8 Chapters
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CHAPTER ONE. Introduction

Cope, Theo A. Karnac Books ePub

“A science which finds itself in the situation of being unable to advance without going back and revamping its principles is a science which lives at every moment. It is living science, and not simply an office, that is, it is science with spirit. And when a science lives, i.e. has spirit, the scientist and the philosopher meet in it .. . because philosophy is nothing but intellectual spirit and life”

(Zubiri, 1981, p. 269)

Scientific understandings with the imperative of hypothesis formation based upon empirical research have given modern humanity great insights into our world. It moves forward, some argue, by verification or falsification of hypotheses. Thoughts and ideas held by earlier generations of scientists have been set aside, rethought, revisioned, and replaced with new insights and models. The older theories do not cease; they are merely preserved as historical facts or built upon. Perhaps the authors’ findings are superseded, ignored, discounted, or consigned to the periphery. They may become central ideas that spawn successive and fertile discoveries and become firmly held conclusions. Often, earlier scientific thoughts exist in functional relationship to later ones; the successors strive to support, improve, or undermine earlier theories. Some lie in obscurity to be later dredged up and re-presented for consideration. Sometimes the concepts used to understand a phenomenon undergo fundamental shifts with the development of new methods and technologies. Surely, some manners of conceiving phenomena need to be laid quietly to rest, others to be vociferously quelled.

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CHAPTER SIX. A complex consideration

Cope, Theo A. Karnac Books ePub

Throughout the course of this work, I have asserted a proposition: if Jung’s doctrine of the emotional complexes is a valid scientific hypothesis, then we should find empirical support for it in current scientific literature. While one can surely pick and choose scientific data to support almost any contention, it falls on experimental procedures to later falsify or verify such hypotheses. In Chapter Two, mention was made of Pierce’s scientific concept of abduction. There I asserted that abduction is widely used, though seldom discussed in scientific literature. I stated, “Abduction is a process that looks for a pattern in a phenomenon and suggests a hypothesis that is worth pursuing; though there are myriad hypotheses that can explain every phenomenon, abduction allows the investigator intuitively to have a sense of which ones are valuable and practical.”

It is this method that I have followed in my investigations of Jung’s complex doctrine. As a hypothesis, this complex doctrine must have explanatory power for the phenomena of emotion in general and traumatic experience in particular; moreover, it needs to have practical value for therapy and daily life. It must also, it seems, answer the following question as suggested by Magnani (1998): does the complex doctrine best explain the psychological experience of emotions? Is it a plausible theory upon this basis, and a more expansive empiricism?

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CHAPTER TWO. Philosophy first, not first philosophy

Cope, Theo A. Karnac Books ePub

Psyche, soul, or mind

In order to orientate our thinking regarding psychology, as a logos of psyche, it is imperative that we embark upon a consideration that is philosophically grounded upon an expanded empiricism, rather than a metaphysical theory of psyche as a spiritual entity called soul, or of psyche as mind. Aristotle’s discussion of the psyche in his work De Anima set the psyche upon a foundation that later was used for metaphysical and religious purposes and subsequently conceptually demolished: this foundation was “first philosophy”, that is, metaphysics. Subsequent thinkers maintained this otherworldly foundation of the human psyche, translated as anima into Latin, thence as soul into English. Psyche is conceived to be a non-material reality that connected humanity to the spiritual realms. In Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and philosophies inspired by the same, psyche was discussed more as an entity that existed “between” spirit and body. The physical-biological dimension was considered only in that it was this dimension that was to be overcome—to be transcended by the spirit’s influence within the psyche.

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CHAPTER FIVE. Discussion of Jung’s emotional complex doctrine Intermezzo: the complex brain nuclei

Cope, Theo A. Karnac Books ePub

Since I have laid bare both the developmental and theoretical elements of Jung’s complex doctrine, it is imperative that I discuss it more. Moreover, we have reached the point in this work where a consideration of Jung’s perspectives on emotions needs to be presented more fully. Does Jung present a theory of emotions that fills the criteria as adduced by Strongman, and delineated in the Introduction? I answer in the affirmative and explain this below. In the next chapter, I compare his approach to the complexity of emotions and emotional complexes with other theorists who focused upon representations. The prospective function of the psyche, as experienced by Jung, contributed greatly to his personal healing of traumatic events in his life. While I do examine briefly the psychological aspect that contributed to some of his personal inability to see his own complexes and their influences upon his psychology, I do so not to stigmatize or pathologize him. My intent is simple: the historical-personal dimension of Jung’s complex doctrine, to my knowledge, has not been much discussed. The historical component is personal history; the prospective or constructive dimension is creative psychic potential. Jung’s own failures must be acknowledged, though we must not thereby denigrate his contributions. If his complex doctrine has validity, if it has scientific feasibility, and if he presented psychic and physiological characteristics of emotions, then we should find empirical support for it in current scientific literature. This phase of my exploration comes in the next chapter also.

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CHAPTER EIGHT. A complex integration: rethinking Jung’s complex doctrine

Cope, Theo A. Karnac Books ePub

“An emotion is not a private mental state, nor a set of static qualities abstracted from such a state, nor a hypothalamic response with intense autonomic discharge, nor a pattern of behavior viewed in purely objective terms, nor a particular stimulus-situation.

“… different investigators or theorists or practitioners with special vested interests will be disposed to select and emphasize different components in this total referent. An intro-spectionist may talk mostly of sensations, images, and feelings; a psychoanalyst will stress the role of unconscious processes … a physiologist … will probably be trying to locate neural ‘centers’ … behaviorists are inclined to ignore on methodological grounds, all of these several kinds of ‘intervening variables’; whereas, finally specialists in interpersonal dynamics, with their flied theories, tend to think of emotion as a ‘social category.’ …

“Now some combination of these points of view is probably what is required for an adequate over-all theory of emotion”

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