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Chapter 1: I Think, I Like, I Believe

Katie Rogers Marzano Research ePub

1

I Think, I Like, I Believe

For lower elementary students

This circle-based game is designed to introduce young students to the concept of an opinion. It can be played three ways: (1) students practice responding to opinions, (2) students practice expressing opinions, or (3) students practice distinguishing between facts and opinions.

Setup

Arrange the place markers (see materials list) in a large circle. In addition to the facts and opinions from appendix A (page 209), teachers can come up with their own list of facts and/or opinions in advance, or make them up on the fly during the game. Teachers should be prepared to explain and provide examples of different facts and opinions.

Opinions should be simple and relatable to students so that they may decide whether or not they agree. To illustrate, a personal statement such as “I love my dog Lucky” is not a great option because students have probably never met your dog Lucky. The following list includes examples of the types of opinions teachers might generate:

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Chapter 7: Text Evidence Bingo

Katie Rogers Marzano Research ePub

7

Text Evidence Bingo

For upper elementary, middle school, and high school students

This game, based on the classic game of chance, gives students practice with generating claims and identifying grounds to support them, particularly those that involve citing textual evidence. The game is flexible enough to allow for ample variation in subject matter and game play. It can be modified to suit multiple content areas (language arts, science, and social studies) and works best with students who are very familiar with using textual evidence.

Setup

Prepare a set of claims about a particular text for students to fill in on their blank bingo boards. You can either (1) use one of the sets of claims provided at the end of this chapter (pages 120–158), (2) create a set of claims yourself, or (3) lead a content-related brainstorming session to create a list of claims with your class.

Make sure to come up with more claims to choose from than there are spaces on the board (that is, at least twenty-six items). The types of claims you use will vary by content area. For example, if you teach high school language arts, you could play the game to practice using textual evidence to support claims about a class novel. During a previous lesson, the class brainstorms a long list of themes present in a novel and claims that can be made about those themes. For example, if you are practicing using evidence to make claims for themes in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby, one list item may read, “Dwelling in the past can prevent you from moving forward into the future.” As previously mentioned, this list of claims should contain at least twenty-six items by the end of the brainstorming session, because you want students’ boards to be as varied as possible to avoid ties.

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Chapter 2: Opinion Scoot

Katie Rogers Marzano Research ePub

2

Opinion Scoot

For middle elementary students

Opinion Scoot is based on a popular stations activity called “Scoot” (sometimes called “Scooch” or “Skedaddle”) in which students rotate from desk to desk and respond to a different question at each one. In this adaptation, we have added an element in which students vote on specific questions by dropping tokens in cups at each station. This game is designed to give elementary students practice with stating opinions and explaining their reasoning. To play, students need basic reading, writing, and counting skills. They do not need to know terms like claim, grounds, backing, or qualifier, nor do they need to be perfect spellers, fluent readers, or master grammarians.

Setup

We recommend setting up students’ desks for this game before they arrive in the room. First, lay a question card face up on each desk. Teachers can use the premade question cards at the end of this chapter (see pages 63–68), or they can make their own.

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Chapter 9: Claim Capers

Katie Rogers Marzano Research ePub

9

Claim Capers

For middle school and high school students

Claim Capers is a game designed to teach middle and high school students to use their powers of observation and close-reading skills to find and present evidence. The idea to use picture mysteries to teach students to support claims with evidence comes from a book by George Hillocks Jr. (2011) called Teaching Argument Writing, Grades 6–12. In the book, Hillocks outlines a detailed process for drawing conclusions, identifying evidence, and explaining how the evidence supports the claim. In this game, small groups of students inspect the scene of a crime and use their observations to decide what happened, why, and who is responsible. When the students come together to discuss their conclusions, the group with the most evidence to support its case wins!

Setup

The most important item that teachers must prepare for Claim Capers is a picture mystery, such as the one in figure 9.1 (page 174). The picture mystery depicted in figure 9.1 comes from Lawrence Treat’s (1982) Crime and Puzzlement 2: More Solve-Them-Yourself Picture Mysteries. Treat is a renowned mystery writer who has worked with various illustrators to create entire volumes of picture mysteries, including the Crime and Puzzlement (1981, 1982) series and the children’s book You’re the Detective! (2010), which contains nonviolent crime puzzles for the younger set. His picture mysteries always include (1) an image of the scene, as shown in figure 9.1, (2) a short description of how the investigators came upon the scene, as well as any suspects that may be involved and other information not included in the picture, and (3) a set of questions that illuminate various pieces of evidence and guide the reader through solving the mystery. Unlike many other quick-solve crime puzzles, which often hinge on one crucial piece of evidence (such as a minute detail in a suspect’s story that reveals he or she is lying), Treat’s picture mysteries usually include several different clues that the reader adds together to solve the case. Because the object of this game is to produce as much supporting evidence as possible, Treat’s evidence-heavy mysteries work splendidly.

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Appendix A: Facts and Opinions

Katie Rogers Marzano Research ePub

Appendix A Facts and Opinions

Organized by level of difficulty

This appendix can be used for:

I Think, I Like, I Believe

Fishing for Facts

Rapid Fire

The following tables contain lists of facts and opinions to use in elementary classrooms. Middle school teachers may also decide to consult these lists for review with sixth- or seventh-grade students. The statements presented in these lists are generally designed to require little to no background knowledge to distinguish them as facts or opinions.

The facts and opinions are organized by difficulty into three tables: easy, medium, and challenging. Each table contains a set of seventy facts and opinions to use with students. Groupings are based on the complexity of the vocabulary used and the amount of content knowledge a student needs to recognize facts. Use preassessments and your judgment as a teacher to determine which list to use with your students. To illustrate, consider the following fact from the challenging list: “The eight planets in the solar system are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.” A first grader may or may not be familiar with the eight planets, but a fifth grader almost certainly will. Similarly, an easy fact, such as “One plus one equals two,” while appropriate for early elementary students, will not challenge students in upper elementary.

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