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5. ARUNDINOIDEAE Burmeist.

Mary E. Barkworth Utah State University Press ePub

The Arundinoideae are interpreted here as including one tribe, the Arundineae.

Pl usu per; csp or not, smt rhz, smt stln. Clm 15–1000 cm, ann, hrb to somewhat wd, intnd usu hollow. Lvs usu mostly cauline, often conspicuously distichous; shth usu open; aur usu absent; abx lig usu absent (of hairs in Hakonechloa); adx lig memb or of hairs, if memb, often ciliate; bld without psdpet, smt deciduous at maturity; mesophyll usu non-radiate (radiate in Arundo); adx palisade layer absent; fusoid cells absent; arm cells usu absent (present in Phragmites); Kranz anatomy absent; midribs simple; adx bulliform cells present; stomatal subsidiary cells low dome-shaped or triangular; bicellular microhairs usu present, usu with long, narrow tml cells; papillae usu absent. Infl usu tml, ebracteate, usu pan, occ spicate or rcm. Spklt lat compressed, with 1–several bisx flt or all flt unisx and the species dioecious; flt 1–several, terete or lat compressed, distal flt often rdcd; dis above the glm. Glm 2, from shorter than the adjacent lm to exceeding the distal flt; lm (3)5–7-veined, lanceolate to elliptic, acute to acuminate, smt awned; awns 1 or 3, if 3 not fused into a single bas column; pal subequal to the lm; lod 2, usu free, occ joined at the base, fleshy, usu glab, not, scarcely, or heavily vascularized; anth (1)2–3; ov glab; sty 2, usu free, bases close together. Car usu punctate (long-linear in Molinia); endosperm hard, without lipid; starch grains compound; haustorial synergids absent; emb usu large compared to the car, waisted or not; epiblasts absent; scutellar cleft present; mesocotyl intnd elongate; emb lf mrg usu meeting (overlapping in Hakonechloa).

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10. PANICOIDEAE Link

Mary E. Barkworth Utah State University Press ePub
Medium 9780874216868

4. POÖIDEAE Benth.

Mary E. Barkworth Utah State University Press ePub

The subfamily Poöideae includes approximately 3300 species, making it the largest subfamily in the Poaceae. It reaches its greatest diversity in cool temperate and boreal regions, extending across the tropics only in high mountains.

1. Inflorescences 1-sided spikes, the spikelets radial to and partially embedded in the rachises; spikelets with 1 floret each . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. Nardeae

1. Inflorescences panicles, racemes, or 2-sided spikes with spikelets radial or tangential to the rachises, sometimes embedded in the axes, never both radial and embedded; spikelets with 1–30 florets.

2. Cauline leaf sheaths closed for at least ¾ their length; lemmas longer than (4.5)6.5 mm or awned or with prominent, parallel veins.

3. Ovary apices glabrous; styles fused at the base, divergent, naked on the lower portion, plumose distally; lemmas often with a purplish band in the distal ½, usually unawned; distal 1–3 florets often reduced to lemmas, the lower 1–2 lemmas often enclosing the terminal lemmas; lodicules about 0.2–0.5 mm long, truncate, fleshy, without a distal membranous portion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. Meliceae

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3. EHRHARTOIDEAE Link

Mary E. Barkworth Utah State University Press ePub

The Ehrhartoideae encompasses three tribes, one of which, the Oryzeae, is native to the Manual region; the Ehrharteae is represented by introduced species. The third tribe, Phyllorachideae C.E. Hubb., is native to Africa and Madagascar. There are approximately 120 species in the Ehrhartoideae. They grow in forests, open hillsides, and aquatic habitats.

Molecular data provide strong support for the close relationship of the Oryzeae and Ehrharteae. Morphologically, they are characterized by spikelets that have a distal unisexual or bisexual floret with up to two proximal sterile florets and, frequently, six stamens in the staminate or bisexual florets.

1. Spikelets with 2 sterile florets below the functional floret, both well-developed, at least the upper sterile floret as long as or longer than the functional floret; glumes from ½ as long as the spikelets to exceeding the florets; culms not aerenchymatous; plants of dry to damp habitats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Ehrharteae

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6. CHLORIDOIDEAE Kunth ex Beilschm.

Mary E. Barkworth Utah State University Press ePub

The subfamily Chloridoideae is most abundant in dry, tropical and subtropical regions. In the Manual region, it reaches its greatest diversity in the southwestern United States. Almost all its members, and all those in the Manual region, have C4 photosynthesis.

There is considerable disagreement concerning the tribal treatment within the Chloridoideae, the number of tribes recognized varying from two to eight. The treatment presented here is conservative in recognizing the Orcuttieae and Pappophoreae as distinct tribes. It departs from most other treatments in merging all other North American taxa into a single tribe, the Cynodonteae.

1. Leaves with little or no distinction between the sheath and blade; ligules not present; plants annual, viscid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. Orcuttieae

1. Leaves clearly differentiated into sheath and blade; ligules present; plants annual or perennial, not viscid.

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