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Appendix A: Answers to Comprehension Questions

Sonny Magana Marzano Research ePub

 

1.  Why is it beneficial to use technology to expose students to a learning goal before beginning a lesson?

Class websites allow teachers to share a learning goal with students before a lesson begins. One benefit of presenting a clearly articulated learning goal in a blog entry or comment is that it gives students an opportunity to start making connections between learning goals, background knowledge, and personal experiences. Another reason to share a learning goal in advance of the lesson is that it prepares students to link their classroom activities, assignments, and discussions directly back to the content.

2.  Describe at least two benefits that come with using digital journals (as opposed to paper-and-pencil journals) to track student progress.

Unlike paper notebooks, cloud-based digital journals (in Google Drive or Evernote) cannot be misplaced or accidentally left at home, because they are accessible from a variety of electronic devices. For instance, if a student uses Google Drive to begin writing a journal entry at school, she does not have to remember to bring a notebook home in order to finish that entry for homework. Instead, she can access the same entry online from a home computer, a smartphone, a tablet, or a computer at the public library. Additionally, digital journals afford teachers the opportunity to type comments and feedback directly into their students’ files. Finally, students can easily revise entries in a digital journal, as well as save multiple drafts to review their progress over time.

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Chapter 2 Communicating Learning Goals, Tracking Student Progress, and Celebrating Success

Sonny Magana Marzano Research ePub

The first design question under lesson segments involving routine events is, How can I establish and communicate learning goals, track student progress, and celebrate success? As might be inferred from the design question itself, three elements are important to this question.

Element 1: Providing clear learning goals and scales (rubrics)

Element 2: Tracking student progress

Element 3: Celebrating success

Each of these elements is supported by specific research on the effects of setting goals (Lipsey & Wilson, 1993; Walberg, 1999; Wise & Okey, 1983), giving feedback to students (Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, Kulik, & Morgan, 1991; Haas, 2005; Hattie & Timperley, 2007; Kumar, 1991), reinforcing effort rather than innate talent (Hattie, Biggs, & Purdie, 1996; Kumar, 1991; Schunk & Cox, 1986), and the use of praise and rewards (Bloom, 1976; Deci, Ryan, & Koestner, 2001; Wilkinson, 1981). Additionally, specific strategies support each element and each of those strategies can be adapted and improved using technology.

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Chapter 10 Communicating High Expectations

Sonny Magana Marzano Research ePub

The design question for this chapter asks, How can I use technology to communicate high expectations for all students? The chapter emphasizes the need for teachers to clearly establish and consciously maintain high expectations for every single student, no matter what. Three elements are important to this final design question, which falls under lesson segments enacted on the spot.

Element 39: Demonstrating value and respect for low-expectancy students

Element 40: Asking questions of low-expectancy students

Element 41: Probing incorrect answers with low-expectancy students

Recognizing the importance of getting to know their students as soon as possible, teachers tend to evaluate and develop expectations for individual students very quickly. Sometimes, these expectations can cause teachers to treat high-expectancy students differently from low-expectancy students, often without realizing it. Students can be extremely perceptive and often notice subtle behavioral clues from teachers that indicate whether they are expected to do poorly or well academically. Furthermore, student behavior, self-image, and effort can actually change in response to teacher expectations (Brophy & Good, 1970; Ferguson, 1998; Jussim, Eccles, & Madon, 1996; Rist, 1970; Roscigno, 1998; Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1968). In this chapter, we outline specific strategies teachers can use to set everyone up for success by communicating high expectations for all students. Each one of these strategies can be modified with technology.

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Chapter 1 Research and Theory

Sonny Magana Marzano Research ePub

In 1913, American inventor Thomas Edison boldly predicted what has since become a familiar claim: education in the United States, he said, would never be the same again. In an interview with The New York Dramatic Mirror, Edison proclaimed, “Books . . . will soon be obsolete in the schools. . . . Our school system will be completely changed inside of ten years” (as cited in Smith, 1913, p. 24). This statement may sound similar to modern predictions, but Edison was not foretelling the influence of ebooks, laptop classrooms, or even the Internet. Instead, he believed, textbooks would be replaced by motion pictures.

While Edison’s prediction has not, as of yet, come true, the availability of educational technology continues to increase. The rise in classroom computer use serves as a particularly clear example. According to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), the average number of instructional computers in public schools more than doubled in the thirteen-year period between 1995 and 2008, rising from 72 to 189 computers per school (Snyder & Dillow, 2012). In 2009, 97 percent of teachers had at least one computer in the classroom every day, and 69 percent of teachers reported using these computers either often or sometimes (Gray, Thomas, & Lewis, 2010). The Internet provides another example of the increasing use of technology. According to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), in 2010, 97 percent of schools across the United States were able to connect to the Internet. As these statistics show, new technologies are increasingly pervasive in U.S. schools.

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Chapter 3 Establishing Classroom Rules and Procedures

Sonny Magana Marzano Research ePub

The second design question—How can I use technology to establish and maintain classroom rules and procedures?—addresses a crucial step toward a safe, orderly, and predictable learning environment for students. Two elements make up this design question, which falls under lesson segments involving routine events.

Element 4: Establishing and maintaining classroom rules and procedures

Element 5: Organizing the physical layout of the classroom

The idea that routines and procedures ought to be explicitly taught at the beginning of the school year, after which they are practiced and periodically reviewed, is well grounded in research (Anderson, Evertson, & Emmer, 1980; Brophy & Evertson, 1976; Eisenhart, 1977; Emmer, Evertson, & Anderson, 1980; Good & Brophy, 2003; Moskowitz & Hayman, 1976). The technology tools in this chapter facilitate teaching and review of rules and procedures, and they increase students’ participation in generating rules and procedures and designing the physical layout of the classroom. This involvement gives students a sense of agency and belonging in the classroom.

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