12 Slices
Medium 9781603449519

Appendix 2. Metric–English System Unit Equivalents

Timothy E. Fulbright Texas A&M University Press ePub
Medium 9781603449519

Appendix 4. Planting Summary for Selected Forages

Timothy E. Fulbright Texas A&M University Press ePub

Appendix 4

Planting Summary for Selected Forages

Sources of Information

The follow planting recommendations for selected plant species were compiled from several sources, including Heath, Metcalfe, and Barnes (1973); Vallentine (1980); Koerth and Kroll (1994); Fulbright (1999a); Redmon, Caddel, and Enis (n.d.); Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Stephenville (http://stephenville.tamu.edu/topics/forages/forage-species/); Natural Resources Conservation Service, Conservation Plant Characteristics (http://plants.usda.gov/); Pogue Agri Partners Web site (www.pogueagri.com); and Turner Seed Company Web site (www.turnerseed.com). Information for individual traits was selected from a single source when recommendations varied among sources; local extension specialists should be consulted for recommendations in specific locations. Many different varieties are available for plants such as hairy vetch, oats, wheat, rye, triticale, cowpeas, and soybeans. Extension specialists or seed dealers should be consulted to determine the variety adapted to the locality where food plots will be planted.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781603449519

Appendix 3. Determining Adequate Sample Sizes

Timothy E. Fulbright Texas A&M University Press ePub

Appendix 3

Determining Adequate Sample Sizes

Sample size can be determined by iteration using the following equation (Zar 1996, 107):

n = (t2 × S2) ÷ d2 = (t × S ÷ d)2

In this equation, n is the estimated sample size; t is Student’s t with n – 1 degrees of freedom for a particular alpha; S is an estimated standard deviation (may be the sample standard deviation of an initial sample); and d is the half width of the desired (1 – alpha) 100 percent confidence interval.

If you are estimating biomass of vegetation and desire to estimate the true population mean with a 95 percent confidence interval no wider than 200 kg/ha, then d in the equation would be 100 kg/ha, and the t-value for α = 0.05 would be used for t. If the objective is to obtain an adequate sample that will detect a 10 percent change in vegetation parameters, such as biomass or cover, from one sampling period to the next, ()2 can be used for d, where x k = 0.10 and is the mean of the presample values (Bonham 1989).

Example: A researcher wants to determine carrying capacity of a ranch for white-tailed deer. The researcher obtains an initial sample consisting of twenty 1 m2 sampling frames in which the standing crop of forbs and browse are clipped, oven dried, and weighed. The mean weight is 1,000 kg/ha, and the sample standard deviation is 800 kg/ha. The researcher desires a 90 percent confidence interval with width of 200 kg/ha to estimate the population mean. The following is the initial equation to obtain an estimate of the adequate sample size:

See All Chapters
Medium 9781603449519

6. The Plow: Food Plots

Timothy E. Fulbright Texas A&M University Press ePub

6

The Plow: Food Plots

KEY CONCEPTS

▼ White-tailed deer are attracted to and may derive nutritional benefits from food plots, particularly in habitats relatively low in forage nutritional value.

▼ Converting good-quality white-tailed deer habitat to cultivated food plots should be avoided.

▼ Planting food plots is not a substitute for proper habitat and population management.

▼ Food plots do not increase carrying capacity of the habitat—they are a supplement to natural vegetation.

▼ The use of food plots in rangelands is restricted by low rainfall and by soils that are unsuited for cultivation.

Role of Food Plots in Deer Management

Planting food plots for white-tailed deer is a popular form of supplemental feeding (fig. 6.1; Koerth and Kroll 1994; Donalty, Henke, and Kerr 2003). In a recent survey of hunting lessees and landowners in South Texas, 56 percent of respondents said they plant some form of food plots (Bryant, Ortega-S., and Synatzske, n.d.), and 41 percent said they planted them in both summer and winter. Twenty-three percent of landowners in Texas who lease hunting rights plant food plots (Adams, Thomas, and Ramsey 1992).

See All Chapters
Medium 9781603449519

7. The Ax, Plow, and Fire: Brush Management for White-Tailed Deer

Timothy E. Fulbright Texas A&M University Press ePub

7

The Ax, Plow, and Fire: Brush Management for White-Tailed Deer

KEY CONCEPTS

▼ Brush management may benefit or harm white-tailed deer habitat; thus, careful planning and understanding of plant and plant community responses to brush control are critical.

▼ Landscapes that have not been mechanically or chemically treated to control brush should remain untreated if quality white-tailed deer habitat is the management goal.

▼ Brush management may improve white-tailed deer habitat by increasing yield of herbaceous vegetation; creating openings for feeding activity; and increasing quality, accessibility, and palatability of browse.

▼ Created openings for feeding areas should be about 8.1 ha in size and should be interspersed within a matrix of woodland or shrubland to provide wooded travel corridors and daytime bedding sites for white-tailed deer.

▼ Stands of tall, dense, diverse brush are important for thermal and hiding cover and should not be subjected to brush management.

Deciding to Apply Brush Management

See All Chapters

See All Slices