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Chapter Nine - From not Knowing to Knowing: On Early Infantile Trauma Involving Separation

Alessandra Cavalli Karnac Books ePub

Alessandra Cavalli

One of the main reasons that brought Jung to separate from Freud was Freud's belief that infantile experience is paramount and profoundly influences the person that each of us becomes. Jung felt this approach was deterministic and, convinced that there must be more (Jung, 1961; Kerr, 1994; McGuire, 1974), he plunged into the scholarly study of our written heritage: philosophy, physics, and metaphysics, anthropology, astrology, and mythology. In his search for this unknown “more”, Bion's O (1970), Jung sought guidance from the experience of those who had lived before. By finding other ways of understanding the psyche, he hoped to prove that Freud was wrong.

Ironically, separating from Freud was problematic for Jung precisely because it evoked his own unknown and unresolved infantile trauma of separation. Writers including Winnicott (1964), Jackson (1963), Satinover (1985), Fordham (1985), Feldman (1992) and Meredith-Owen (2010, 2011) have discussed the mental crisis Jung suffered as a result, elaborating on this early trauma and how it informed his personality, and how analytical psychology is founded on Jung's attempt to make sense of what he was experiencing and his internal working through.

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Chapter Five - The World through Blunted Sight: Money Matters and their Impact on the Transference

Alessandra Cavalli Karnac Books ePub

Jan Wiener

And who, when it comes to the crunch, can live with a heart of gold?

(Duffy, 1999, from “Mrs Midas”)

Introduction

The paucity of literature about the role of money in analysis is startling, particularly since the exchange of money through analytic fees is a central aspect of the frame in which an analytic relationship may develop. Shortly after qualifying at the end of the 1980s, a colleague and I wrote a paper titled “The analyst in the counting-house: money as symbol and reality in analysis” (Haynes & Wiener, 1996). The paper explored the neglect of any serious study of the role and meaning of money, reflecting with some puzzlement on the absence of due attention to fees and the meaning of money during training. The situation now, almost twenty years later, has not altered significantly, suggesting that, for analysts, money continues to be “the last taboo” (Dimen, 1994), and more difficult to contemplate even than the emotional subjects of sex or death. There is a remarkable lack of interest in the subject of money, or, more likely, that thinking about money continues to represent an area full of conflicts and unresolved complexes for analysts who, it may be said, tend to suffer from “moneyblindness” (Lieberman & Lindner, 1987). Jacoby (1993), in a paper titled “Is the analytic situation shame-producing?”, highlighted the shame-inducing nature of the analytic relationship because of its artificial inequality, but without any reference at all to the part that the fee could play.

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Chapter Ten - Friendship: Beyond Oedipus

Alessandra Cavalli Karnac Books ePub

Stefano Carta

In this chapter, I will explore the theme of friendship as a transformation of that libidinal love that characterises the Oedipal complex with its implicit themes of betrayal and narcissism. My aim is twofold. First, to show how these issues describe a harmonic dialectic formation which, starting from the original force of libidinal love, may, or may not, evolve and mature during a person's life or a patient's analysis. I believe that friendship, if defined in a certain way, is truly the highest and most mature form of human relationship—one of the deepest embodiments that the elixir of individuation may take.

In my view, the relationship between libidinal love—as a sort of prima materia and the lapis of friendship—is deeply bound and rooted within the very essence of the “analytical situation”, so much so that its history and vicissitudes may be traced back to the birth of psychoanalysis and analytical psychology as a direct product of the original relationship between Freud and Jung. As I will try to show, the transformation of Oedipal love into friendship is neither easy nor obvious. Neither has it been sufficiently analysed, or been given the role that I believe it should have.

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Chapter Six - Defences of the Core Self: Borderline Functioning, Trauma, and Complex

Alessandra Cavalli Karnac Books ePub

Marcus West

“The via regia to the unconscious, however, is not the dream, as [Freud] thought, but the complex, which is the architect of dreams and symptoms. Nor is this via so very ‘royal’, either, since the way pointed out by the complex is more like a rough and uncommonly devious footpath that often loses itself in the undergrowth and generally leads not into the heart of the unconscious but past it”

(Jung, 1934, par. 210)

This chapter outlines a contemporary Jungian approach to working with patients with a borderline psychology, acknowledging that early developmental trauma underlies borderline modes of functioning but describing how Jung's underused concept of the complex still brilliantly accounts for many of the associated phenomena. Such traumas disrupt ego functioning, so that the vulnerable core is exposed and imperative “defences of the core self” are called up. The chapter extends and elaborates the concept of the complex, looking in detail at the “dual aspect” of its functioning. It also acknowledges the difficulty in reconciling and integrating early trauma-related internal working models (in both direct and reversed modes); these are consequently constellated and reconstructed in the analytic relationship. This is a co-construction, involving both patient and analyst, and a particular analytic attitude and perspective is called for in order to work safely and effectively in this area. This work in the transference–countertransference allows the traumatic complex to be detoxified and integrated, freeing the individual to develop further and to function effectively and in a more fulfilling way.

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Chapter Four - Jung's Concept of Psychoid Unconsciousness: A Clinician's View

Alessandra Cavalli Karnac Books ePub

George Bright

Introduction

Jung's use of the term “psychoid” in his published work dates, with one outlying exception, to the late period, 1947 to 1958. In these eleven years, there are barely a dozen references, mostly in passing, half of which are in published letters to a variety of correspondents. Jung makes neologistic use of a word imported from Hans Driesch via Eugen Bleuler, and his concept of psychoid unconsciousness amounts, in my view, to an original and clinically important conceptual statement. Addison (2009) has recently set out the historical evolution of the term. Not unusually, Jung introduces a concept for which no contemporary word suffices. He borrows a word from a similar field, gives it a meaning of his own, but nowhere in his published work provides us with a full treatment to define, discuss, or clarify his conceptual neologism. Shamdasani (2012, p. 375) has suggested that Jung cannot be regarded primarily as a theoretician, but rather as a “psychological essayist”, and he proposes that Jung's theories are “simply an approximation by which he is trying to translate his insights into a language for a scientific and medical audience”. This leaves the contemporary analytical psychologist with a number of possible tasks in developing or commenting on Jung's thought. Some have tried to create a unified and consistent set of theories from Jung's published work. This seems to me neither realistically possible nor consistent with Jung's own approach.

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