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pon returning to Washington to finalize the work with the

Ponca Commission, Bourke met with Maj. John Wesley

Powell, director of the two-year-old American Bureau of

Ethnology. Powell had learned of Bourke’s work from E. S. Holden of the Naval Observatory, who had been a year behind Bourke at West

Point, and from Rev. Dorsey, who, aside from his ministry with the

Episcopal Church, and his work with the Ponca Commission, also was an ethnologist on the bureau’s staff. Both Holden and Dorsey believed the bureau could benefit from Bourke’s experiences. From this meeting came formal sanction for his ethnological interests, and thus he embarked on the work that would secure his own place in history. Indeed, with and without Crook, and with and without official support, the remaining fifteen years of his life would be devoted to this work.1

Although Bourke undoubtedly could have worked solely under the aegis of the Bureau of Ethnology, at this point in his life, he preferred to continue within the framework of his military duties. His position as Crook’s aide gave him substantial flexibility, and most likely he preferred this to the potential control of Powell. He also

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at Tesuque Pueblo, 361ff.; researches Navajos, 376ff.; researches Zunis, 407 ff.

Bourke, Sarah (daughter) (see

James, Sarah Bourke)

Boy Chief (Ponca), 230

Brackett, Albert Gallatin, 44, 447

Bradley, Luther Prentice, 374,

389, 406, 441, 447

Breck, Samuel, 104, 447

Brewster, William Barton, 144,


Brewster, Mrs. William Barton,


Bridger, Jim, 40 n22

Bridges, Corporal, 143

Broken Jaw (Ponca), 234

Brooke, Edwin J., 228, 490

Brooks, Miss, 278

Brulé Lakota Indians, 223–24,

250, 257, 507–8, 509

Buffalo (Ponca), 178, 260

Buffalo Calf (Ponca), 230

Buffalo Chief (Macdonald) (Ponca half-blood), 172, 191, 206, 230,


Buffalo Chips (Ponca), 229–30,


Buffalo Rib (Ponca), 201

Bull That Leads (Ponca), 260

Burdett-Coats, Baroness, 299

Burlington & Missouri River Railroad, 318, 318 n6, 394

Burke, Daniel Webster, 31, 33, 35,


Burnham, Horace Blois, 397

Burns, James, 105, 114–15, 222,


Burns, Mrs. James, 105

Burns, Mike (Apache), 114–15,

114 n14, 117, 186

Burrows, George, 66, 66 n7


Butler, Mrs., 69, 101

Byram (mine owner), 45, 295

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he White River Ute uprising had its roots in the usual wellmeaning, but totally unrealistic policies of federal government. As Bourke noted, the public seemed to understand the problem. “Very generally, the Indian Bureau was blamed and not a few expressed the hope that the Indian Agent might be killed, thinking that his inefficiency or rascality had brought about the revolt,” he wrote on the train from Omaha to Fort Fred Steele, Wyoming, on his way to the scene.1

The public assessment of the agent, Nathan C. Meeker, also was correct. Meeker was, in the words of one who knew him, “strictly honest, but utterly impractical and visionary and without any ability to manage Indians or whites.”2

The problem was aggravated by the incursion of prospectors into the Ute country. One newspaper commented, “When the miners began filling the Middle and North Park last summer, the Ute heart suddenly became filled with badness.”3

1. Bourke, Diary, 31:252–53.

2. Ibid., 31:253. The official records of the White River Ute Uprising are found in RG

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Appendix 5: Lieutenant W. Philo Clark’s Recapitulation of the Great Sioux War

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Appendix 5

Lieutenant W. Philo Clark’s

Recapitulation of the Great Sioux War

The following account of the Great Sioux War was prepared by

Lieutenant William Philo Clark, Second Cavalry, on orders from

General Crook. It was submitted to Lieutenant General Sheridan, who endorsed it on October 31, 1877. If Crook intended this as a justification for his actions, he was only marginally successful.

Clark refutes Crook’s and Bourke’s continuing insistence that the village attacked by Reynolds on March 17, 1876, was Crazy

Horse’s. Nevertheless, as late as 1891, Bourke persisted in calling it “‘Crazy Horse’s’ village.”1 Clark also hints that Crook was less than successful at the Rosebud.

In discussing Indian combat wounds, Clark remarks that he believes “that of all animals they are the superior in point of tenacity of life, magnificent horsemen and fine shots. . . .” Given Clark’s overall interest in Indian culture, and his generally reasonable dealings with them, it is doubtful that by “animals,” he meant that they were a subhuman species. Most likely it was a figure of speech referring to the animal kingdom—including humans—as a whole.

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Atlanta, Battle of, 286, 287

Augur, Jacob, 39, 40, 298, 309,

344, 421

Austin, Albert, 121, 148, 155,

329, 421

Ayers, James C., 173, 174


Babcock, John Breckinridge,

309, 323, 325, 344, 422

Bachiller de Salamanca

(book), 328, 328 n5

Bailey, Edward Lyon, 306,

330, 345, 422

Bainbridge, Augustus Hudson,

42–43, 47, 349, 422

Bainbridge, Mrs. Augustus

Hudson, 348

Baker, James (Old Jim), 326,


Bancroft, Hubert Howe, 129,

129 n19

Bannock Indians (see also

Bannock Uprising), 1,

35–37, 43, 45, 51, 57, 91 n17, 126, 216, 348; farming among, 44, 52

Bannock Uprising, 35–36, 35 n2, 43ff., 199

Barrett, Lawrence, 412, 480

Barnett, Richards, 282, 385,


Barry, William F., 249, 249 n2,


Barstow, O. C., 353, 353 n11,


Baxter, Lieutenant, 167–68

Beaconsfield, Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of (see Disraeli,


Beecher’s Island Fight, 292

Belknap, William Worth,

186–87 n10, 480

Bell, Alexander Graham, 19 n1–2

Bell, Chidchester, 19 n2

Benét, Stephen Vincent, 337,


Benét, Mrs. Stephen Vincent,


Bennett, James Gordon, 353

Bennett, L.M., 415, 417

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