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CHAPTER FIFTEEN Cognitive stimulation and parental sensitivity in toddlers’ homes: how do children and parents interact and how effective are trainings for parents?

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CHAPTER FIFTEEN

Cognitive stimulation and parental sensitivity in toddlers’ homes: how do children and parents interact and how effective are trainings for parents?

Silke Hertel, Andreas Eickhorst, Miriam Kachler, Nadine

Zeidler, Katharina Wolf, Marlis Abrie-Kuhn, and Manfred

Cierpka

Introduction

Fostering children’s development and preventing unfavourable pathways is of major social and political interest. It is an important aim of research to contribute to the ongoing discussion on support for children aged three or younger. At this very early stage, support is closely connected to parents’ skills. Cognitive stimulation and sensitive interaction at home are of particular importance (Bradley & Caldwell,

1984; Chazan-Cohen, Raikes, Brooks-Gunn, Ayoub, Pan, Kisjer et al.,

2009; Collins, Maccoby, Steinberg, Hetherington & Bornstein, 2000;

Connor, Son, Hindman & Morrison, 2005; Foster, Lambert, AbbottShim, McCarty & Franze, 2005; Grossmann & Grossmann, 2012;

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CHAPTER EIGHT The First Steps: a culture-sensitive preventive developmental guidance for immigrant parents and infants

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CHAPTER EIGHT

The First Steps: a culture-sensitive preventive developmental guidance for immigrant parents and infants

Patrick Meurs

M

any children that are currently participating in preventive developmental guidance programmes in the major towns of the Western world are growing up in cultural or subcultural environments that differ substantially from those of white middle class families. In that perspective, the ability of the prevention worker to take into account very different cultural practices and scripts involving child development and parenting is of great importance (Emde & Spicer,

2000). This ability, referred to as “cultural sensitivity”, has been worked out systematically in the Belgian prevention project we have called The

First Steps. After describing the history of that project as well as the specific ports of entry we have in the target group of socially disadvantaged immigrant families, we will provide a section on culture-sensitive adaptations of psychoanalytic concepts and methods. This will be followed by a description of our empirical research, indicating how our studies on vulnerable developmental lines in immigrant children have shown effects of a targeted preventive intervention on their developmental profiles.

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CHAPTER ONE The prevention sciences of early development and challenging opportunities for psychoanalysis

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CHAPTER ONE

The prevention sciences of early development and challenging opportunities for psychoanalysis

Robert N. Emde

T

he sciences of early development, disorder prevention, and health have recently undergone momentous advances (see the reviews in American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012; Beardslee, Chien and

Bell, 2011; Emde, 2012; Mercy & Saul, 2009; Rutter, 2011; Shonkoff, 2012).

New knowledge and methods have generated new ways of thinking.

Correspondingly, a greater awareness of science, suffering and the adverse effects of unattended early risk have all combined to energise preventive interventions. Such work, converting knowledge into practice, is necessarily interdisciplinary and collaborative, and leads both to exciting opportunities and challenges. As the reader of this volume will find, psychoanalysts have much to contribute and have vigorously joined in preventive work. This chapter provides an introduction for the perspectives and programmes of empirical research in the chapters that follow.

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CHAPTER THREE Minds shaped through relationships: the emerging neurobiology of parenting

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CHAPTER THREE

Minds shaped through relationships: the emerging neurobiology of parenting

Helena J. V. Rutherford and Linda C. Mayes

I

do not believe it is possible to understand the functioning of the mother at the very beginning of the infant’s life without seeing that she must be able to reach this state of heightened sensitivity, almost an illness, and to recover from it” (Winnicott, 1956 [1975], p. 302). When

Winnicott made his observations of a special shift in the mental economy of adults recently becoming new parents, he was calling attention to a critical adult developmental stage that has implications not only for the parent but also for the infant (Winnicott, 1956 [1975]). For Winnicott, the adult’s experience of a preoccupied mental state was essential not only for the new parent’s coming to understand their infant but also for creating a “transitional space” in which the infant’s self slowly differentiates.

Key to Winnicott’s observations is that both parent and infant are engaged in a critical developmental period with each shaping and influencing the other. Indeed, the onset of parenthood represents a significant transitional period in the lives of many adults, requiring a host of psychological and neurobiological changes to facilitate adaptive and responsive caregiving to the needs of the infant. Across disciplines, there has been decades of research addressing how parental care impacts child development; however, there has been far less consideration of

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Chapter Twelve: History and Concept Development of Psychoanalytically Based Prevention Projects in Preschool Institutions of the City of Frankfurt: Conducted by the Sigmund-Freud-Institut and the Institute for Psychoanalytic Child and Adolescent Psychothe

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Angelika Wolff

In this chapter I want to give a report on the prevention projects in preschool institutions of the city of Frankfurt/Main that we—the Sigmund-Freud Institut and the Anna-Freud-Institut1—over a period of almost ten years have jointly conducted since 2003. More exactly, I will speak from the child analytic perspective and with this restriction—will mention the history of the projects, the ideas behind the fundamental positions and goals, the development of analytically based concepts and thereby also the upcoming questions and problems that we have to deal with during the implementation of the projects. (A comprehensive report by Marianne Leuzinger-Bohleber et al. was published in October 2011 in Psyche under the title “Early prevention of psychosocial disturbances in children at risk”. The scientific part of the projects are presented in the chapters by Leuzinger-Bohleber; Neubert et al. and Lebiger-Vogel et al. in this volume).

The idea to become active in the area of early prevention was proceeded by an interdisciplinary DFG (German Research Foundation) study on individual and institutional accounts dealing with conflicts of dissocial, uneducable adolescents that was conducted between 1999 and 2005 by the Frankfurt Institute for Social Research (Institut für Sozialforschung) in cooperation with the Institute for Psychoanalytic Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy. In this study of six detailed single case studies, the sociologists studied the respective institutional sides of the aggressive spiral of conflict describing in case studies how the situations systematically escalated and ended in the suspension of the teenagers from junior high school.

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