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Chapter Nine - Enid Balint's Analytic “Children”: Juliet Hopkins, Jennifer Johns, and Juliet Mitchell

Margaret Boyle Spelman Karnac Books ePub

Juliet Hopkins

Juliet Hopkins1 said that her mother, John Bowlby's younger sister, had been analysed by Joan Riviere2 and read Klein's 1932 (1989) The Psychoanalysis of Children before Hopkins was born in 1934. Her mother's “special insider knowledge” made Hopkins very curious3 which increased when, as an adolescent, she read the books of a female student at the Anna Freud Centre who lodged with them.

Hopkins has always affiliated herself with the Group of Independents, considering them unique in their welcoming of alternative approaches to widening psychoanalysis.4 She did a science degree—first biology and then psychology—at Cambridge University. This confirmed her feeling that science advances by learning from any discipline that can contribute, and contrasted with the Kleinian view that psychoanalysis can progress only through psychoanalytic findings. Hopkins was sympathetic to John Bowlby's scientific, research-based approach, but having trained as a clinical psychologist on his advice, she found that she preferred clinical work.5 Having decided to train as a child psychotherapist at the Tavistock, Hopkins preferred her encounter with Enid Balint to others and chose her as her training analyst,6 who then subsequently set up her supervision with Winnicott. Hopkins read Through Paediatrics to Psychoanalysis when it came out and felt that Winnicott was a genius. Hopkins completed three psychotherapy trainings.7

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Chapter Two - The Evolution of Winnicott's Thinking on Thinking and on Influence

Margaret Boyle Spelman Karnac Books ePub

In this chapter, we first look briefly at the conscious effort made to ensure and maintain the influence of Winnicott's thinking after his death. Then we explore what Winnicott had to say at different times over his lifespan about his own thinking process and about influence. Next, with the aim of making explicit Winnicott's thinking about thinking, we examine those aspects of Winnicott's thinking that I propose make likely the further use of his thinking in other and subsequent thinking. We shall then examine the links between these ideas and those of Lovejoy on the history of ideas and explore how these are antithetical to those of Harold Bloom. In this discussion we clarify what is involved with these differing ways of thinking about the history of ideas and of influence and relate them to Winnicott's thinking. In doing so, we propose that Winnicott's specific and distinctive perspective on thinking and influence unfolds, and we make fully explicit his implicit theory about thinking, theory-building, influence, and the history of ideas.

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Chapter Four - Towards Independence—The Whole Person

Margaret Boyle Spelman Karnac Books ePub

In this chapter, I look at the concepts attaching to the third stage: when the person goes towards independence. I look first at the expansion and further internalisation of transitional space in the developmental situation, noting the changes in the baby and in the mother's role at this time, and I also refer to the lifelong nature of the expansion. Next, I show how Winnicott's consideration of the mother function is useful clinically in two ways. First, it helps us deal with those patients for whom the difficulty is of a preoedipal nature. Second, it allows our practice to be more flexible and to account for the complexity of human experience, by recognising the dialectical nature of the transference and real relationships.

The baby's movement towards independence

As we have seen, in absolute and relative dependence, the capacity to be alone first develops in the presence of the mother when the holding experienced by the baby has been good enough. Then, “through the accumulation of memories of care, the projection of personal needs and the introjection of care details [the baby develops] confidence in the environment” (Winnicott, 1960a, p. 46). Trust, memories, and greater intellectual understanding allow the baby to internalise the transitional space. Here, the baby has the capacity to live without actual care and expand the transitional space to other areas of his life. He has in himself the capacity to keep inside and outside separate yet interrelated and to balance their contributions in his experience. An interchange is set up between inner and outer realities which results in one being enriched by the other.

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Chapter Five - Masud Khan

Margaret Boyle Spelman Karnac Books ePub

Introduction

Khan, who has been referred to as Winnicott's “favourite son” and “heir apparent”, had a close collaborative working relationship with Winnicott. He saw Winnicott's writing and thinking at most gestational stages and, in the literary transitional space in which it was formed—and where it is never clear who owns what—as Winnicott's editor he influenced the final shape taken by Winnicott's thinking when his books were published. Within Khan's own first three books in 1974 (1996), 1979 and 1983, there is a high frequency of references to particular papers of Winnicott's and Khan often used variants of the phrase: “I am essentially guided in my thinking on this subject by the researches of Winnicott”. This came after his general review of the history and literature of a concept and before he introduced his own “hypotheses”. This gives the impression that Khan's work is intrinsically suffused with, and emanates from, Winnicott's thinking rather than that there are discreet concepts within Khan's thinking which are influenced by Winnicott's thinking and which extend it.

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Chapter Two - Winnicott's Constant Search for the Life that Feels Real

Margaret Boyle Spelman Karnac Books ePub

James William Anderson

Introduction

“He just makes theory out of his own sickness.” According to Masud Khan, that is the dismissive claim Joan Riviere put forth at the conclusion of a public lecture by Donald W. Winnicott (Anderson, 1981d). Such a statement from anyone is objectionable, but coming from Joan Riviere, who had been Winnicott's analyst, it is unspeakable. Yet underneath her pathologising twist, there is an element of truth, in that all psychological theorists rely heavily on their most personal experience in developing their theories (Anderson, 2005). Freud no doubt had a torrid Oedipus complex. Erik Erikson (Coles, 1970, p. 180), originator of the concept of the identity crisis, observed, “If ever an identity crisis was central and long drawn out in somebody's life, it was so in mine”. Henry A. Murray, with much better humour than Riviere, noted once, referring to theories of human development, “They're all autobiographies, every one of them” (Anderson, 1975). In examining Winnicott's life, my main objective is to explore the connection between his life and work. While I make use of the published sources, I also rely heavily on interviews I did in the 1980s with a number of people who knew him, such as Khan and Clare Winnicott, Marion Milner, Margaret Little, and Anna Freud.

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