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7. Bugles, Flügels, and Horns

Elisa Koehler Indiana University Press ePub

7  Bugles, Flügels, and Horns

Although musicians today affectionately refer to any high brass instrument as a “horn,” the term originally referred to instruments made from organic materials. The shofar, usually crafted from the horn of a ram or a goat, is perhaps the best-known example of this original meaning still in use (figure 7.1). The ancestor of the cornetto may well have been a cow horn with finger holes. Even a conch shell has been used as a signal instrument in nonwestern cultures.1

Most of these instruments, like the fictional “Horn of Gondor” depicted in Peter Jackson’s Lord of the Rings film trilogy, carried religious or cultural significance and were crafted from animal horns. In fact, the term “bugle” descends from the Latin buculus, which means “bullock,” or a young bull, the source of the horn. The medieval oliphant—just as its name implies—was made from the tusk of an elephant. Bronze bugle-horns were later designed to imitate the shape and function of these animal horns, such as the twelfth-century moot horn (ca. 1180) that resides in Britain’s Winchester City Museum.2

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Appendix C: Museums with Instrument Collections

Elisa Koehler Indiana University Press ePub

Appendix C: Museums with Instrument Collections

Just as it is important to hear recordings and performances of period instruments, it is beneficial to see them up close in person. There are several museums in North America and Europe that include fine collections of historic brass instruments as well as archival material. Some of the museums host internet sites with online photo galleries and detailed information about selected instruments. For example, a consortium of European museums created a valuable online database with images called Musical Instrument Museums Online (http://www.mimo-international.com). Selected museums are listed here in alphabetical order with brief information. Always contact the institution to confirm open hours, special attractions, and entrance fees before planning a visit. As an added bonus, some of the museums occasionally present live performances featuring period instruments. Many cultural institutions and universities also house collections of historic musical instruments; the ones listed here possess the most extensive and unique collections of historic brass instruments.

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4. The Cornetto

Elisa Koehler Indiana University Press ePub

4  The Cornetto

Before the trumpet ascended to artistic prominence in the late seventeenth century, the cornett (in proper English) or cornetto (in Italian) was the dominant solo wind instrument played with a brass embouchure and a cup-shaped mouthpiece. Few instruments suffer from the identity crisis that plagues the cornett, and its name doesn’t help. The English term for the instrument was originally “cornet,” but the organologist Francis William Galpin suggested the current spelling with two ts in the early twentieth century to avoid confusion with the valved cornet in print. But what may be clear in print is indistinguishable in spoken language. Discussing musicians who play the two instruments further compounds the problem (“cornettist” versus “cornetist”). Scholarship on the instrument in the English language favors Galpin’s spelling, but the Italian term, cornetto, is often used interchangeably. For the sake of clarity, I identify those who play the cornett as “cornetto players” and those who play the nineteenth-century band instrument as “cornetists” throughout this book. I favor the Italian term (always italicized) but use the English spelling in most of this chapter because the context is unmistakable.

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Appendix D: Selected Recordings: An Annotated List

Elisa Koehler Indiana University Press ePub

Appendix D: Selected Recordings: An Annotated List

Listening to good recordings is an essential component of learning about period instruments and musical artistry in general. It is also a valuable way to survey the evolution of trumpet solo technique and repertoire beginning in the twentieth century. The thirty recordings listed here represent a sampling of the instruments of the trumpet family and the wide variety of music they perform. Both audio and video recordings are included to provide the widest possible context. These recordings have been selected to stimulate wider listening and to expand historical awareness; a banquet of artistry awaits the curious audiophile.

Formatting a discography presents several challenges because of the wide variety of content and presentation among recordings. For example, should the performer be listed first or the composer? What about collections with multiple soloists? The recordings here are listed in alphabetical order by their primary identifier: main performer, composer, or title (for a collection or film).

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Appendix A: Important Musicians

Elisa Koehler Indiana University Press ePub

Appendix A: Important Musicians

Adams, John (b. 1947)

Alpert, Herb (b. 1935)

Altenburg, Johann Caspar (1689–1761)

Altenburg, Johann Ernst (1734–1801)

Anderson, William “Cat” (1916–1981)

André, Maurice (1933–2012)

Antonsen, Ole Edvard (b. 1962)

Arban, Joseph Jean-Baptiste Laurent (1825–1889)

Arbuckle, Matthew (1828–1883)

Armstrong, Louis (1901–1971)

Arnold, Malcolm (1921–2006)

Aubier, Eric (b. 1960)

Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel (1714–1788)

Bach, Johann Ambrosius (1645–1695)

Bach, Johann Sebastian (1685–1750)

Bach, Vincent [Schrottenbach, Vinzenz] (1890–1976)

Baker, Chet (1929–1988)

Balsom, Alison (b. 1978)

Barr, Herbert (1882–1958)

Barrett, John (ca. 1674–1735)

Bartók, Béla (1881–1945)

Bassano, Giovanni (ca. 1558–1617)

Beethoven, Ludwig van (1770–1827)

Beiderbecke, Bix (1903–1931)

Bellini, Vincenzo (1801–1835)

Bellon, Jean-François-Victor (1795–1869)

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