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13 Adoption of Changes and Follow-up

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322

OVERVIEW Adoption of change is a controversial phase in today’s dynamic and rapidly changing world. Some argue that change is so rapid that an organization cannot afford to adopt or institutionalize a change but must be in the process of constant change. Opponents of this theory argue that the culture has not changed until there is evidence that the change has been adopted or institutionalized. Reconciling these two perspectives will be the goal of this chapter.

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hrough the Implementation and Evaluation phases, we have discovered that the change that was proposed in the Action Plan was successful in the pilot or initial application of the change. From this success, the organization has now decided to adopt the change throughout the organization.

As we see from the ODP model in Figure 13.1, once the Adoption phase has occurred, we return to the beginning of the cycle or move to the Separation phase. With a commitment to continuous improvement, the cycle begins again, exploring the newly created culture and its processes to determine how they, too, can be improved, with the possibility that an even better adaptation to the organizational culture can be found. In this process, the newly implemented and adopted cultural component may need to be replaced, with a new adoption following another pilot implementation. Let’s consider the Adoption phase—and the change it entails—in more detail.

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9 Implementation: Global Level

Gary McLean Berrett-Koehler Publishers PDF

198

OVERVIEW This chapter explores the meaning of culture in a country context, describes the difficulties of changing organizational culture in the midst of varying country cultures, and suggests implications for OD practice in organizations consisting of varying country cultures and subcultures. In addition to considering specific OD-related issues, it also discusses common theories of culture applicable across disciplines, explores the emotional issue of globalization, and provides a self-assessment instrument for discussion purposes.

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f all of the issues confronting the OD field, perhaps one of the most difficult yet most important is the issue of doing OD work across national cultures and borders. We live in a world that is becoming increasingly small, given advances in technology—computers

(including e-mail and the Internet), satellite and cable television, and cell phones, all of which enable us to be in touch instantly and always with any part of the world (almost). With few exceptions, all business organizations are impacted by the growing global economy: investment capital flows across the world; currency is exchanged as a commodity; purchases are made from around the globe, frequently from low-wage countries; workers are hired from across the globe (often not even requiring them to relocate); raw materials come from around the globe; the food we eat and the clothes we wear come from a myriad of countries; work is outsourced so that customer service problems in the U.K., for instance, are being addressed by workers in India; and so forth.

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7 Implementation: Team and Interteam Levels

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162

OVERVIEW This level of intervention includes interventions to strengthen teams or formal groups and improve the relationships between teams or groups. These interventions include dialogue sessions, team building (the most common OD intervention), process consultation, team effectiveness, meeting facilitation, fishbowls, brainstorming, interteam conflict management, and strategic alignment assessment.

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atzenbach and Smith (1993) suggested that a team is a group of interdependent people sharing a common purpose, having common work methods, and holding each other accountable. This chapter focuses on the teams that exist in organizations. Team/work group and interteam interventions are part of the Implementation phase shown in

Figure 7.1.

The number of intervention types focused on the team or group level is almost endless. This chapter will expand on a few of them in some detail as examples of what an OD professional might find appropriate in helping improve team or group functioning. The OD professional needs to be sure to use team interventions only when there is a need for people to work together interdependently. Using the intervention for the sake of having an intervention, rather than for the purpose of transforming the team, is neither effective nor productive. Many of the basic definitions of the interventions presented here were covered in

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17 Issues Facing OD and Its Future

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406

OVERVIEW This chapter explores many of the issues and controversies that exist in OD. Consistent with the ambiguities addressed throughout the book, this chapter raises more questions than it answers. Next, the future of the field will be explored, including my vision for the future of OD. The book will conclude with a statement of the benefits of OD.

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s I have often suggested throughout this book, there are multiple aspects of OD for which a consensus has not been reached. Competent practitioners and theoreticians have reached different conclusions about many critical aspects of OD practice. What follows is a balanced perspective of several of these issues, followed by a series of questions still facing OD. From there, varying perspectives of the future of OD are presented, followed by my personal vision for the field of OD.

ISSUES

An issue is a controversial aspect of a field for which more than one viable, often conflicting, response exists. The intent here is to suggest that these are questions that must be addressed by the field as a whole, not necessarily by each person working in OD. Some of the questions come from Provo, Tuttle, and Henderson (2003), as suggested at a preconference on OD at the Academy of Human Resource Development

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