43 Chapters
Medium 9780253009920

6 - “Intelligent Leadership in the Cause of Racial Brotherhood”: Quakers, Social Science, and the American Friends Service Committee's Interwar Racial Activism

NoContributor Indiana University Press ePub

Quakers, Social Science, and the American Friends Service Committee's Interwar Racial Activism

Allan W. Austin

RECALLING THE EARLY years of the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), Rufus Jones wrote that he and the organization's first members, “conscious of a divine leading,” had gone to work “aware, even if only dimly, that we were ‘fellow-laborers with God’ in the rugged furrows of the somewhat brambly fields of the world.”1 Jones's remark reveals a fundamental characteristic of Quaker religious identity: a belief in “the duty of Friends to live their faith and in so doing make the world a better place.”2 The many Quaker books of discipline today with “faith and practice” in their titles bear clear witness to this enduring foundational tenet of Quaker identity. The 1997 edition of Philadelphia Yearly Meeting's Faith and Practice, for example, connects belief and activism in Friends’ testimonies, which it describes as “expressions of lives turned toward the Light, outward expressions reflective of the inward experience of divine leading.”3

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Medium 9780861966608

Chapter 12 Global Advertising in Asia: Penetration and Transformation of the Transnational Advertising Agencies

NoContributor John Libbey Publishing ePub

The history of global advertising in Asia is relatively young, when compared to Western Europe and Latin America. Until the late 1980s, most countries in the Asia-Pacific region, except Japan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, remained largely untapped by TNAAs. Since then, the transnational advertising agencies (TNAAs) made vigorous expansion into the region, mainly to serve their clients, transnational corporations. The Asia/Pacific region has been recognized by these global marketers as one of the fastest growing and healthy markets boosted by the buying power of expanding middle class populations. It has emerged as a vital consumer market for transnational corporations rather than as a low cost labor market for manufacturing transnational products (Kilburn 1995; Kim, 2003).

Research into transnational advertising focuses on two main areas: one centers on relevant creative strategies: e.g. whether standardized or specialized campaigns are appropriate and effective in the context of foreign countries. Such research focuses on the effectiveness of message strategies and approaches. The other centers on the global political economy of the industry: e.g. the structure of ownership patterns and the growth of transnational advertising (see Miracle, 1984; Moriarty & Duncan, 1991; Janus, 1986; Schiller, 1989; Sinclair, 1992; Kim, 1995).

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Medium 9780253010452

Part 5. The Time of Inheritance

NoContributor Indiana University Press ePub



The Age of Contempt, or the Legitimization of France’s Civilizing Mission

Bruno Etienne

In these troubled times when the question of memorial laws triggers emotional and polemic responses and when a president of the Republic (in this case Jacques Chirac) reclaimed the term “Civilization,” it seems legitimate to examine the anamnesis of a process that for too long has been buried in our subconscious as a result of amnesty laws and our collective amnesia. This process has its origins in our connection to those colonies that, during two centuries, marked our history, and that are today imprinted on all aspects of French society through the multiple legacies of colonial culture. The social relations of an era are simple to judge by transposing them to a contemporary normative grid that, itself, is not spared the duty to examine its own presuppositions. In fact, are our values definitely universal? People are the products of the time in which they live, and it would be a mistake to judge people from bygone eras as if they had at their disposal all that we have learned since. Yet some, such as Montaigne or Tocqueville, even a traveling painter like Fromentin, understood the abuse of authority. However, what remained unimaginable was that following the “right to colonize,” we would invent the “duty of intervention”: from the secular mission to humanitarianism, the history of our relationship with the world over the last two centuries appears to have been mapped out.

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Medium 9780253010803

5. Before Gaza, After Gaza: Examining the New Reality in Israel

NoContributor Indiana University Press ePub


Examining the New Reality in Israel/Palestine


In the nineteen years since the Oslo process began, Palestinians have suffered losses not seen since the beginning of Israeli occupation and arguably since the Nakba, the losses of 1948. The scholar Joseph Massad has compellingly argued that it is wrong to think of the Nakba as “a history of the past”; rather, it is “a history of the present,” a historical epoch that remains a living, ongoing reality without end.1 Yet, what has changed is the conceptualization of loss itself, which has assumed altogether new dimensions. For now it is less a matter of defining losses that demand redress than of living in an altered, indistinguishable, and indeterminate reality in which those losses have no place, no history, and no context, where reclamation is, in effect, meaningless, without purpose or justification. This altered reality has been shaped and defined over the last few years by certain critical paradigmatic shifts in the way the Palestinian-Israeli conflict is conceptualized, understood, and addressed. I will touch upon some of these shifts, ending with a brief reflection on the changing socioeconomic reality in Gaza.

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11. Lessons for Palestine from Northern Ireland: Why George Mitchell Couldn’t Turn Jerusalem into Belfast

NoContributor Indiana University Press ePub


Why George Mitchell Couldn’t Turn Jerusalem into Belfast


I formed the conviction that there is no such thing as a conflict that can’t be ended. Conflicts are created, conducted, and sustained by human beings. They can be ended by human beings. I saw it happen in Northern Ireland, although, admittedly, it took a very long time. I believe deeply that with committed, persevering, and patient diplomacy, it can happen in the Middle East.

—George Mitchell, Obama administration Middle East envoy, 22 January 2009

During Israel’s December 2008/January 2009 invasion of the Gaza Strip, which killed more than 1,400 Palestinians, the vast majority civilians,1 veteran Irish journalist Patrick Cockburn reported that Israeli society reminded him “more than ever of the unionists in Northern Ireland in the late 1960s.” Like Israelis, he wrote, unionists were a community “with a highly developed siege mentality which led them always to see themselves as victims even when they were killing other people. There were no regrets or even knowledge of what they inflicted on others and therefore any retaliation by the other side appeared as unprovoked aggression inspired by unreasoning hate.”2

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