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6. Reconstruction

Kenneth Lambert Karnac Books ePub

My description of the basic elements involved in the process of analysis, repair and individuation has so far sketched out topics such as the personality of the analyst, some responses of the patient and particularly those connected with resistance and counter-resistance, and the establishment by the patient of object relationships and internal objects and the dependence of this upon the presence of the therapist under the special conditions of the therapeutic set-up.

Sound object relating, however, involves an appropriate feeling and cognitive response on the part of the subject to the reality of the object in the here and now and at this particular moment of time rather than to an over-subjectivized image of it that has been heavily influenced by the experiences of the past. Such a relatively simple-sounding phrase covers a multitude of analytic problems such as: (1) the tendency of the patient to respond to present situations with a degree of emotional intensity that is grossly and exaggeratedly inappropriate by any objective standard of judgement; (2) a distorted and one-sided characterological development, fixated at some earlier point in his history, and crippling the patient’s handling of the day-to-day problems of adult life; (3) difficulties about living in an appropriate span of “present time”. A patient may be “frightened out of his life” by traumatic experiences in the past and “overwhelmed by anticipatory fears of horror” in the future. As a result he cannot live in the present either. There is little libido available for a real experience of the living moment in a continuum comprised of the immediate past, the present and the proximate future. The experience of time for him loses significance, datability, expansiveness and its public character (Boss, 1979). The result is a hold-up of the growth that arises out of the past or might be inaugurated in the present.

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2. Personal psychology and the choice of analytic school

Kenneth Lambert Karnac Books ePub

My reference to imagination has made me think that, in view of the very personal and individual aspects of analytical psychology, I should acknowledge the personal aspect of my interest, first, in analytical psychology and then, later, in the marriage of Jungian analysis with the disciplines arising out of psychoanalysis. It is traditionally thought that the language of imagination, phantasy and imagery was particularly meaningful to the early analytical psychologists by contrast with the more intellectualistic if not rationalistic style of the early psychoanalysts. I think this probably appealed to me when I was young. Being Anglo-Irish I was torn unknowingly by some such dichotomy both from within and, to an extent, from the environment. The latter was an English one, in which I was exposed to a fairly traditional mode of education, attitude and manners.

That attitude has sometimes been designated as dominated by extraverted sensation-thinking and not very imaginative. It has been, probably wrongly, used by some critics to explain the special slants of the Society of Analytical Psychology in England. Of course, such issues are always open to generalization and to becoming stereotyped. I well remember an interesting example of it when, in 1950, I was able, as a nervous young man, to spend some hours in conversation with Jung, who incidentally used a good deal of imaginative imagery in his conversation. He asked me my nationality. I replied that I was Anglo-Irish. He seized on the Irish side and exclaimed “Ah! Irish. That is good. The Irish, they have the imagination. You will make an analyst!” I hardly knew my reactions at that time. I was respectful. I naturally half liked what he said and yet felt slightly guilty and affronted. However, it was in fact true that I had always felt, both throughout my education in England and in the company of my wellliked English relations, slightly in collision with what I probably wrongly understood as their practical common-sense approach to life, the correctness of their behaviour and perhaps, above all, as it so happened, their somewhat puritan and evangelical views. The puritanism was felt by me, at that time, to impose a cramp upon imaginative religious and moral experiences, while the common sense, with its successful aim-directed activity, recommended to me as it was in my education, was something I to some extent admired and yet could not quite emulate. Those positive virtues seemed to me, wrongly as I now think, to have become unconsciously entangled with fear and distrust of spontaneity, imagination and humour, for which latter capacity I managed to get into trouble at school sufficiently often to end up quite inhibited. I now think that my Irish mother suffered in the same way, through not quite understanding the English people she lived with.

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9. The individuation process

Kenneth Lambert Karnac Books ePub

The title of this book suggests the view that individuation, considered as process or end-product, is, for all its spontaneity, by no means free from hazard and potential damage. Furthermore, Jung’s descriptions of it are not without complications and unsolved questions. Thus, while most analysts tend to find their patients to be very individual people, unusual indeed, perhaps complicated, even outstanding, in ways that are striking or quiet or deeply hidden, this does not mean that they are necessarily thereby individuated in Jung’s sense of the term.

Jung’s concept is a wide one and it can be conveniently considered under three main topics: the differentiation of the individual from the collective, the relationship of the individual to the collective, and the nature and conditions of the development of individuation as such.

First, Jung focuses on individuation as the process of forming and specializing the individual nature in a way that differentiates it from general collective psychology. This process he describes as a “natural necessity”, but open to damage as much in the sphere of the psychological as of the physical or physiological. Because this individual aspect is not specially sought but has its a priori foundations in the psyche, he uses strong language about any frustrations it may encounter. Any levelling down to collective standards, he writes, can be “injurious to the vital activity of the individual” and “an artificial stunting” (Jung, 1921, p.448). On the other hand, although the collective may sometimes seem to pose a threat to the individual, the latter is much more concerned to differentiate from it rather than to oppose it—perhaps an optimistically stated aim when considered in the light of subsequent events in Europe.

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1. Individuation and the mutual influence of psychoanalysis and analytical psychology

Kenneth Lambert Karnac Books ePub

I have written this book as one of the first trainees of the Society of Analytical Psychology, having become an Associate Professional Member in 1950. For me, membership of that society, together with participation for over thirty years in the general analytical scene in London, has provided sustained stimulus and support. In addition, I have enjoyed, from its beginning in 1964, membership of the Freud-Jung group, convened by Dr William Kraemer in London, where analytical psychologists and psychoanalysts meet regularly to discuss clinical problems. The whole period has been one in which considerable advances have been made towards finding ways of integrating the two main strands of analytical theory and practice, which had, earlier, during the second to fourth decades of this century, developed either in isolation from or very much in polar opposition to each other. The division into opposite camps afforded, in the earlier years, breathing space wherein each could grow and develop from within. Later on, however, what with the pressure of patients’ needs on the one hand and natural curiosity on the other, analysts could be found peeping into each other’s gardens—rather more obviously in the case of the London Jungians, rather more quietly, and more by private admission, on the part of the Freudians.

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4. Resistance and counter-resistance

Kenneth Lambert Karnac Books ePub

We have considered some of the qualities of the analyst’s personality that make for successful treatment and suggested what his function mainly is. It seems appropriate now to investigate aspects of the patient’s response, and in this chapter I shall first of all examine this response in terms of the meaning, mode and indeed therapeutic function of his resistance. Equal in significance, though not always recognized as such, are both resistance and counter-resistance phenomena on the part of the analyst.

I therefore propose to cover the following topics in this chapter, In Part One I shall sketch out topics like the paradox and problematic aspects of resistance, together with an etymological note. I shall then trace the history of the concept both in psychoanalysis and in analytical psychology. In Part Two I shall try to cover a number of topics subsumed under the notion of the patient’s resistance to involvement in anything like a personal response to his analyst as a person. This will be considered in terms of primary and secondary resistance and will include a study of envy of the analyst, fear of penetration by and fear of damage by the analyst, together with a note on the therapeutic failure to resolve resistance. In Part Three, I shall describe the phenomenon of resistance on the part of the analyst, to be discussed under five headings: non-neurotic resistance, neurotic resistance, reactive counter-resistance, complementary counter-resistance, and concordant counter-resistance. I shall conclude the chapter by attempting to compress into a short statement the story of the vicissitudes, even revolutions, that have occurred in the history of the struggle of both analysts and patients with the challenging phenomena of resistance and counter-resistance. In doing this I hope that the connection between this subject and that of individuation will be clearly shown.

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