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Chapter 6: Which One Doesn’t Belong?

Katie Rogers Marzano Research ePub

6

Which One Doesn’t Belong?

For upper elementary, middle school, and high school students

Which One Doesn’t Belong? is based on a segment on the children’s series Sesame Street called “One of These Things Is Not Like the Others.” In the television version of the game, a group of four items is displayed, one of which differs somehow from the other three, and young viewers choose the item that does not fit. The game has since enjoyed adaptation for use in puzzles, websites, and games, including a classroom vocabulary game (Carleton & Marzano, 2010). Unlike the television show, the spin-off described in this book is not intended for preschoolers. Instead, it is designed to help upper elementary, middle, and high school students practice recognizing the various elements of effective arguments.

Setup

To play, elementary students must be able to distinguish evidence that supports an opinion from evidence that does not. Middle school students must understand the need for backing to support grounds and claims, as well as the three different types of backing (expert opinion, research results, and factual information). High school students need to understand the concept of a qualifier. They also need to know how to identify biased language, which is part of evaluating persuasive rhetoric (pages 34–35). Some high school questions ask students to identify qualifiers; others ask them to identify biased terms in statements.

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Appendix A: Facts and Opinions

Katie Rogers Marzano Research ePub

Appendix A Facts and Opinions

Organized by level of difficulty

This appendix can be used for:

I Think, I Like, I Believe

Fishing for Facts

Rapid Fire

The following tables contain lists of facts and opinions to use in elementary classrooms. Middle school teachers may also decide to consult these lists for review with sixth- or seventh-grade students. The statements presented in these lists are generally designed to require little to no background knowledge to distinguish them as facts or opinions.

The facts and opinions are organized by difficulty into three tables: easy, medium, and challenging. Each table contains a set of seventy facts and opinions to use with students. Groupings are based on the complexity of the vocabulary used and the amount of content knowledge a student needs to recognize facts. Use preassessments and your judgment as a teacher to determine which list to use with your students. To illustrate, consider the following fact from the challenging list: “The eight planets in the solar system are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.” A first grader may or may not be familiar with the eight planets, but a fifth grader almost certainly will. Similarly, an easy fact, such as “One plus one equals two,” while appropriate for early elementary students, will not challenge students in upper elementary.

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Chapter 2: Opinion Scoot

Katie Rogers Marzano Research ePub

2

Opinion Scoot

For middle elementary students

Opinion Scoot is based on a popular stations activity called “Scoot” (sometimes called “Scooch” or “Skedaddle”) in which students rotate from desk to desk and respond to a different question at each one. In this adaptation, we have added an element in which students vote on specific questions by dropping tokens in cups at each station. This game is designed to give elementary students practice with stating opinions and explaining their reasoning. To play, students need basic reading, writing, and counting skills. They do not need to know terms like claim, grounds, backing, or qualifier, nor do they need to be perfect spellers, fluent readers, or master grammarians.

Setup

We recommend setting up students’ desks for this game before they arrive in the room. First, lay a question card face up on each desk. Teachers can use the premade question cards at the end of this chapter (see pages 63–68), or they can make their own.

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Chapter 9: Claim Capers

Katie Rogers Marzano Research ePub

9

Claim Capers

For middle school and high school students

Claim Capers is a game designed to teach middle and high school students to use their powers of observation and close-reading skills to find and present evidence. The idea to use picture mysteries to teach students to support claims with evidence comes from a book by George Hillocks Jr. (2011) called Teaching Argument Writing, Grades 6–12. In the book, Hillocks outlines a detailed process for drawing conclusions, identifying evidence, and explaining how the evidence supports the claim. In this game, small groups of students inspect the scene of a crime and use their observations to decide what happened, why, and who is responsible. When the students come together to discuss their conclusions, the group with the most evidence to support its case wins!

Setup

The most important item that teachers must prepare for Claim Capers is a picture mystery, such as the one in figure 9.1 (page 174). The picture mystery depicted in figure 9.1 comes from Lawrence Treat’s (1982) Crime and Puzzlement 2: More Solve-Them-Yourself Picture Mysteries. Treat is a renowned mystery writer who has worked with various illustrators to create entire volumes of picture mysteries, including the Crime and Puzzlement (1981, 1982) series and the children’s book You’re the Detective! (2010), which contains nonviolent crime puzzles for the younger set. His picture mysteries always include (1) an image of the scene, as shown in figure 9.1, (2) a short description of how the investigators came upon the scene, as well as any suspects that may be involved and other information not included in the picture, and (3) a set of questions that illuminate various pieces of evidence and guide the reader through solving the mystery. Unlike many other quick-solve crime puzzles, which often hinge on one crucial piece of evidence (such as a minute detail in a suspect’s story that reveals he or she is lying), Treat’s picture mysteries usually include several different clues that the reader adds together to solve the case. Because the object of this game is to produce as much supporting evidence as possible, Treat’s evidence-heavy mysteries work splendidly.

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Chapter 5: Rapid Fire

Katie Rogers Marzano Research ePub

5

Rapid Fire

For upper elementary, middle school, and high school students

Rapid Fire is a fast-paced dueling game in which pairs of students race to answer a question. The game is based on the head-to-head version of Pepper from Doug Lemov’s (2010) book Teach Like a Champion and has been modified for use as an argument game. Rapid Fire is meant to be a review, not an introduction to new material. It is specifically intended to develop students’ fluency with argumentation—in other words, their ability to recognize elements of a strong argument almost automatically (Marzano, 2007). Teachers can also use Rapid Fire as a filler activity. Start a pickup game while students are standing in line, before the bell rings, or during any other brief period of downtime, such as a warm-up or a brain break.

Setup

To play, elementary students need to be familiar with distinguishing facts from opinions. Middle school students need to understand the difference between a claim and backing and be able to recognize the three different types of backing (expert opinion, research results, and factual information). High school students need to understand the three types of backing and be able to recognize qualifiers.

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