78 Chapters
Medium 9781782200345

Chapter Six: The Triadic Perspective for Parenting and Early Child Development: From Research to Prevention and Therapy

Karnac Books ePub

Kai von Klitzing

Atriadic perspective in the context of parenthood takes into account the capacity for triadic relationships, or what we have called “triadic capacity” in mothers and fathers. It involves the capacity of each parent to develop an intense relationship with her or his child (whether in internal representations or in reality) without excluding either themselves or their partners from the relationship with the infant. Such a capacity also means that the intimate relationship between the parents can develop further, even when the child is integrated as a third member of the family. A mother with high triadic capacity is able to recognise that the father also has an important relationship to the child, without being overwhelmed by her fear of being excluded. A father with high triadic capacity recognises the mother's significance, without excluding himself from the relationship between mother and child. As the child grows older, triadic capacity also indicates the ability of parents to accept that the child enters into meaningful relationships with significant others.

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Medium 9781780490502

Chapter Five - Dreams as Subject of Psychoanalytical Treatment Research

Karnac Books ePub


Dreams as subject of psychoanalytical treatment research

Horst Kächele

An overview of the various functions of dreams distinguishes six (Strunz, 1989):

1.  Dream as by-product of the biological phenomenon of sleep

2.  Adaptive functions

3.  Creative functions

4.  Defensive functions

5.  “Negative functions”, e.g., in the repetition of a trauma in a nightmare, and

6.  So-called “demand functions”, e.g., dreams during a therapy.

This paper will focus on the last of the six functions and shall—by providing three empirical illustrations—point to the rather meagre attention given to dream reports in treatment research. When we speak about dreams in psychoanalytic therapy, we tend to think of a specific dream; rarely enough is it considered that the repeated communication of dreams belongs to the core features especially of psychoanalytic therapies. How else could one understand that an expert panel of North American psychoanalysts places this feature on the first rank of a list of features that discriminates a “psychoanalytic prototype” from prototypes of other psychotherapies (Ablon & Jones, 2005).

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CHAPTER SIXTEEN Just wait and don’t upset yourself: when children are exposed to poverty in their daily lives

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Just wait and don’t upset yourself: when children are exposed to poverty in their daily lives

Sabine Andresen


Child poverty is something that generates and demands attention. The specific form of attention to children’s experience of poverty addressed in this chapter links up with Bernhard Waldenfels’s phenomenology.

This refers to everyday experiences that are always embedded in a spatial context, constantly bound to the body, subject to a temporal dynamic, and dependent on a perceiving but not necessarily autonomous ego:

“One who hears and sees everything, sees and hears nothing; and if someone is judged according to the experiences he has had, then somebody to whom nothing happens is a nobody. To be able to talk about experiences, it evidently does not suffice for clouds to move across the sky, for traffic noise to spread, for the sun to radiate its warmth, for an instrument to heat up, or for the ground to shake. What is lacking here is my self or somebody else who notices all this and takes note of it” (Waldenfels, 2004, p. 13 [translated for this edition]). This “takes note of it” also leads to the transfer of experiences into words, to saying something about them. However, Waldenfels’s “phenomenology of attention” also points to the limitations on putting experience with all its ambiguity into words, because that which shows itself to us is never


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Medium 9781855757646

1: Psychosexuality and psychoanalysis: an overview

Karnac Books ePub

Peter Fonagy

The 1997 Congress of the International Psychoanalytic in Barcelona was spent discussing the relationship of psychoanalysis with sexuality. The title of the Congress—”Psychoanalysis and Sexuality”—already indicated that psychoanalysis and sexuality could be considered separately (Stein, 1998b). I doubt that the title would have made sense to the psychoanalysts of the pioneering, heroic generation. But the title reflected something real about the current status of sexuality in our theory and practice. It is as if there is no space for sexuality within psychoanalysis. We no longer consider it fundamental in all cases or even relevant to current theorization. I am reminded of a famous Victorian, who commented dismissively about sex: “The position is ludicrous, the pleasure is momentary, and the expense damnable.” Freud's discoveries are an emblem, a symbol of a worthy tradition, but of little actual relevance to clinical understanding or practice. Ruth Stein (1998b) put it thus: “Freud's early insight that diverse psychic phenomena, contents and symptoms are expressions of defences against sexual, mostly oedipal, themes has taken its full swing on the dialectical pendulum of psychoanalytic thinking” (p. 254). Psychosexuality is nowadays more frequently considered as disguising other, non-sexual self- and object-related conflicts than the other way round.

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Medium 9781782202097

Chapter Two - Finding the Body in the Mind: Embodiment and Approaching the Non-Represented—a Case Study and Some Theory

Leuzinger-Bohleber, Marianne Karnac Books ePub

Embodied countertransference responses in the first interview—the key to the un-representable?

Freud wrote in 1914 in “Remembering, repeating and working through”:

Above all, the patient will begin his treatment with a repetition of this kind…What interests us most of all is naturally the relation of this compulsion to repeat to the transference and to resistance…The greater the resistance, the more extensively will acting out (repetition) replace remembering. (Freud, 1914g, p. 150)

Generations of psychoanalysts since Freud have concerned themselves with the way in which repetition in transference can provide a healing process of remembering. This primarily involves symbolically represented and repressed memories or relationship patterns. However, theory and clinical psychoanalysis has focused for quite some time on psychic material present in the analytical relationship in other ways. Levine, Reed, and Scarfone entitled their anthology Unrepresented States and the Construction of Meaning (2013) in honour of André Green, and focused on the question of the search for meaning in the unrepresented from a contemporary perspective. With his widely accepted concept of “dead mother”, Green (2007) described the early identification with an absent mother leading to a withdrawal cathexis and thus to a disappearance of the inner representation that, in the transference relationship, can be perceived by the analyst as an empty, negative hallucination of the object, “a representation of the absence of representation” (Green, p. 196, in Reed, 2013, p. 39). Reed (2013, p. 29 ff.) points out that this negative hallucination of the object leads to an emptiness rather than a representation of the lost object—an empty mirror that, with these patients, is always there, but that is frequently observed in the analysand's extreme reactions to separation from the analyst.

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