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Chapter Two

Angelo Villa Karnac Books ePub

CHAPTER TWO

Monica is not Katia. Her syndrome is different. It was caused by some mental damage which was noticed right after she was born. Her parents got into a crisis and the discovery of their daughter's handicap brought them to the brink of separation. What was it that kept them together? And most of all, how? When I talked to Monica's brothers, all of them grown-ups with children of their own, I managed to reconstruct the development of an intense and mostly unvoiced tension, of a grudge that both parents had borne all their lives. Monica was the last of three children, the first two being “normal”. Probably she just happened to be like that, as people usually say under these circumstances—to not acknowledge the subtle implications that bind desire to sexuality in the acting outs that evade the control of consciousness. Her mother and father had been elderly. They would have accepted her no matter how she was: they were both very religious and she was seen as a gift from God. Or, maybe, from some kind of chance they would never dare to question. She had two older brothers. She was going to be cuddled by the whole family, to be their baby, their doll. Who would not compete to take care of her, to be with her, to pamper her? But her handicap ruined it all, it destroyed all illusions. Like a stone violently thrown against a lavishly decorated Christmas shop window.

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Chapter Five

Angelo Villa Karnac Books ePub

CHAPTER FIVE

T he attention we have tried to pay to the differences within the pathology of disability now brings us to reflect on the clinical cases that appear more enigmatic and, in certain aspects, more difficult to manage. In particular, we are referring to the cases where unease and subjective inadequacy end up manifesting themselves as autism or psychosis. For the sake of precision, we must add that in the latter case we are talking about a particularly severe psychosis that has been developing since the subject's childhood and which has decisively invalidated their relational attitude, their ability to act autonomously or to perform relatively basic tasks without any external help. Both autism and psychosis, when their pathological level is so severe, highlight the core of the subject's trouble. In most cases, the adhesiveness of certain manners related to other handicaps is replaced by a totally opposed behaviour. The subject can neither “see” themselves as they are reflected in the mirror, nor get lost in other people's images. They often seem lost, distant, sucked away by an otherness they themselves are unable to reach. They are insensitive to the grip of everyday life, even in its most trivial implications. Françoise Dolto describes them as a Martian in their own household. Oliver Sacks, a clever and curious neurologist, expresses more or less the same opinion.

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Chapter Six

Angelo Villa Karnac Books ePub

CHAPTER SIX

The “normal” person's attention and interlocution are the conditions for the acknowledgment of the moments when the disabled person's creative act occurs. They are crucial both in perceiving and recognising the specific value of such acts, and in preventing those acts, which on certain occasions, manifest themselves as the subject's invention, from being reduced to mere stereotype, to expected, mechanical behaviour which makes the disabled person appear an eccentric, a caricature of herself. So, what can be acknowledged as a creative act in situations which involve severe handicap?

From a temporal point of view, we could, in some way, define it as an unforeseen, unusual act, living on the contingency it supports: a happy, extemporaneous intuition.

From the point of view of its origin, it can be an act stemming from an implicit thought that has not been saturated by the sick Other or by the requests of others or by parasitical dependency on other people's imagination. The creative act is the true proof of a subjectivity that resists the devastation of handicap and of everything that is associated with it. It determines difference; it creates, albeit just for an instant, the flash of a difference which is almost imperceptible but, at the same time, irreducible to what alienates the subject in a mortiferous, passivising way.

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Chapter Four

Angelo Villa Karnac Books ePub

CHAPTER FOUR

The attention we have paid to the topic of intelligence now enables us to introduce another, strongly connected, topic. In fact, if we consider intelligence in its relationship with the manifestations that disability sometimes sensationally underscores, it consequently becomes practically impossible to seperate it out from the more complex issue of the handicapped person's subjectivity. The seriousness of the intellectual impairment ends up heavily conditioning it, for it indelibly marks both its content and its forms of expression. The “normal” person's impulse to hurriedly close the circle is strong, and sometimes cannot be restrained, as if it were a matter of simply registering an equation. The minus in their intelligence refers to, or, more banally, redoubles in, a minus in subjectivity. The former refers to the latter, and vice versa.

However, if the connection between intelligence and subjectivity appears, especially on certain levels, to be undeniable, it is, in my view, quite risky to confuse intelligence with subjectivity. The seriousness of handicap certainly forces us to preserve differences and to cultivate distinctions in order to contrast the homologating devastation that the sick Other forces onto the handicapped person. Far from looking like the signs of a speculation that is actually an end in itself, they look more like traces of the fact that it is possible to maintain concern for the very issue of the disabled person; the return of an attention that forces “normal” people to constantly think of others as being related to their own alterity.

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Chapter Three

Angelo Villa Karnac Books ePub

CHAPTER THREE

An institution is an institution: the term must always be thought of in the singular. Every institution is specific, and different from any other. This is also true of its history, the people who work within it, its task, its atmosphere, and so on. At least in this case it is obvious that, as Minkowski pointed out, a hundred mad people do not form a society, so a hundred disabled people will not form an institution. An institution in the broadest meaning of the word will be formed by the “normal”. “Normal” people organise it, structure it, decide how it is going to work.

Socio-sanitary institutions can be defined according to two essential paradigms. The first concerns space. This kind of institution usually ends up being equated to the place it occupies, as if its function were embodied by the space it is expressed in. Its activity is mostly of a sedentary, custodian-like nature. The care of the patients attending it does not really consist in proper therapy. The second paradigm is that of time. This kind of institution legitimates its existence in terms of time-based practices, both on a psychological and on a strictly therapeutic level. Time provides meaning to the institution itself: this is a place the subject enters in order to get out of it—sooner or later. The subject does not stay there, as happens with the first type.

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