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Chapter 6 Generating and Testing Hypotheses

Sonny Magana Marzano Research ePub

Chapters 4 and 5 outlined steps, strategies, and educational technology tools that teachers can use to build a solid foundation of declarative and procedural knowledge for their students. The design question addressed in this chapter, which falls under lesson segments addressing content, is, How can I use technology to help students generate and test hypotheses about new knowledge? This chapter focuses on challenging students to experiment with their newly acquired knowledge. Three elements are important to this design question.

Element 21: Organizing students for cognitively complex tasks

Element 22: Engaging students in cognitively complex tasks involving hypothesis generation and testing

Element 23: Providing resources and guidance

The strategies and behaviors outlined in this chapter are influenced by the research on problem-based learning (Gijbels, Dochy, Van den Bossche, & Segers, 2005) and hypothesis generation and testing (Hattie et al., 1996; Ross, 1988). Technology can be used to enhance and support each strategy.

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Appendix B: Glossary of Technology Terms

Sonny Magana Marzano Research ePub

animations. Moving pictures that simulate movement by cycling through a series of still images.

annotations. Markups, notes, or comments that can be embedded in word processing documents. Annotations can be used in Google Drive.

app (short for application). Type of inexpensive software that can only be downloaded from the Internet. Apps are typically used on mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets.

Audacity. Software for digitally recording and editing sound. Go to http://audacity.sourceforge.net for a free download.

avatar. An image or animation that users can customize to represent themselves on the Internet (such as in gaming, social media, or email services).

Blendspace. A website that allows teachers to create virtual lessons by compiling related digital media resources into a single landing page. For example, a Blendspace lesson on plate tectonics might include video footage of earthquakes, animated simulations of Pangaea’s movement, diagrams of the San Andreas Fault, links to a geologist’s blog post about plate tectonics, and other relevant media. Teachers can also use Blendspace to administer quizzes and track student progress. Go to www.blendspace.com to set up a free account.

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Chapter 3 Establishing Classroom Rules and Procedures

Sonny Magana Marzano Research ePub

The second design question—How can I use technology to establish and maintain classroom rules and procedures?—addresses a crucial step toward a safe, orderly, and predictable learning environment for students. Two elements make up this design question, which falls under lesson segments involving routine events.

Element 4: Establishing and maintaining classroom rules and procedures

Element 5: Organizing the physical layout of the classroom

The idea that routines and procedures ought to be explicitly taught at the beginning of the school year, after which they are practiced and periodically reviewed, is well grounded in research (Anderson, Evertson, & Emmer, 1980; Brophy & Evertson, 1976; Eisenhart, 1977; Emmer, Evertson, & Anderson, 1980; Good & Brophy, 2003; Moskowitz & Hayman, 1976). The technology tools in this chapter facilitate teaching and review of rules and procedures, and they increase students’ participation in generating rules and procedures and designing the physical layout of the classroom. This involvement gives students a sense of agency and belonging in the classroom.

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Chapter 2 Communicating Learning Goals, Tracking Student Progress, and Celebrating Success

Sonny Magana Marzano Research ePub

The first design question under lesson segments involving routine events is, How can I establish and communicate learning goals, track student progress, and celebrate success? As might be inferred from the design question itself, three elements are important to this question.

Element 1: Providing clear learning goals and scales (rubrics)

Element 2: Tracking student progress

Element 3: Celebrating success

Each of these elements is supported by specific research on the effects of setting goals (Lipsey & Wilson, 1993; Walberg, 1999; Wise & Okey, 1983), giving feedback to students (Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, Kulik, & Morgan, 1991; Haas, 2005; Hattie & Timperley, 2007; Kumar, 1991), reinforcing effort rather than innate talent (Hattie, Biggs, & Purdie, 1996; Kumar, 1991; Schunk & Cox, 1986), and the use of praise and rewards (Bloom, 1976; Deci, Ryan, & Koestner, 2001; Wilkinson, 1981). Additionally, specific strategies support each element and each of those strategies can be adapted and improved using technology.

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Chapter 9 Maintaining Effective Relationships with Students

Sonny Magana Marzano Research ePub

Mutually respectful relationships between students and teachers are the foundation of an effective classroom. The design question for chapter 9 asks, How can I use technology to establish and maintain effective relationships with students? There are three elements associated with this design question, which falls under lesson segments enacted on the spot.

Element 36: Understanding students’ interests and backgrounds

Element 37: Using verbal and nonverbal behaviors that indicate affection for students

Element 38: Displaying objectivity and control

The strategies and behaviors connected to building relationships are drawn from the research on striking a balance between student perceptions that the teacher is in control of the classroom and student perceptions that the teacher is their advocate (Brekelmans, Wubbels, & Creton, 1990; Wubbels, Brekelmans, den Brok, & van Tartwijk, 2006). Specific strategies support each of the three elements and specific technology tools, in turn, can be used to support each of these strategies.

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