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1. PHAROIDEAE L.G. Clark & Judz.

Mary E. Barkworth Utah State University Press ePub

The Pharoideae has one tribe, the Phareae, three genera, and twelve species. It is pantropical. In the Americas, it is represented by one genus, Pharus, that extends from Florida to Uruguay and Argentina. The Pharoideae is a basal lineage of the Poaceae, and the first subfamily in which an adaxial ligule and true spikelets are found.

Pl per; rhz, smt csp or stln; monoecious. Clm ann, 10–300 cm, erect to decumbent; intnd usu solid. Lig scarious, smt ciliolate; psdpet present, twisted, placing the abx surface of the bld upmost; bld linear to oblong, not folding or drooping at night, lat veins diverging obliquely from the midveins, cross venation evident. Infl pan, usu espatheate; ult br with 1–2 pist spklt and 1 tml, stmt spklt; dis beneath the pist flt and in the pan br. Spklt unisx, heteromorphic, usu in stmt-pist pairs on brlets, with 1 flt; rchl not prolonged beyond the flt. Stam spklt pedlt, smaller than the pist spklt, lanceolate to ovate, caducous; glm unequal; lo glm absent or much shorter than the up glm; up glm somewhat shorter than the flt; lod minute or absent; anth 6. Pist spklt sessile or shortly pedlt, terete, smt inflated; glm unequal to subequal, shorter than the flt, scarious, entire, smt persistent; lm chartaceous, becoming coriaceous, veins 5 or more, mrg involute or utriculate, partly or wholly covered with uncinate hairs, not terminating in a brchd awn; pal 2-veined; lod absent; stl 1, 3-brchd. Car oblong to linear; hila as long as the car.

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7. DANTHONIOIDEAE N.P. Barker & H.P. Linder

Mary E. Barkworth Utah State University Press ePub
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2. BAMBUSOIDEAE Luerss.

Mary E. Barkworth Utah State University Press ePub

The Bambusoideae includes two tribes, the woody Bambuseae and the herbaceous Olyreae. Their range includes tropical and temperate regions of Asia, Australia, and the Americas, primarily Central and South America. Three species of Bambuseae are native to the Manual region; there are no native species of Olyreae.

Members of the Bambusoideae grow in temperate and tropical forests, high montane grasslands, along riverbanks, and sometimes in savannahs. They are mainly forest understory or margin plants with a limited ability to reproduce, disperse, or survive outside their forest environment. Many have relatively small geographic ranges, and there is a high degree of endemism. The conservation status of most bamboos is not known; all are intrinsically vulnerable because of their breeding behavior and reliance upon a benign forest habitat. Only the C3 photosynthetic pathway is found in the subfamily.

1. Culms woody, usually taller than 1 m, developing complex vegetative branching from the upper nodes; abaxial ligules present on the foliage leaves, rarely present on the culm leaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Bambuseae

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10. PANICOIDEAE Link

Mary E. Barkworth Utah State University Press ePub
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8. ARISTIDOIDEAE Caro

Mary E. Barkworth Utah State University Press ePub

The subfamily Aristidoideae includes one tribe, the Aristideae.

Pl ann or per; usu csp. Clm ann, erect, solid or hollow, usu unbrchd. Lvs distichous; shth usu open; aur absent; abx lig absent or of hairs; adx lig memb and ciliate or of hairs; bld without psdpet; mesophyll cells radiate or non-radiate; adx palisade layer absent; fusoid cells absent; arm cells absent; Kranz anatomy absent or present, when present, with 1 or 2 parenchyma shth; midribs simple; adx bulliform cells present; stomatal subsidiary cells dome-shaped or triangular; bicellular microhairs present, with long, slender, thin-walled tml cells. Infl tml, not lfy, usu pan, smt spikes or rcm. Spklt bisx, with 1 flt; rchl extension absent; dis above the glm. Glm 2, usu longer than the flt, usu acute or acuminate; flt terete or lat compressed, with well-developed cal; lm 1- or 3-veined, more or less coriaceous, with a germination flap, lm mrg overlapping at maturity and concealing the pal, apc evidently 3-awned; awn bases often forming a column, lat awns occ rdcd or absent; pal less than ½ as long as the lm; lod usu present, 2, free, memb, glab, heavily vascularized; anth 1–3; ov glab; haustorial synergids absent; sty 2, free to the base but close. Car usu fusiform, falling with the lm and pal attached; hila short or long, linear; endosperm hard, without lipid; stch g compound; emb small or large relative to the car; epiblasts absent; scutellar cleft present or absent; mesocotyl intnd elongated; embryonic lf mrg meeting.

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