10 Chapters
Medium 9781780491608

Chapter Ten - Friendship: Beyond Oedipus

Karnac Books ePub

Stefano Carta

In this chapter, I will explore the theme of friendship as a transformation of that libidinal love that characterises the Oedipal complex with its implicit themes of betrayal and narcissism. My aim is twofold. First, to show how these issues describe a harmonic dialectic formation which, starting from the original force of libidinal love, may, or may not, evolve and mature during a person's life or a patient's analysis. I believe that friendship, if defined in a certain way, is truly the highest and most mature form of human relationship—one of the deepest embodiments that the elixir of individuation may take.

In my view, the relationship between libidinal love—as a sort of prima materia and the lapis of friendship—is deeply bound and rooted within the very essence of the “analytical situation”, so much so that its history and vicissitudes may be traced back to the birth of psychoanalysis and analytical psychology as a direct product of the original relationship between Freud and Jung. As I will try to show, the transformation of Oedipal love into friendship is neither easy nor obvious. Neither has it been sufficiently analysed, or been given the role that I believe it should have.

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Chapter Nine - From not Knowing to Knowing: On Early Infantile Trauma Involving Separation

Karnac Books ePub

Alessandra Cavalli

One of the main reasons that brought Jung to separate from Freud was Freud's belief that infantile experience is paramount and profoundly influences the person that each of us becomes. Jung felt this approach was deterministic and, convinced that there must be more (Jung, 1961; Kerr, 1994; McGuire, 1974), he plunged into the scholarly study of our written heritage: philosophy, physics, and metaphysics, anthropology, astrology, and mythology. In his search for this unknown “more”, Bion's O (1970), Jung sought guidance from the experience of those who had lived before. By finding other ways of understanding the psyche, he hoped to prove that Freud was wrong.

Ironically, separating from Freud was problematic for Jung precisely because it evoked his own unknown and unresolved infantile trauma of separation. Writers including Winnicott (1964), Jackson (1963), Satinover (1985), Fordham (1985), Feldman (1992) and Meredith-Owen (2010, 2011) have discussed the mental crisis Jung suffered as a result, elaborating on this early trauma and how it informed his personality, and how analytical psychology is founded on Jung's attempt to make sense of what he was experiencing and his internal working through.

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Chapter Five - The World through Blunted Sight: Money Matters and their Impact on the Transference

Karnac Books ePub

Jan Wiener

And who, when it comes to the crunch, can live with a heart of gold?

(Duffy, 1999, from “Mrs Midas”)

Introduction

The paucity of literature about the role of money in analysis is startling, particularly since the exchange of money through analytic fees is a central aspect of the frame in which an analytic relationship may develop. Shortly after qualifying at the end of the 1980s, a colleague and I wrote a paper titled “The analyst in the counting-house: money as symbol and reality in analysis” (Haynes & Wiener, 1996). The paper explored the neglect of any serious study of the role and meaning of money, reflecting with some puzzlement on the absence of due attention to fees and the meaning of money during training. The situation now, almost twenty years later, has not altered significantly, suggesting that, for analysts, money continues to be “the last taboo” (Dimen, 1994), and more difficult to contemplate even than the emotional subjects of sex or death. There is a remarkable lack of interest in the subject of money, or, more likely, that thinking about money continues to represent an area full of conflicts and unresolved complexes for analysts who, it may be said, tend to suffer from “moneyblindness” (Lieberman & Lindner, 1987). Jacoby (1993), in a paper titled “Is the analytic situation shame-producing?”, highlighted the shame-inducing nature of the analytic relationship because of its artificial inequality, but without any reference at all to the part that the fee could play.

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Chapter Eight - Creating a Skin for Imagination, Reflection, and Desire

Karnac Books ePub

Brian Feldman

Introduction

The creation of a secure internal space for the experience of thought, imagination and reflection occurs within the intersubjective matrix of the relationship between baby and (m)other (Ainsworth, 1978; Stern et al., 1998; Tronick, 2007). The development of this secure internal space depends both upon the innate capacities of the infant, the quality of the infant–(m)other attachment, and the ability of the infant–(m)other couple to co-create meaningful experiences that can be generated, integrated, and assimilated and that, over time and through the repeated experience of meaningful interaction, form the scaffolding and structure of the infantile psyche. Interactions between baby and (m)other that involve the surface of the body, the skin, are critical in the evolution of the infant's sense of a bounded internal space that is separated from the external world through a boundary experienced as the skin (Bick, 1968). When the experience of the skin as a boundary between the internal and external realms has evolved, the individual is able to experience living within their own individual skin, separate but interconnected with significant others. Secure attachment (Ainsworth, 1978) is facilitated through the evolution of a primary skin function (Feldman, 2004) that can serve as a container of psychological and emotional experience, and this primary skin function evolves through the sensitive interactions, both bodily and emotional, between the baby and the mothering figure. Bick emphasises the importance of the capacity of the (m)other to physically hold the baby in whatever physical or emotional state the infant is in. The mother's capacity to both tolerate, mediate, soothe, and transform the often terrifying mental states of the baby into more manageable and digestible experiences (Bion, 1962) is another significant factor in the evolution of a secure attachment relationship and in the development of a primary skin function. Infant observation using the Bick (1964) method has been helpful in being able to understand the importance of the skin in infancy, and has helped to provide evidence that the evolution of a healthy primary skin function promotes containment, reflection, and thought. The emergence of a secondary skin function involves bodily defences such as repetitive movement, freezing (Fraiberg, 1987), and addictive and auto-sensuous behaviours to help contain unbearable affects often stimulated by separation and abandonment (Tustin, 1990). In this chapter, I shall try to show how both primary and secondary skin functions develop within the context of two observations of infants from different cultural backgrounds, one from North America and the other from Latin America. I will also explore the importance of the primary and secondary skin functions for contemporary analytical work.

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Chapter Three - Reversal and Recovery in Trauma: Unrepresentability in Bion, Jung, and Fordham

Karnac Books ePub

Geraldine Godsil

“It is not I who create myself, rather I happen to myself”

(Jung, 1958)

“The primary self…[is]…indestructible”

(Fordham, 1995)

My aim in this chapter is first to locate Wilfred Bion in the context of his history as a war veteran and to explore whether the theory of thinking that emerges from this history offers a way of better understanding the impact of trauma at the micro level of process. Second, and much more tentatively, I want to explore through three clinical examples whether his concept of reversal of alpha function might be relevant in thinking about the consequences of the particular kind of trauma experienced under totalitarian systems, where attacks on the mind are aimed at distortion of the truth. My hypothesis is that a double environmental deprivation might then exist, in the state itself and in its intrusions into, and consequences for, the family culture. This exploration is motivated by a sense of something missing in Jung's and Fordham's theories of representation as they currently stand.

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