837 Slices
Medium 9781475817300

Cognitive Perspectives on School Leadership

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

KENNETH LEITHWOOD1

ABSTRACT: Cognitive perspectives have the potential to make three central contributions to the study and practice of school leadership: to redefine the meaning of effective leadership; to change our understanding of the knowledge base required to exercise effective leadership; and to reform the means for developing effective school leadership. This paper describes the nature of each of these contributions and the present status of efforts to progress with each.

Cognitive perspectives have the potential to make three central contributions to the study and practice of school leadership:

This paper describes the nature of these potential contributions. In addition, the current status of theory and research useful in realizing these contributions is illustrated. Research used for these illustrations includes a series of studies carried out by me and my colleagues since about 1986 (a comprehensive description of these studies can be found in Leithwood and Steinbach (1995); additional sources include the research reported by others in Hallinger, Leithwood and Murphy (1993) and in a special issue of Educational Administration Quarterly [1993, 29(3)]. The paper also clarifies challenges that lie ahead if the three potential contributions are to be significantly realized. After painting in a bit of historical and conceptual context, the paper addresses each potential contribution, in turn.

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Medium 9781475810554

From the Classroom to the Living Room: Eroding Academic Inequities through Home Visits

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Eric J. Johnson

From the Classroom to the Living Room: Eroding Academic Inequities through Home Visits

ABSTRACT: This article illustrates the experiences of teachers who conducted home visits as a way to cultivate sustainable avenues of school–home communication with families from an immigrant and/or language-minority background. The data stemming from these experiences are used to outline a sociocultural approach to conducting home visits and strengthening relationships with parents. This particular analytical lens addresses a significant gap in the literature concerning how educators across the K–12 spectrum should implement home visits. This article is especially relevant for school administrators seeking to establish what Auerbach (2012b) calls “leadership for authentic partnerships” with families and communities.

In the current U.S. educational environment where standardized tests and educator accountability drive policy decisions, parental outreach efforts are often overshadowed by the immediacy of rapidly accumulating student achievement data and looming assessment preparation strategies. While it is easy for educators to get bogged down in the day-to-day minutiae of these ever-present challenges, Epstein (2009a) reminds us that there “is no topic in education on which there is greater agreement than the need for family and community involvement” (p. 1). Even though the immeasurable contextual differences among classrooms across the United States make it difficult to put forth a comprehensive set of guidelines for effectively integrating families and communities into schools, the most formidable aspect of this process is often figuring out how to start cultivating such relationships (Auerbach, 2009, 2012a). Moreover, the logistical complexities involved in collaborating with families are intensified in districts where there are greater differences in the socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds between educators and students (Cooper, 2009; M. Johnson, 2011; Lopez, Scribner, & Mahitivanichcha, 2001; Olivos, 2012).

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Medium 9781475817119

Stress Be Not Proud: The Myth of Burnout

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

DONALD F. DEMOULIN1

ABSTRACT: Virtually every form of media has reports concerning teacher burnout in education. Many of these reports have been directed towards a relationship between teacher burnout and a declining educational status in this country. However, the question of concern should be, “Is the term burnout being appropriately used or being systematically abused when describing teacher productivity?”

The following study is a culmination of a seven-year investigation concerning the impact of stress on self efficacy and personal productivity. From information received from the Career Awareness Index and the Instrument Summary Assessment Program, analysis indicates that the term burnout may be an inappropriate descriptor of low to moderate levels of self efficacy and personal productivity. Hence, professional development activities may be incorrectly designed having little or no affect in enhancing self efficacy manners. Therefore, it is imperative that professional development activities be specifically designed to match individual needs and interests in order for positive effects to occur.

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Medium 9781475817508

Organizational Climate and Student Achievement: A Parsimonious and Longitudinal View

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

WAYNE K. HOY1, *

JOHN HANNUM2

MEGAN TSCHANNEN-MORAN3

ABSTRACT: Health and openness metaphors are used to develop measures of organizational climate. In addition to socioeconomic status, Environmental Press, Collegial Leadership, Teacher Professionalism, and Academic Press are aspects of climate that make significant, independent contributions to student achievement in basic skills and explain a substantial amount of the variance. Moreover, the influence of school climate on achievement is enduring over several years. The proposed climate framework underscores important linkages between the institutional, managerial, technical, and client levels in service organizations such as schools.

Organizational climate has a rich history in the study of educational organizations. Most of that research, however, has focused on elementary schools (Halpin and Croft, 1963), secondary schools (Hoy, Tarter, and Kottkamp, 1991) and colleges and universities (Pace and Stern, 1958). The current research examines the climate of middle schools; its purpose is to identify those attributes of middle school climate that explain levels of student achievement in reading, mathematics, and writing. More specifically, this paper reviews two major views of organizational climate, synthesizes and develops a parsimonious perspective of school climate, and demonstrates the usefulness of this new perspective in predicting school achievement over time.

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Medium 9781475811513

The Power of Empowerment: Mediating the Relationship Between Teachers' Participation in Decision Making and Their Professional Commitment

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

RONIT BOGLER

The Power of Empowerment: Mediating the Relationship Between Teachers' Participation in Decision Making and Their Professional Commitment

ABSTRACT: This study examines the mediating effect of teacher empowerment on the relationship between teachers' participation in decision making and their professional commitment. The data were collected through quantitative questionnaires from a sample of 983 teachers in 25 junior high schools and 27 high schools in Israel. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that teacher empowerment mediated the effect of teachers' participation in decision making (technical domain) on teacher commitment, thus demonstrating the critical role of empowerment in enhancing teacher commitment. The teachers' sense of empowerment is also related to their desire to be leaders. Implications are drawn regarding the important role that principals and other school administrators need to play in enhancing the teachers' sense of empowerment.

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