18 Slices
Medium 9781576753132

17 Issues Facing OD and Its Future

McLean, Gary Berrett-Koehler Publishers PDF

406

OVERVIEW This chapter explores many of the issues and controversies that exist in OD. Consistent with the ambiguities addressed throughout the book, this chapter raises more questions than it answers. Next, the future of the field will be explored, including my vision for the future of OD. The book will conclude with a statement of the benefits of OD.

A

s I have often suggested throughout this book, there are multiple aspects of OD for which a consensus has not been reached. Competent practitioners and theoreticians have reached different conclusions about many critical aspects of OD practice. What follows is a balanced perspective of several of these issues, followed by a series of questions still facing OD. From there, varying perspectives of the future of OD are presented, followed by my personal vision for the field of OD.

ISSUES

An issue is a controversial aspect of a field for which more than one viable, often conflicting, response exists. The intent here is to suggest that these are questions that must be addressed by the field as a whole, not necessarily by each person working in OD. Some of the questions come from Provo, Tuttle, and Henderson (2003), as suggested at a preconference on OD at the Academy of Human Resource Development

See All Chapters
Medium 9781576753132

7 Implementation: Team and Interteam Levels

McLean, Gary Berrett-Koehler Publishers PDF

162

OVERVIEW This level of intervention includes interventions to strengthen teams or formal groups and improve the relationships between teams or groups. These interventions include dialogue sessions, team building (the most common OD intervention), process consultation, team effectiveness, meeting facilitation, fishbowls, brainstorming, interteam conflict management, and strategic alignment assessment.

K

atzenbach and Smith (1993) suggested that a team is a group of interdependent people sharing a common purpose, having common work methods, and holding each other accountable. This chapter focuses on the teams that exist in organizations. Team/work group and interteam interventions are part of the Implementation phase shown in

Figure 7.1.

The number of intervention types focused on the team or group level is almost endless. This chapter will expand on a few of them in some detail as examples of what an OD professional might find appropriate in helping improve team or group functioning. The OD professional needs to be sure to use team interventions only when there is a need for people to work together interdependently. Using the intervention for the sake of having an intervention, rather than for the purpose of transforming the team, is neither effective nor productive. Many of the basic definitions of the interventions presented here were covered in

See All Chapters
Medium 9781576753132

6 Implementation: Individual Level

McLean, Gary Berrett-Koehler Publishers PDF

128

OVERVIEW The individual-level OD interventions provided in Chapter 5 are the subject of this chapter. Whereas Chapter 5 provided a brief description of each of the individual interventions, this chapter focuses on the process of implementation, along with strengths and weaknesses of each approach where appropriate. The interventions described in this section include T-groups; coaching; mentoring; self-awareness tools; reflection; training, education, and development; leadership development; multirater (360-degree) feedback; job design; job descriptions; responsibility charting; policies manual; values clarification and values integration; conflict management; and action learning.

OD

interventions at the individual level are perhaps the most challenging for OD professionals because they are asked to be aware of their boundaries of competence. Many of the interventions discussed in this chapter have the potential to raise serious issues related to mental health for the targeted individuals that go beyond the competence of most OD professionals. The role of the OD professional in such a situation must be to recognize that such a problem exists and to refer the individual(s) involved to appropriate professionals (therapists, psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, etc.). This concern is explored in much more detail in Chapter 15, “Ethics and Values Driving OD.”

See All Chapters
Medium 9781576753132

16 Competencies for OD

McLean, Gary Berrett-Koehler Publishers PDF

388

OVERVIEW This chapter opens with a discussion of competencies— their definition and the reason for their use. Then, the following questions are addressed: What are the competencies required by OD professionals for working successfully? Does the professional need to have all of the competencies or only a subset? What competencies will be needed in the future? Several attempts to provide OD competencies have been undertaken. A list of competencies developed for The OD

Institute has been adapted for this chapter, providing a self-check list for the individual considering entering the OD field. The instrument can also be used for colleagues to complete in a form of multirater feedback. Finally, the results of a Delphi study looking at the future competencies needed by OD professionals are presented.

T

his chapter focuses on competencies needed by professionals who wish to do OD work. Competencies are “a descriptive tool that identifies the skills, knowledge, personal characteristics, and behavior needed to effectively perform a role in the organization and help the business meet its strategic objectives” (Lucia & Lepsinger, 1999, p. 5).

See All Chapters
Medium 9781576753132

13 Adoption of Changes and Follow-up

McLean, Gary Berrett-Koehler Publishers PDF

322

OVERVIEW Adoption of change is a controversial phase in today’s dynamic and rapidly changing world. Some argue that change is so rapid that an organization cannot afford to adopt or institutionalize a change but must be in the process of constant change. Opponents of this theory argue that the culture has not changed until there is evidence that the change has been adopted or institutionalized. Reconciling these two perspectives will be the goal of this chapter.

T

hrough the Implementation and Evaluation phases, we have discovered that the change that was proposed in the Action Plan was successful in the pilot or initial application of the change. From this success, the organization has now decided to adopt the change throughout the organization.

As we see from the ODP model in Figure 13.1, once the Adoption phase has occurred, we return to the beginning of the cycle or move to the Separation phase. With a commitment to continuous improvement, the cycle begins again, exploring the newly created culture and its processes to determine how they, too, can be improved, with the possibility that an even better adaptation to the organizational culture can be found. In this process, the newly implemented and adopted cultural component may need to be replaced, with a new adoption following another pilot implementation. Let’s consider the Adoption phase—and the change it entails—in more detail.

See All Chapters

See All Slices