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Chapter 1: I Think, I Like, I Believe

Katie Rogers Marzano Research ePub

1

I Think, I Like, I Believe

For lower elementary students

This circle-based game is designed to introduce young students to the concept of an opinion. It can be played three ways: (1) students practice responding to opinions, (2) students practice expressing opinions, or (3) students practice distinguishing between facts and opinions.

Setup

Arrange the place markers (see materials list) in a large circle. In addition to the facts and opinions from appendix A (page 209), teachers can come up with their own list of facts and/or opinions in advance, or make them up on the fly during the game. Teachers should be prepared to explain and provide examples of different facts and opinions.

Opinions should be simple and relatable to students so that they may decide whether or not they agree. To illustrate, a personal statement such as “I love my dog Lucky” is not a great option because students have probably never met your dog Lucky. The following list includes examples of the types of opinions teachers might generate:

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Chapter 6: Which One Doesn’t Belong?

Katie Rogers Marzano Research ePub

6

Which One Doesn’t Belong?

For upper elementary, middle school, and high school students

Which One Doesn’t Belong? is based on a segment on the children’s series Sesame Street called “One of These Things Is Not Like the Others.” In the television version of the game, a group of four items is displayed, one of which differs somehow from the other three, and young viewers choose the item that does not fit. The game has since enjoyed adaptation for use in puzzles, websites, and games, including a classroom vocabulary game (Carleton & Marzano, 2010). Unlike the television show, the spin-off described in this book is not intended for preschoolers. Instead, it is designed to help upper elementary, middle, and high school students practice recognizing the various elements of effective arguments.

Setup

To play, elementary students must be able to distinguish evidence that supports an opinion from evidence that does not. Middle school students must understand the need for backing to support grounds and claims, as well as the three different types of backing (expert opinion, research results, and factual information). High school students need to understand the concept of a qualifier. They also need to know how to identify biased language, which is part of evaluating persuasive rhetoric (pages 34–35). Some high school questions ask students to identify qualifiers; others ask them to identify biased terms in statements.

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Chapter 7: Text Evidence Bingo

Katie Rogers Marzano Research ePub

7

Text Evidence Bingo

For upper elementary, middle school, and high school students

This game, based on the classic game of chance, gives students practice with generating claims and identifying grounds to support them, particularly those that involve citing textual evidence. The game is flexible enough to allow for ample variation in subject matter and game play. It can be modified to suit multiple content areas (language arts, science, and social studies) and works best with students who are very familiar with using textual evidence.

Setup

Prepare a set of claims about a particular text for students to fill in on their blank bingo boards. You can either (1) use one of the sets of claims provided at the end of this chapter (pages 120–158), (2) create a set of claims yourself, or (3) lead a content-related brainstorming session to create a list of claims with your class.

Make sure to come up with more claims to choose from than there are spaces on the board (that is, at least twenty-six items). The types of claims you use will vary by content area. For example, if you teach high school language arts, you could play the game to practice using textual evidence to support claims about a class novel. During a previous lesson, the class brainstorms a long list of themes present in a novel and claims that can be made about those themes. For example, if you are practicing using evidence to make claims for themes in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby, one list item may read, “Dwelling in the past can prevent you from moving forward into the future.” As previously mentioned, this list of claims should contain at least twenty-six items by the end of the brainstorming session, because you want students’ boards to be as varied as possible to avoid ties.

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Chapter 2: Opinion Scoot

Katie Rogers Marzano Research ePub

2

Opinion Scoot

For middle elementary students

Opinion Scoot is based on a popular stations activity called “Scoot” (sometimes called “Scooch” or “Skedaddle”) in which students rotate from desk to desk and respond to a different question at each one. In this adaptation, we have added an element in which students vote on specific questions by dropping tokens in cups at each station. This game is designed to give elementary students practice with stating opinions and explaining their reasoning. To play, students need basic reading, writing, and counting skills. They do not need to know terms like claim, grounds, backing, or qualifier, nor do they need to be perfect spellers, fluent readers, or master grammarians.

Setup

We recommend setting up students’ desks for this game before they arrive in the room. First, lay a question card face up on each desk. Teachers can use the premade question cards at the end of this chapter (see pages 63–68), or they can make their own.

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Appendix B: Claims

Katie Rogers Marzano Research ePub

Appendix B Claims

Organized by grade level

This appendix can be used for:

Argument Relay

Convince the Crowd

The following tables contain lists of claims to use in the classroom. While the claims are meant to be used with the aforementioned games, they also make excellent topics for class discussion, prompts for essay-writing exercises, or subjects for research reports. Furthermore, the claims in each list pertain to an array of different content areas (including language arts, science, social studies, mathematics, foreign language studies, and the fine arts), which makes teaching argumentation relevant and achievable in a variety of classrooms.

The claims are organized by grade level, with one list each for elementary, middle, and high school students. Each of the three lists contains one hundred claims to use with students in that grade range; there are three hundred unique claims in total. Claims have been classified into grade levels based on subject matter, requisite background knowledge, and level of external research required, as well as by vocabulary and complexity of the claim itself. As with the facts and opinions listed in appendix A (page 209), teachers should feel free to use the claims that are most appropriate for their specific groups of students, even if we have placed them at a different level. For example, if a teacher gives context, leads a class discussion, and rewords it, a high school claim can become a middle school claim, a middle school claim can become an elementary claim, and so on. Elementary and middle school claims can also be made more complex to be used at the high school level. For example, the simple elementary school claim “All kids should learn karate” might be adapted for high school students as “Women in college should be required to take self-defense courses,” which encompasses a wider range of issues at a much higher level of complexity.

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