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9. CENTOTHECOIDEAE Soderstr.

Mary E. Barkworth Utah State University Press ePub

The subfamily Centothecoideae is one of the subfamilies that cannot be characterized by a suite of morphological characteristics, but anatomical, micromorphological, and nucleic acid data all support its recognition. It is most abundant in warm-temperate woodlands and tropical forests.

1. Spikelets 4–50 mm long, with 1–15 florets, the lowest florets sometimes sterile, the upper florets bisexual; disarticulation at the base of the florets or the base of the spikelets; leaves not pseudopetiolate; culms 35–150 cm tall; plants not reedlike . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. Centotheceae

1. Spikelets 1.2–1.8 mm long, with 2(3–4) florets, the lower florets sterile, the upper florets bisexual; disarticulation at the pedicel bases, subsequently below the spikelets; leaves pseudopetiolate; culms 150–400 cm tall; plants reedlike . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. Thysanolaeneae

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1. PHAROIDEAE L.G. Clark & Judz.

Mary E. Barkworth Utah State University Press ePub

The Pharoideae has one tribe, the Phareae, three genera, and twelve species. It is pantropical. In the Americas, it is represented by one genus, Pharus, that extends from Florida to Uruguay and Argentina. The Pharoideae is a basal lineage of the Poaceae, and the first subfamily in which an adaxial ligule and true spikelets are found.

Pl per; rhz, smt csp or stln; monoecious. Clm ann, 10–300 cm, erect to decumbent; intnd usu solid. Lig scarious, smt ciliolate; psdpet present, twisted, placing the abx surface of the bld upmost; bld linear to oblong, not folding or drooping at night, lat veins diverging obliquely from the midveins, cross venation evident. Infl pan, usu espatheate; ult br with 1–2 pist spklt and 1 tml, stmt spklt; dis beneath the pist flt and in the pan br. Spklt unisx, heteromorphic, usu in stmt-pist pairs on brlets, with 1 flt; rchl not prolonged beyond the flt. Stam spklt pedlt, smaller than the pist spklt, lanceolate to ovate, caducous; glm unequal; lo glm absent or much shorter than the up glm; up glm somewhat shorter than the flt; lod minute or absent; anth 6. Pist spklt sessile or shortly pedlt, terete, smt inflated; glm unequal to subequal, shorter than the flt, scarious, entire, smt persistent; lm chartaceous, becoming coriaceous, veins 5 or more, mrg involute or utriculate, partly or wholly covered with uncinate hairs, not terminating in a brchd awn; pal 2-veined; lod absent; stl 1, 3-brchd. Car oblong to linear; hila as long as the car.

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3. EHRHARTOIDEAE Link

Mary E. Barkworth Utah State University Press ePub

The Ehrhartoideae encompasses three tribes, one of which, the Oryzeae, is native to the Manual region; the Ehrharteae is represented by introduced species. The third tribe, Phyllorachideae C.E. Hubb., is native to Africa and Madagascar. There are approximately 120 species in the Ehrhartoideae. They grow in forests, open hillsides, and aquatic habitats.

Molecular data provide strong support for the close relationship of the Oryzeae and Ehrharteae. Morphologically, they are characterized by spikelets that have a distal unisexual or bisexual floret with up to two proximal sterile florets and, frequently, six stamens in the staminate or bisexual florets.

1. Spikelets with 2 sterile florets below the functional floret, both well-developed, at least the upper sterile floret as long as or longer than the functional floret; glumes from ½ as long as the spikelets to exceeding the florets; culms not aerenchymatous; plants of dry to damp habitats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Ehrharteae

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7. DANTHONIOIDEAE N.P. Barker & H.P. Linder

Mary E. Barkworth Utah State University Press ePub
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4. POÖIDEAE Benth.

Mary E. Barkworth Utah State University Press ePub

The subfamily Poöideae includes approximately 3300 species, making it the largest subfamily in the Poaceae. It reaches its greatest diversity in cool temperate and boreal regions, extending across the tropics only in high mountains.

1. Inflorescences 1-sided spikes, the spikelets radial to and partially embedded in the rachises; spikelets with 1 floret each . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. Nardeae

1. Inflorescences panicles, racemes, or 2-sided spikes with spikelets radial or tangential to the rachises, sometimes embedded in the axes, never both radial and embedded; spikelets with 1–30 florets.

2. Cauline leaf sheaths closed for at least ¾ their length; lemmas longer than (4.5)6.5 mm or awned or with prominent, parallel veins.

3. Ovary apices glabrous; styles fused at the base, divergent, naked on the lower portion, plumose distally; lemmas often with a purplish band in the distal ½, usually unawned; distal 1–3 florets often reduced to lemmas, the lower 1–2 lemmas often enclosing the terminal lemmas; lodicules about 0.2–0.5 mm long, truncate, fleshy, without a distal membranous portion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. Meliceae

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