10 Slices
Medium 9780874216868

1. PHAROIDEAE L.G. Clark & Judz.

Mary E. Barkworth Utah State University Press ePub

The Pharoideae has one tribe, the Phareae, three genera, and twelve species. It is pantropical. In the Americas, it is represented by one genus, Pharus, that extends from Florida to Uruguay and Argentina. The Pharoideae is a basal lineage of the Poaceae, and the first subfamily in which an adaxial ligule and true spikelets are found.

Pl per; rhz, smt csp or stln; monoecious. Clm ann, 10–300 cm, erect to decumbent; intnd usu solid. Lig scarious, smt ciliolate; psdpet present, twisted, placing the abx surface of the bld upmost; bld linear to oblong, not folding or drooping at night, lat veins diverging obliquely from the midveins, cross venation evident. Infl pan, usu espatheate; ult br with 1–2 pist spklt and 1 tml, stmt spklt; dis beneath the pist flt and in the pan br. Spklt unisx, heteromorphic, usu in stmt-pist pairs on brlets, with 1 flt; rchl not prolonged beyond the flt. Stam spklt pedlt, smaller than the pist spklt, lanceolate to ovate, caducous; glm unequal; lo glm absent or much shorter than the up glm; up glm somewhat shorter than the flt; lod minute or absent; anth 6. Pist spklt sessile or shortly pedlt, terete, smt inflated; glm unequal to subequal, shorter than the flt, scarious, entire, smt persistent; lm chartaceous, becoming coriaceous, veins 5 or more, mrg involute or utriculate, partly or wholly covered with uncinate hairs, not terminating in a brchd awn; pal 2-veined; lod absent; stl 1, 3-brchd. Car oblong to linear; hila as long as the car.

See All Chapters
Medium 9780874216868

3. EHRHARTOIDEAE Link

Mary E. Barkworth Utah State University Press ePub

The Ehrhartoideae encompasses three tribes, one of which, the Oryzeae, is native to the Manual region; the Ehrharteae is represented by introduced species. The third tribe, Phyllorachideae C.E. Hubb., is native to Africa and Madagascar. There are approximately 120 species in the Ehrhartoideae. They grow in forests, open hillsides, and aquatic habitats.

Molecular data provide strong support for the close relationship of the Oryzeae and Ehrharteae. Morphologically, they are characterized by spikelets that have a distal unisexual or bisexual floret with up to two proximal sterile florets and, frequently, six stamens in the staminate or bisexual florets.

1. Spikelets with 2 sterile florets below the functional floret, both well-developed, at least the upper sterile floret as long as or longer than the functional floret; glumes from ½ as long as the spikelets to exceeding the florets; culms not aerenchymatous; plants of dry to damp habitats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Ehrharteae

See All Chapters
Medium 9780874216868

6. CHLORIDOIDEAE Kunth ex Beilschm.

Mary E. Barkworth Utah State University Press ePub

The subfamily Chloridoideae is most abundant in dry, tropical and subtropical regions. In the Manual region, it reaches its greatest diversity in the southwestern United States. Almost all its members, and all those in the Manual region, have C4 photosynthesis.

There is considerable disagreement concerning the tribal treatment within the Chloridoideae, the number of tribes recognized varying from two to eight. The treatment presented here is conservative in recognizing the Orcuttieae and Pappophoreae as distinct tribes. It departs from most other treatments in merging all other North American taxa into a single tribe, the Cynodonteae.

1. Leaves with little or no distinction between the sheath and blade; ligules not present; plants annual, viscid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. Orcuttieae

1. Leaves clearly differentiated into sheath and blade; ligules present; plants annual or perennial, not viscid.

See All Chapters
Medium 9780874216868

10. PANICOIDEAE Link

Mary E. Barkworth Utah State University Press ePub
Medium 9780874216868

2. BAMBUSOIDEAE Luerss.

Mary E. Barkworth Utah State University Press ePub

The Bambusoideae includes two tribes, the woody Bambuseae and the herbaceous Olyreae. Their range includes tropical and temperate regions of Asia, Australia, and the Americas, primarily Central and South America. Three species of Bambuseae are native to the Manual region; there are no native species of Olyreae.

Members of the Bambusoideae grow in temperate and tropical forests, high montane grasslands, along riverbanks, and sometimes in savannahs. They are mainly forest understory or margin plants with a limited ability to reproduce, disperse, or survive outside their forest environment. Many have relatively small geographic ranges, and there is a high degree of endemism. The conservation status of most bamboos is not known; all are intrinsically vulnerable because of their breeding behavior and reliance upon a benign forest habitat. Only the C3 photosynthetic pathway is found in the subfamily.

1. Culms woody, usually taller than 1 m, developing complex vegetative branching from the upper nodes; abaxial ligules present on the foliage leaves, rarely present on the culm leaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Bambuseae

See All Chapters

See All Slices