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7 Implementation: Team and Interteam Levels

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162

OVERVIEW This level of intervention includes interventions to strengthen teams or formal groups and improve the relationships between teams or groups. These interventions include dialogue sessions, team building (the most common OD intervention), process consultation, team effectiveness, meeting facilitation, fishbowls, brainstorming, interteam conflict management, and strategic alignment assessment.

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atzenbach and Smith (1993) suggested that a team is a group of interdependent people sharing a common purpose, having common work methods, and holding each other accountable. This chapter focuses on the teams that exist in organizations. Team/work group and interteam interventions are part of the Implementation phase shown in

Figure 7.1.

The number of intervention types focused on the team or group level is almost endless. This chapter will expand on a few of them in some detail as examples of what an OD professional might find appropriate in helping improve team or group functioning. The OD professional needs to be sure to use team interventions only when there is a need for people to work together interdependently. Using the intervention for the sake of having an intervention, rather than for the purpose of transforming the team, is neither effective nor productive. Many of the basic definitions of the interventions presented here were covered in

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4 Organizational Assessment and Feedback

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72

OVERVIEW Assessment is carried out in four ways, either singularly or in combination: observation, secondary data, interview, and survey. The pros and cons of each approach will be presented, along with specifics on how to make each one most useful. We will consider differences between the organization development process model and the appreciative inquiry model. Issues related to triangulation, customized versus standardized instruments, and psychometrics will be included. Finally, a keystone of OD is providing feedback on the outcome of assessment, so we will consider a rationale for feedback. Deciding to whom feedback should be provided, by whom, and in what format will also be discussed.

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nce the Entry and Start-up phases are complete, or nearly so, you are then ready to conduct an organizational assessment—also called diagnosis, check-up, cultural survey, employee survey, and many other terms. See Figure 4.1 to see where the Assessment and Feedback phase fits into the organization development process model cycle.

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11 Implementation: Community and National Levels

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280

OVERVIEW A relatively recent phenomenon, especially in the global context, has been the application of OD principles, values, and techniques in community contexts and at national levels. In a world increasingly threatened with violence, the skill set of experienced OD professionals has the possibility of offering that expertise to communities, nations, regions, and worldwide nongovernmental organizations

(NGOs) to help build stronger communities and to counter widespread violence.

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s specified in Chapter 1, an organization is any group of two or more coming together with a common purpose. Historically, the focus of OD work has been on for-profit and not-for-profit organizations, including subsystems of those organizations. Increasingly, however, there has been an awareness of the importance of the skills of OD in developing communities, nations, regions, and worldwide NGOs.

This emerging focus is consistent with the Implementation phase of the

ODP model (see Figure 11.1).

The OD Institute has been very influential in sending teams of OD professionals to areas of the world where conflict between groups has been prevalent. Teams have been sent to Northern Ireland, South

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9 Implementation: Global Level

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198

OVERVIEW This chapter explores the meaning of culture in a country context, describes the difficulties of changing organizational culture in the midst of varying country cultures, and suggests implications for OD practice in organizations consisting of varying country cultures and subcultures. In addition to considering specific OD-related issues, it also discusses common theories of culture applicable across disciplines, explores the emotional issue of globalization, and provides a self-assessment instrument for discussion purposes.

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f all of the issues confronting the OD field, perhaps one of the most difficult yet most important is the issue of doing OD work across national cultures and borders. We live in a world that is becoming increasingly small, given advances in technology—computers

(including e-mail and the Internet), satellite and cable television, and cell phones, all of which enable us to be in touch instantly and always with any part of the world (almost). With few exceptions, all business organizations are impacted by the growing global economy: investment capital flows across the world; currency is exchanged as a commodity; purchases are made from around the globe, frequently from low-wage countries; workers are hired from across the globe (often not even requiring them to relocate); raw materials come from around the globe; the food we eat and the clothes we wear come from a myriad of countries; work is outsourced so that customer service problems in the U.K., for instance, are being addressed by workers in India; and so forth.

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17 Issues Facing OD and Its Future

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406

OVERVIEW This chapter explores many of the issues and controversies that exist in OD. Consistent with the ambiguities addressed throughout the book, this chapter raises more questions than it answers. Next, the future of the field will be explored, including my vision for the future of OD. The book will conclude with a statement of the benefits of OD.

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s I have often suggested throughout this book, there are multiple aspects of OD for which a consensus has not been reached. Competent practitioners and theoreticians have reached different conclusions about many critical aspects of OD practice. What follows is a balanced perspective of several of these issues, followed by a series of questions still facing OD. From there, varying perspectives of the future of OD are presented, followed by my personal vision for the field of OD.

ISSUES

An issue is a controversial aspect of a field for which more than one viable, often conflicting, response exists. The intent here is to suggest that these are questions that must be addressed by the field as a whole, not necessarily by each person working in OD. Some of the questions come from Provo, Tuttle, and Henderson (2003), as suggested at a preconference on OD at the Academy of Human Resource Development

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