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3. Individuation and the personality of the analyst

Kenneth Lambert Karnac Books ePub

A study of the process of analysis, repair and individuation will almost inevitably focus, as a matter of prime importance, upon a consideration of the quality and function of the analyst’s personality. In history, his forebears are the doctor and the priest, whose actions and personality-functions are defined, for instance, in two classical documents respectively: the Hippocratic Oath and St Paul’s concept of agape. For centuries, this kind of work has been understood to depend upon a certain specificity of personal relationship entered into by the doctor with his patient and the priest with those under his care. That the work is full of possible pitfalls and draws upon profound levels of emotion, being (ontos), and outlook is illustrated by the stringency of requirement and the severity of prohibition imposed by the documents in question. Indeed, any disregard or flouting of them is said to render the work worthless and nugatory, whatever the skill or knowledge involved. Furthermore, the naive public shock aroused by the possible misuse of medical or pastoral power suggests deeply rooted attitudes based upon long-term, and often repeated, experiences of what works best in this field.

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8. Dreams and dreaming

Kenneth Lambert Karnac Books ePub

No book on analysis, repair and individuation can avoid a consideration of the way in which analysts can use their patients’ communication to them of their dreams and dreaming to increase their understanding of the dynamic process involved. They will be told dreams whether they ask for them or not, although the patients’ motives for telling them are likely to be extremely varied. Indeed, considerable advances in the understanding of dreaming and the use made of it in their patients’ communications are being made by analysts of all schools. Furthermore, outside the field of analysis, light is being shed by the sleep laboratory experimenters and by brain neurophysiologists on the nature and purpose of dreams and their possible function in the maintenance of psychological health, whether interpreted or not.

This chapter will sketch out changes in psychoanalytic thought about dreams and then try to bring out whatever seems relevant to analysts from the two sets of experimenters already mentioned. It will then describe the contribution of classical analytical psychology to the subject and show how more recent analytical psychology has modified and reslanted its earlier views and reconsidered ways of making use of dreams and dreaming in the analytical interpretation of their patients’ situation. Two case-histories are presented to illustrate these new developments.

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4. Resistance and counter-resistance

Kenneth Lambert Karnac Books ePub

We have considered some of the qualities of the analyst’s personality that make for successful treatment and suggested what his function mainly is. It seems appropriate now to investigate aspects of the patient’s response, and in this chapter I shall first of all examine this response in terms of the meaning, mode and indeed therapeutic function of his resistance. Equal in significance, though not always recognized as such, are both resistance and counter-resistance phenomena on the part of the analyst.

I therefore propose to cover the following topics in this chapter, In Part One I shall sketch out topics like the paradox and problematic aspects of resistance, together with an etymological note. I shall then trace the history of the concept both in psychoanalysis and in analytical psychology. In Part Two I shall try to cover a number of topics subsumed under the notion of the patient’s resistance to involvement in anything like a personal response to his analyst as a person. This will be considered in terms of primary and secondary resistance and will include a study of envy of the analyst, fear of penetration by and fear of damage by the analyst, together with a note on the therapeutic failure to resolve resistance. In Part Three, I shall describe the phenomenon of resistance on the part of the analyst, to be discussed under five headings: non-neurotic resistance, neurotic resistance, reactive counter-resistance, complementary counter-resistance, and concordant counter-resistance. I shall conclude the chapter by attempting to compress into a short statement the story of the vicissitudes, even revolutions, that have occurred in the history of the struggle of both analysts and patients with the challenging phenomena of resistance and counter-resistance. In doing this I hope that the connection between this subject and that of individuation will be clearly shown.

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2. Personal psychology and the choice of analytic school

Kenneth Lambert Karnac Books ePub

My reference to imagination has made me think that, in view of the very personal and individual aspects of analytical psychology, I should acknowledge the personal aspect of my interest, first, in analytical psychology and then, later, in the marriage of Jungian analysis with the disciplines arising out of psychoanalysis. It is traditionally thought that the language of imagination, phantasy and imagery was particularly meaningful to the early analytical psychologists by contrast with the more intellectualistic if not rationalistic style of the early psychoanalysts. I think this probably appealed to me when I was young. Being Anglo-Irish I was torn unknowingly by some such dichotomy both from within and, to an extent, from the environment. The latter was an English one, in which I was exposed to a fairly traditional mode of education, attitude and manners.

That attitude has sometimes been designated as dominated by extraverted sensation-thinking and not very imaginative. It has been, probably wrongly, used by some critics to explain the special slants of the Society of Analytical Psychology in England. Of course, such issues are always open to generalization and to becoming stereotyped. I well remember an interesting example of it when, in 1950, I was able, as a nervous young man, to spend some hours in conversation with Jung, who incidentally used a good deal of imaginative imagery in his conversation. He asked me my nationality. I replied that I was Anglo-Irish. He seized on the Irish side and exclaimed “Ah! Irish. That is good. The Irish, they have the imagination. You will make an analyst!” I hardly knew my reactions at that time. I was respectful. I naturally half liked what he said and yet felt slightly guilty and affronted. However, it was in fact true that I had always felt, both throughout my education in England and in the company of my wellliked English relations, slightly in collision with what I probably wrongly understood as their practical common-sense approach to life, the correctness of their behaviour and perhaps, above all, as it so happened, their somewhat puritan and evangelical views. The puritanism was felt by me, at that time, to impose a cramp upon imaginative religious and moral experiences, while the common sense, with its successful aim-directed activity, recommended to me as it was in my education, was something I to some extent admired and yet could not quite emulate. Those positive virtues seemed to me, wrongly as I now think, to have become unconsciously entangled with fear and distrust of spontaneity, imagination and humour, for which latter capacity I managed to get into trouble at school sufficiently often to end up quite inhibited. I now think that my Irish mother suffered in the same way, through not quite understanding the English people she lived with.

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1. Individuation and the mutual influence of psychoanalysis and analytical psychology

Kenneth Lambert Karnac Books ePub

I have written this book as one of the first trainees of the Society of Analytical Psychology, having become an Associate Professional Member in 1950. For me, membership of that society, together with participation for over thirty years in the general analytical scene in London, has provided sustained stimulus and support. In addition, I have enjoyed, from its beginning in 1964, membership of the Freud-Jung group, convened by Dr William Kraemer in London, where analytical psychologists and psychoanalysts meet regularly to discuss clinical problems. The whole period has been one in which considerable advances have been made towards finding ways of integrating the two main strands of analytical theory and practice, which had, earlier, during the second to fourth decades of this century, developed either in isolation from or very much in polar opposition to each other. The division into opposite camps afforded, in the earlier years, breathing space wherein each could grow and develop from within. Later on, however, what with the pressure of patients’ needs on the one hand and natural curiosity on the other, analysts could be found peeping into each other’s gardens—rather more obviously in the case of the London Jungians, rather more quietly, and more by private admission, on the part of the Freudians.

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