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Chapter Six: The Triadic Perspective for Parenting and Early Child Development: From Research to Prevention and Therapy

Robert N Emde Karnac Books ePub

Kai von Klitzing

Atriadic perspective in the context of parenthood takes into account the capacity for triadic relationships, or what we have called “triadic capacity” in mothers and fathers. It involves the capacity of each parent to develop an intense relationship with her or his child (whether in internal representations or in reality) without excluding either themselves or their partners from the relationship with the infant. Such a capacity also means that the intimate relationship between the parents can develop further, even when the child is integrated as a third member of the family. A mother with high triadic capacity is able to recognise that the father also has an important relationship to the child, without being overwhelmed by her fear of being excluded. A father with high triadic capacity recognises the mother's significance, without excluding himself from the relationship between mother and child. As the child grows older, triadic capacity also indicates the ability of parents to accept that the child enters into meaningful relationships with significant others.

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CHAPTER SEVENTEEN Through symptoms to subjects: the family physician and the psychologist together in primary care

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CHAPTER SEVENTEEN

Through symptoms to subjects: the family physician and the psychologist together in primary care

Luigi Solano

Once upon a time there was a doctor

Around the end of 1800, a young doctor is on holiday on the Alps.

One day he makes an excursion to a refuge hut at a height of 6,000 feet and, being somewhat exhausted, decides to stay for dinner and for the night.

After dinner, there is still some sunlight, he sits deep in contemplation of the charm of the distant prospect; from what we know of him we may imagine him lighting one of his terrible cigars (there was no law against this at the time). He is so lost in this bliss that at first he does not connect it with himself when he hears the question: “Are you a doctor, sir?”

The question comes from a “rather sulky-looking girl of perhaps eighteen” who had served his meal, the story says. She learned the man is a doctor from the Visitors’ Book. “The truth is, sir, my nerves are bad.

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Chapter Two: “Out-Reaching Psychoanalysis”: A Contribution to Early Prevention for “Children-at-Risk”?

Robert N Emde Karnac Books ePub

Marianne Leuzinger-Bohleber 1

This chapter supplements the overview from the prevention sciences provided in chapter one with a perspective from clinical psychoanalysts in Germany, bringing their knowledge to “children-at-risk” outside their “normal” treatment settings. We refer to this as “Out-reaching psychoanalysis”. It is an engagement which takes up a well-known tradition of psychoanalytical pedagogics (e.g., Anna Freud, Bruno Bettelheim, August Aichhorn and many others) and tries to adjust it to new challenges for a psychoanalytical oriented prevention in Western countries.

Introduction: early prevention as a societal responsibility

In its report the OECD deplores…“that migrants in almost no other country have such a bad level of education as in Germany” (Klingholz, 2010, p. 1299). Every fourth child with a background of migration leaves school without a certificate. Many of them become unemployed as are their parents and lead a life on the fringe of society. The societal disparity between them and other children in Germany, who have never had it better, becomes greater and greater. Early deprivation, violence and the increase of psychosomatic and mental illness such as depression and addiction are among the consequences. Seventy per cent of violent criminals have themselves been abused as children. Twenty to thirty per cent of their children, in turn, become violent criminals (e.g., Egle, Hoffmann & Joraschky, 2000).

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Chapter Fourteen: First Steps: An Integration Project for Infants with an Immigrant Background—Conceptualisation and First Impressions

Robert N Emde Karnac Books ePub

Judith Lebiger-Vogel, Annette Busse, Korinna Fritzemeyer, Claudia Burkhardt-Mussmann, Luca-Sandra Paul, and Marianne Leuzinger-Bohleber

Starting point and development of First Steps

First Steps—the most recent project of what can be called a tradition of prevention projects at the Sigmund-Freud-Institut in collaboration with the Institute for Psychoanalytical Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy (IAKJP, Frankfurt/Main)—sets its starting point in addressing what has become one of the most urgent social responsibilities in Germany: integrating children with an immigrant background (see Wolff Chapter Twelve in this volume).

Although politicians and most parts of society have begun to understand that Germany has become a country of immigration and quite a number of projects supporting children with an immigrant background exist (see e.g., Friedrich & Siegert, 2009; see also Hertel, Eickhorst, Kachler, Zeidler & Cierpka; and Andresen in this volume), these children are still educationally disadvantaged and are more likely to live in high risk environments. In 2010, forty-eight per cent of children living in families with an immigrant background grew up exposed to at least one situation of risk such as unemployed, low income earning or educationally disadvantaged parents (National Education Report, 2012). Particularly children with a Turkish background are prone to live in situations of risk—seventy-one per cent are exposed to at least one and twelve per cent to all three of the risk factors mentioned above. Although the number of immigrant children who participate (successfully) in the educational system has constantly risen since 2005, the current national education report indicates that the discrepancy between children with and without an immigrant background is a relative one and has not dissipated. Children with an immigrant background still belong to the group of the so-called “losers of education” in Germany.

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Chapter Seven: Transition to Parenthood: Studies of Intersubjectivity in Mothers and Fathers

Robert N Emde Karnac Books ePub

Massimo Ammaniti, Cristina Trentini, Francesca Menozzi, and Renata Tambelli

Introduction

Recent developments in different areas of research, psychoanalysis, infant research, cognitive neuroscience, and developmental science, highlight the dynamic, intersubjective sense of personality organised in term of “self-with-other” (Ammaniti & Trentini, 2009).

The evolution of the human species attuned human mothers, both psychologically and neurobiologically, to the smell and the sounds of the baby, and to his expressions and behaviours; in this way, mothers can immediately understand when they need to intervene to protect or feed the baby, who is immature and helpless. At the same time, babies with higher ability in tuning and understanding others have been favoured by natural selection, gaining a better chance of survival. For this reason, human infants are very social from their birth and develop that human-specific ability to read intentions and participate in collaborative activities defined by shared goals and intentions (Tomasello, 1999; Tomasello, Carpenter, Call, Behne & Moll, 2005).

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