7 Chapters
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Part II: Texas Before the Civil War

Edited by Richard B. McCaslin, Donald E. Chipman, and Andrew J. Torget University of North Texas Press PDF

José Antonio Pichardo and the Limits of Spanish Texas, 1803–1821

Donald E. Chipman

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rom the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 to July 21, 1821, when the flag of Castile and León was lowered for the last time at

San Antonio, Spanish Texas experienced its most turbulent and bloody years. The province faced an aggressive United States with its expansion-minded President Thomas Jefferson, and in 1813 Texas suffered the bloodiest war in its history, followed by an agonizing aftermath.

To help retain its hold on Texas, Spain turned to a Mexican savant, man of letters, and cleric in the Oratory of San Felipe de Neri in Mexico City named José Antonio Pichardo. Appointed to record the legal claims of

Spain to her exposed northern frontier after decades of ineffective administration reorganizations, Pichardo created a massive legal treatise that exhaustively recounted Spain’s efforts to take and hold Texas against all challengers. Unfortunately for him, and Spain, he could not anticipate that events soon after his death would swiftly bring an end to Spanish control over the northern frontier.

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Part III: Texas in Civil War and Reconstruction

Edited by Richard B. McCaslin, Donald E. Chipman, and Andrew J. Torget University of North Texas Press PDF

Landholding in Brazos County, Texas:

Frontier, War, and Reconstruction

Carl H. Moneyhon

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ne of the most persistent historical questions concerning the

American Civil War and Reconstruction is what impact the war and the end of slavery had on local elites in the South. The answer to that question has varied. Some historians have seen relatively little change, while others have perceived a more radical transformation.1

As historian James Roark points out, however, resolving these interpretations is difficult because of the narrow geographic focus of most of these studies.2 Further, most of these studies have concentrated particularly on older plantation communities. The following study seeks to expand our knowledge of the war’s impact by examining a different type of community, a frontier county of the Confederacy—Brazos County, Texas. It does so by exploring what happened to the local elite between 1850 and

1874. This investigation assesses their position every five years during this period, looking also at their persistence as members of the local elite from point to point.

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Editors’ Preface - Richard B. McCaslin, Donald E. Chipman, and Andrew J. Torget

Edited by Richard B. McCaslin, Donald E. Chipman, and Andrew J. Torget University of North Texas Press PDF

Editors’ Preface

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his volume reflects a shared debt that many of us owe to the scholarly work of Randolph B. “Mike” Campbell. Among those whose work intersects with Texas, there are few whose legacy and influence loom as large as Campbell’s. Over the course of almost fifty years, his books, essays, journal articles, and public lectures have painted a nuanced portrait of the Texas past that has become a model for the field. Perhaps just as important, Campbell’s work as a teacher and mentor to both students and colleagues, and his leadership in shaping public memory throughout the Lone Star State, have embodied the ideal of what it means to be a professional historian. The essays presented here reflect the breadth and depth of his profound influence on the field, his colleagues, his students, and our modern understanding of the history of

Texas.

Campbell’s career can, perhaps, best be understood as a bridge between two edges of the American South: Virginia and Texas. As he often points out, Campbell was born in Nelson County, Virginia, where he grew up in the rural, segregated South. His father toiled at various odd jobs to support his family—“working for a living,” as Campbell says— and he encouraged his son to get an education. When Campbell began taking classes at the nearby University of Virginia (UVA), his mother often sat with him in history courses, and she urged him to pursue graduate work in the field. After earning his doctoral degree in history from UVA in 1966, Campbell left Virginia for his first full-time job at North Texas

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Teacher, Mentor, Friend: A Reflection - Laura Lyons McLemore

Edited by Richard B. McCaslin, Donald E. Chipman, and Andrew J. Torget University of North Texas Press PDF

Teacher, Mentor, Friend: A Reflection

Laura Lyons McLemore

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have had many good teachers; I recall them very well and even specific things I learned from each, but only a few were lifechanging—my first grade teacher, my twelfth grade teacher, my thesis committee, and then there was the Virginian, Randolph B. Campbell. Dr. Campbell did not just want to teach a prescribed curriculum; he wanted to teach students; he wanted to change the world (at least his corner of it), and he wanted his students to help him do it.

On the first day of my first class in the Department of History at the

University of North Texas, I sat in my desk unsure of my expectations, not knowing a lot about the “Age of Jefferson and Jackson.” I opened my spiral notebook to the first page, took out a pencil, and waited. One by one the chairs in the classroom filled, and everyone began to settle down.

As if on cue, in strode the professor, a thin wiry figure with salt and pepper hair cut close to his head, wire-rimmed glasses perched on the bridge of his nose, striding swiftly, long arms swinging palms down as if he were swimming, propelling himself forward not only with his legs, but by pushing the air resistance behind him. When he turned and faced the class, his hands came up, and they remained in the air for the rest of the class. At the first “aboot,” I knew, without an introduction, that he was from Virginia, and by the end of the hour, I was certain this was the person I wanted to direct my dissertation. When class was over, I sat for a moment disappointed that I would have to wait until Wednesday for the next installment. So it was that I first learned it was possible to become so engrossed in a lecture that I did not want it to end, and I thought, “I want to be able to do that.”

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Part I: Texas Identity

Edited by Richard B. McCaslin, Donald E. Chipman, and Andrew J. Torget University of North Texas Press PDF

Texas Identity: Alternatives to the Terrible Triplets

Walter L. Buenger

For more than a century Texas historians have nurtured three competing views on Texas identity. These terrible triplets, now well into a vital and vigorous old age, have a family resemblance and a similar effect on the study of the state. One stubbornly insists that Texas remains and always has been unique and exceptional. Another brusquely argues that Texas, at least since the early 19th century, has been southern and nothing except the 19th century matters much anyway. The third chimes in, often petulantly, that no, Texas has always been and remains western. A case can be made for all three positions, but not for all people and all times in the

Texas past. All three share the family traits of obscuring as much as they reveal, of being excessively focused on the period 1820–1900, of being inspired by present realities, and of ignoring change over time. Most terrible of all, the cacophony the three raise has grown boring and shows little promise of leading to fresh insights about the Texas past.1

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