14 Slices
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Chapter Four - The Place of Fear in Attachment Theory and Psychoanalysis: The Fifteenth John Bowlby Memorial Lecture

Karnac Books ePub

Arietta Slade


Today I will be talking about fear and its place in attachment theory and psychoanalysis. In the hierarchy of human motivations, Bowlby placed particular emphasis on attachment because it is essential to our physical and psychological survival. And he privileged fear of loss and danger because these elemental reactions drive and organise the activation and deactivation of the attachment system, regulate physical and psychological proximity seeking and contact maintenance, and shape the organisation of mental life.

At the time that Bowlby began formulating his theory of human attachment, psychoanalysis placed virtually no emphasis on the role of fear and the search for safety in the development of personality and psychopathology. This had much to do, of course, with Freud's particular interest in internal reality, and his relative lack of interest in relationships. Bowlby, by contrast, was greatly interested in actual experience, and believed that attending to the dynamics of fear and its regulation within the context of actual attachment relationships would fundamentally change psychoanalysis (1969, 1973, 1980, 1988). For Bowlby, an emphasis on fear and the search for safety offered a crucial corrective to the theories of motivation, development, and psychopathology that prevailed in psychoanalysis at the time. For many years, however, this corrective fell on deaf ears within the analytic community, which actively rejected Bowlby and his ideas for several decades.

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CHAPTER THREE: Torture-based mind control: psychological mechanisms and psychotherapeutic approaches to overcoming mind control

Orit Badouk Epstein Karnac Books ePub

Ellen P. Lacter

“Can we get control of an individual to the point where he will do our bidding against his will and even against such fundamental laws of nature such as self-preservation?”

(CIA Document, Project ARTICHOKE, MORI ID 144686, 1952)

Psychological mechanisms

My goal in this chapter is to analyse through established psychological principles how torture-based mind control programming is installed and exerts continued control over victims.

It is painfully humbling to study mind control. The secrets of how it “works” are buried deeply in the minds of survivors whose mental registration of the process was originally impaired by torture, drugs, smoke and mirrors, and dissociative processes, both defensive and effected by abuser manipulation, and whose capacity to later recall and reveal this trauma is limited by terror, abuser subterfuge, and the capacity of the therapist to bear witness to suchcalculated abuse. Further complicating this study is the variation in methods and forms of mind control reported by survivors.

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Chapter Five - States of Terror and Terrorist States: Oppression and Liberation in Political and Therapeutic Contexts

Karnac Books ePub

Dick Blackwell

“If only it were all so simple. If only there were evil people somewhere insidiously committing evil deeds and it were necessary only to separate them from the rest of us and destroy them. But the line dividing good from evil cuts through the heart of every human being, and who is willing to destroy a piece of their own heart.”1

Alexander Solzhenitsyn (1974, p. 168)

“In psychoanalysis nothing is true except the exaggerations.”2

Theodor Adorno (1951, no. 29)

This chapter is based on my work with survivors of political oppression, most of whom have been refugees to the UK, mainly from what are commonly referred to as “third world” countries. It also draws on the observations about the contemporary social contexts in which we currently live, and on a range of individual and institutional responses to these contexts. I am concerned here not only with terrorised clients but with the ways in which we can ourselves individually and collectively become terrorised and can furthermore become terrorising.

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CHAPTER SIX: Maintaining agency: a therapist's journey

Orit Badouk Epstein Karnac Books ePub

Sue Richardson

Professional journey 1966–1988

My professional journey started when I entered social work in 1966. By specializing in child care and family work, I became a de facto specialist in child abuse and protection. In 1986, I was appointed by Cleveland Social Services Department as their Child Abuse Consultant, a post created in the wake of a high profile public inquiry into the death of Jasmine Beckford (HMSO, 1985). I was given a strong political and professional mandate to tackle child abuse, and I was filled with a sense of agency. Together with the paediatricians, Marietta Higgs and Geoffrey Wyatt, I was a key figure in the 1987 Cleveland child abuse crisis, when what was then an unprecedented number of children were medically diagnosed as having suffered sexual abuse. Our efforts to bring this to attention and to protect the children precipitated a public outcry of disbelief, orchestrated by the media and one local MP, and led to the Butler-Sloss Inquiry.

The Butler-Sloss Inquiry was a breakthrough in societal awareness of sexual abuse summed up by the opening of its conclusion:

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Chapter Three - Intergenerational Transmission of Massive Trauma: The Holocaust

Karnac Books ePub

Adah Sachs

My baby was born ill and lacerated
And tiny as the palm of my hand.
And when he cried, grandpa told me to nurse him,
my little baby,
only his lips weren't sick.
My little baby was born ill and wounded:
I've always known, something
is sick
inside me, someone

—Anon., poem by a second-generation Holocaust survivor, 1985

Ruben, fifty-four, is a famous chef and a “wild character”. He is obese, a heavy smoker, and a reckless driver. Despite his high earnings, he is often in debt. He is twice divorced.

Gabriel, aged fifty-five, still lives with his parents. He is single, and has a very promiscuous lifestyle “on principle” (to use his own words).

Daphna, fifty-two, is an unusually beautiful woman. She is a consultant at a teaching hospital, specialising in HIV and AIDS. She is a single mum.

David, a bright man of fifty-five, is chronically unsuccessful at his work. He is single.

Lea and Josh, forty-eight, are married and have three children. They both suffer from depression, and largely depend on the help of their ageing parents to support their family.

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