fairly long period. This may cause the increase in the pH of the solution.

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