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9. The individuation process

Kenneth Lambert Karnac Books ePub

The title of this book suggests the view that individuation, considered as process or end-product, is, for all its spontaneity, by no means free from hazard and potential damage. Furthermore, Jung’s descriptions of it are not without complications and unsolved questions. Thus, while most analysts tend to find their patients to be very individual people, unusual indeed, perhaps complicated, even outstanding, in ways that are striking or quiet or deeply hidden, this does not mean that they are necessarily thereby individuated in Jung’s sense of the term.

Jung’s concept is a wide one and it can be conveniently considered under three main topics: the differentiation of the individual from the collective, the relationship of the individual to the collective, and the nature and conditions of the development of individuation as such.

First, Jung focuses on individuation as the process of forming and specializing the individual nature in a way that differentiates it from general collective psychology. This process he describes as a “natural necessity”, but open to damage as much in the sphere of the psychological as of the physical or physiological. Because this individual aspect is not specially sought but has its a priori foundations in the psyche, he uses strong language about any frustrations it may encounter. Any levelling down to collective standards, he writes, can be “injurious to the vital activity of the individual” and “an artificial stunting” (Jung, 1921, p.448). On the other hand, although the collective may sometimes seem to pose a threat to the individual, the latter is much more concerned to differentiate from it rather than to oppose it—perhaps an optimistically stated aim when considered in the light of subsequent events in Europe.

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1. Individuation and the mutual influence of psychoanalysis and analytical psychology

Kenneth Lambert Karnac Books ePub

I have written this book as one of the first trainees of the Society of Analytical Psychology, having become an Associate Professional Member in 1950. For me, membership of that society, together with participation for over thirty years in the general analytical scene in London, has provided sustained stimulus and support. In addition, I have enjoyed, from its beginning in 1964, membership of the Freud-Jung group, convened by Dr William Kraemer in London, where analytical psychologists and psychoanalysts meet regularly to discuss clinical problems. The whole period has been one in which considerable advances have been made towards finding ways of integrating the two main strands of analytical theory and practice, which had, earlier, during the second to fourth decades of this century, developed either in isolation from or very much in polar opposition to each other. The division into opposite camps afforded, in the earlier years, breathing space wherein each could grow and develop from within. Later on, however, what with the pressure of patients’ needs on the one hand and natural curiosity on the other, analysts could be found peeping into each other’s gardens—rather more obviously in the case of the London Jungians, rather more quietly, and more by private admission, on the part of the Freudians.

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4. Resistance and counter-resistance

Kenneth Lambert Karnac Books ePub

We have considered some of the qualities of the analyst’s personality that make for successful treatment and suggested what his function mainly is. It seems appropriate now to investigate aspects of the patient’s response, and in this chapter I shall first of all examine this response in terms of the meaning, mode and indeed therapeutic function of his resistance. Equal in significance, though not always recognized as such, are both resistance and counter-resistance phenomena on the part of the analyst.

I therefore propose to cover the following topics in this chapter, In Part One I shall sketch out topics like the paradox and problematic aspects of resistance, together with an etymological note. I shall then trace the history of the concept both in psychoanalysis and in analytical psychology. In Part Two I shall try to cover a number of topics subsumed under the notion of the patient’s resistance to involvement in anything like a personal response to his analyst as a person. This will be considered in terms of primary and secondary resistance and will include a study of envy of the analyst, fear of penetration by and fear of damage by the analyst, together with a note on the therapeutic failure to resolve resistance. In Part Three, I shall describe the phenomenon of resistance on the part of the analyst, to be discussed under five headings: non-neurotic resistance, neurotic resistance, reactive counter-resistance, complementary counter-resistance, and concordant counter-resistance. I shall conclude the chapter by attempting to compress into a short statement the story of the vicissitudes, even revolutions, that have occurred in the history of the struggle of both analysts and patients with the challenging phenomena of resistance and counter-resistance. In doing this I hope that the connection between this subject and that of individuation will be clearly shown.

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8. Dreams and dreaming

Kenneth Lambert Karnac Books ePub

No book on analysis, repair and individuation can avoid a consideration of the way in which analysts can use their patients’ communication to them of their dreams and dreaming to increase their understanding of the dynamic process involved. They will be told dreams whether they ask for them or not, although the patients’ motives for telling them are likely to be extremely varied. Indeed, considerable advances in the understanding of dreaming and the use made of it in their patients’ communications are being made by analysts of all schools. Furthermore, outside the field of analysis, light is being shed by the sleep laboratory experimenters and by brain neurophysiologists on the nature and purpose of dreams and their possible function in the maintenance of psychological health, whether interpreted or not.

This chapter will sketch out changes in psychoanalytic thought about dreams and then try to bring out whatever seems relevant to analysts from the two sets of experimenters already mentioned. It will then describe the contribution of classical analytical psychology to the subject and show how more recent analytical psychology has modified and reslanted its earlier views and reconsidered ways of making use of dreams and dreaming in the analytical interpretation of their patients’ situation. Two case-histories are presented to illustrate these new developments.

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7. Transference, counter-transference and interpersonal relations

Kenneth Lambert Karnac Books ePub

It is a commonplace today to emphasize the importance of the patient-therapist relationship whether in the realm of medicine or that of the social worker. It is a field in which problems abound, especially in psychotherapy, which, however, is happily and unusually well-advantaged for their observation and study. Some of them are as follows:

(1) The problem of being able to interact with and trust a stranger over the intimate difficulties and sufferings of the psyche in the long term—not that, for some people, enlightening introductions to their psychology may not be effected in a once-only meeting with a stranger. To achieve greater depth, however, the normal problems of unfamiliarity with new persons demand recognition and attention. Neurosis or psychosis apart, these resolve themselves in time into a positive and/or negative attitude as knowledge of and about the new person is acquired.

(2) The problem of distortions of perception, if not indeed of illusion and delusion, which can extend far beyond the normal problems of unfamiliarity and do interfere with the relationship potential that arises between patient and therapist as they seek to experience each other as real persons.

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