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Chapter Six - Margaret Little

Spelman, Margaret Boyle Karnac Books ePub

Margaret Little (1901–1994),23 formerly a GP, was a training analyst and an active member of the British Institute of Psychoanalysis's Independent Group, drawing from both sides after qualifying in 1945 amid the Controversial Discussions. Having been with two analysts,24 Little (1985, 1990) heard Winnicott speak and thought that he could help her. She considers her analysis with Winnicott between 1949 and 1955 and again in 1957 to have been formative and after analysis she continued professional contact with him.25

Little's publications26 cover territory familiar to Winnicott, such as the beginnings of the subject and early environmental failure. Suffused with Winnicott's thinking, her written contribution falls broadly into two kinds: her account of her analysis with Winnicott—an account that has received much attention27—and her own writing and thinking. Her account is considered to include the very worst and best of Winnicott.28 It shows “Winnicott's true self in action”, introducing the third dimension of “dialectics, irony and paradox into the psychoanalytic structure”, illustrating why Winnicott is sometimes seen as an “existential psychoanalyst” who “plumbed the ontological depths of our existence” (Grotstein in Little, 1990, p. 7).29 Little's most pressing issues were pre-symbolic and fundamental to existence and identity; instead of intrapsychic conflict, she saw total annihilation as a threat in infantile sexuality. Dr. X had told her to “be herself”, but she did not know what “herself” was (p. 27).

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Appendix B - Content Analysis

Spelman, Margaret Boyle Karnac Books ePub

Audience categories

Winnicott's principal concepts

The main concepts that occur in Winnicott's writing (excluding specified unavailable writing and correspondence) are listed here:

mind–body alliance, advocating for psychoanalysis, anti-indoctrination and anti-dogma stance, moral development, history-taking, inner reality, unconscious, health, creativity, symbolism, anxiety, experience, transitional phenomena, collaboration, conflict, maturational processes and the facilitating environment, mother function, holding, aggression, destructiveness, mother–infant unit, therapeutic consultations, transitional space, individual difference, culture, depressive position, playing, infant's mental life, primitive mechanisms, Klein's ideas, spontaneity, period of hesitation, fusion of affect, infancy/analysis analogy, enjoyment, potential space, antisocial tendency, deprivation, privation, treatment models, delinquency, reparation, benign cycle, capacity for concern, reliable care, clinical experience, analysis/infancy analogy, space, boundary, boundary formation, three maturational processes (integration, realisation and personalisation), three mother functions (handling, holding and object presenting) pre-object stage, ego formation, ego distortion, ego deficit, ego needs, ego relatedness, id relatedness, setting, pre-oedipal, oedipal, pre-concern, survival, use of an object, disillusionment, illusion, illusion of unity, ‘good enough’ mother, intrusion, fact of dependence, infant meta-psychology, complexity, primary creativity, objective love, objective hate, classification, healthy sexual development, hostel design, parental/ mental nursing, true/false self, unintegration, stages of dependence (absolute dependence, relative dependence, towards independence) subjectivity, primary maternal pre-occupation, primary anxieties, regression, psyche-soma, relaxation, impingement, environment, continuity-of-being, father's role, set situation, sense of guilt, adaptation, being, doing, primitive loving, externalising the object, subjective object, objective object, science Vs intuition, infant research, infant observation, squiggle game, group psychology, practice management, obsessive depressive distinction, act of hope, primary identification, relaxation, latency, preverbal, non-verbal and unverbalisable material, silence, capacity to be alone, ‘I Am’ stage, ‘I Am Alone’ stage, unit status, ego orgasm, paradox, motility drive, team work, superego, one's own language, technique, adolescence, auto-eroticism, subjectivity, primary narcissism, Freudian footnote, cost efficiency, anti—envy and death wish stance, visuo-spatial imagination, existential psychoanalysis, value of depression, fear of breakdown, silence, preschooler's meta-psychology, feminism, imagination, withdrawal, receptive stance, split-off male and female elements, bisexuality, infantile schizophrenia, autism, loss cure/care, individuation, residential care as therapy.

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Chapter Twelve - Margaret Little's Analytic “Child”: Ralph Layland

Spelman, Margaret Boyle Karnac Books ePub

Ralph Layland

Born in 1930255 and educated in Sheffield, W. Ralph Layland was accepted as an undergraduate in the medical school of Sheffield University in 1950 and qualified MB ChB (Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery) in 1956. After completing the compulsory house jobs, he worked as a junior doctor on the general medical wards in two of the Sheffield teaching hospitals. It was during this period that he conducted a survey into the incidence of chronic bronchitis amongst the workers in the gas industry in Sheffield and in nearby Rotherham, for which he was awarded the degree of MD in 1964.256

In 1962, he moved out of general medicine into his chosen specialty, psychiatry. In 1956, Dr. Erwin Stengel257 had been appointed to the newly established Chair of Psychiatry in the University of Sheffield and Layland was accepted as a junior doctor in his department. Layland's ultimate aim was to train to be a psychoanalyst and Professor Stengel was very supportive and encouraging of his wish to undergo the training at the Institute of Psychoanalysis. This meant that he would have to move to the London area and get a post in a psychiatric department that would be prepared to allow him time to go for his personal analysis, five times a week. Stengel suggested that he should visit two large mental hospitals near St. Albans258 and Layland was fortunate enough to be appointed as a senior registrar at Napsbury Hospital.

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Chapter Nine - Enid Balint's Analytic “Children”: Juliet Hopkins, Jennifer Johns, and Juliet Mitchell

Spelman, Margaret Boyle Karnac Books ePub

Juliet Hopkins

Juliet Hopkins1 said that her mother, John Bowlby's younger sister, had been analysed by Joan Riviere2 and read Klein's 1932 (1989) The Psychoanalysis of Children before Hopkins was born in 1934. Her mother's “special insider knowledge” made Hopkins very curious3 which increased when, as an adolescent, she read the books of a female student at the Anna Freud Centre who lodged with them.

Hopkins has always affiliated herself with the Group of Independents, considering them unique in their welcoming of alternative approaches to widening psychoanalysis.4 She did a science degree—first biology and then psychology—at Cambridge University. This confirmed her feeling that science advances by learning from any discipline that can contribute, and contrasted with the Kleinian view that psychoanalysis can progress only through psychoanalytic findings. Hopkins was sympathetic to John Bowlby's scientific, research-based approach, but having trained as a clinical psychologist on his advice, she found that she preferred clinical work.5 Having decided to train as a child psychotherapist at the Tavistock, Hopkins preferred her encounter with Enid Balint to others and chose her as her training analyst,6 who then subsequently set up her supervision with Winnicott. Hopkins read Through Paediatrics to Psychoanalysis when it came out and felt that Winnicott was a genius. Hopkins completed three psychotherapy trainings.7

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Medium 9781782200079

Chapter Nine - On Potential Space

Karnac Books ePub

Thomas H. Ogden

Introduction

Perhaps the most important and at the same time most elusive of the ideas introduced by Donald Winnicott is the concept of potential space. Potential space is the general term Winnicott used to refer to an intermediate area of experiencing that lies between fantasy and reality. Specific forms of potential space include the play space, the area of the transitional object and phenomena, the analytic space, the area of cultural experience, and the area of creativity. The concept of potential space remains enigmatic in part because it has been so difficult to extricate the meaning of the concept from the elegant system of images and metaphors in which it is couched. The present paper is an attempt to clarify the concept of potential space and to explore the implications that this aspect of Winnicott's work holds for a psychoanalytic theory of the normal and pathological development of the capacity for symbolisation and subjectivity.

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