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Chapter 3 Self-Actualization

Robert J. Marzano Marzano Research ePub

Self-actualization involves the pursuit of personally relevant goals. In this chapter, we address the following five aspects of self-actualization: (1) an understanding of self-actualization, (2) mental dispositions, (3) the growth mindset, (4) possible selves, and (5) personal goal setting.

The concept of self-actualization can be intimidating to students who are unfamiliar with the term. Teachers can initially introduce students to self-actualization by providing them with clear definitions; however, definitions can and should differ based on students’ ages. For example, with younger students, teachers might describe self-actualization as the act of deciding to do something and then doing it. In contrast, teachers of older students might define it as the identification and pursuit of goals that are personally beneficial and relevant to an individual. Once students become familiar with the concept, teachers can ask students to generate their own definitions. Teachers can also use specific characteristics of self-actualization to further deepen students’ understanding of the concept. Here, we discuss traits of self-actualization and peak experiences.

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Chapter 2: Designing and Scoring Parallel Assessments

Robert J. Marzano Solution Tree Press ePub

chapter 2

Designing and Scoring Parallel Assessments

For the classroom teacher, following the new validity paradigm for CAs is a continual process that sometimes involves all students in class and sometimes involves individual students. There is a variety of CAs that a teacher might use in the measurement process. Designing and scoring parallel assessments includes ten important aspects.

  1.  Traditional tests

  2.  Essays

  3.  Performance tasks, demonstrations, and presentations

  4.  Portfolios

  5.  Probing discussions

  6.  Student self-assessments

  7.  Assessments that cover one level of a proficiency scale

  8.  Complete measurement process

  9.  Assessment planning

10.  Differentiated assessments

Traditional Tests

The term test is probably the most common when referring to CAs. Unfortunately, people use it in vastly different ways. Here, I restrict the meaning to assessments that are written and involve selected-response items, short constructed-response items, or both. The process of designing a traditional test, then, involves generating selected-response items and short constructed-response items that correspond to the various levels of content in a proficiency scale.

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Chapter 4 Esteem Within a Community

Robert J. Marzano Marzano Research ePub

Esteem relates to the way students think of themselves. It is crucial that teachers help students build esteem, especially when considering students’ tendency to pull away from school if their esteem needs go continually unmet. Here, we consider five aspects of esteem within a community: (1) an understanding of esteem, (2) reflection, (3) competence, (4) significance, and (5) recognition.

Helping students understand what esteem is and how it manifests is often the first step in building students’ esteem. For classroom purposes, teachers can define esteem as “the negative or positive attitude that individuals have of themselves” (Stets & Burke, 2014, p. 1). As detailed in chapter 1 (page 6), research defining esteem and its components tends to vary greatly, though it is generally understood that the self or others can source it. Teachers can use discussions of self-concept and traits of esteem to further deepen students’ understanding.

Self-concept is the way individuals perceive themselves, as well as how they believe others view them. Esteem, then, could be likened to the value individuals place on their various self-concepts. Thus, students must understand how they view themselves if they wish to truly assess their esteem.

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2 Putting Our Findings in Perspective

Robert J. Marzano Solution Tree Press ePub


The findings reported in chapter 1 imply new hope for and a new view of district leadership—one that assumes district leadership can be a critical component of effective schooling. Under this new view, district leaders should adopt a proactive stance that ensures certain uniform behaviors occur in every school in every classroom. This stands in contrast to what we believe is the current perspective that district leadership should allow schools to operate as independent entities and allow the teachers within those units to operate as independent contractors. This perspective has been driven by the theory that districts and schools are by definition loosely coupled systems.

In a series of articles, Karl Weick (1976, 1982) set the stage for what is arguably the reigning view of districts and schools as administrative units. Drawing on general organizational theory (such as Glassman, 1973), he made the distinction between tightly coupled and loosely coupled organizations. He noted that tightly coupled organizations have four defining characteristics:

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Appendix A A Model of Effective Instruction

Robert J. Marzano Marzano Research ePub

This appendix outlines the specific instructional strategies associated with The New Art and Science of Teaching (Marzano, 2017). The model organizes the research-based strategies into a comprehensive instructional framework. That framework involves three overarching categories: (1) feedback, (2) content, and (3) context. Marzano (2017) described these categories:

Feedback refers to the information loop between the teacher and the student that provides students with an awareness of what they should be learning and how they are doing. Content refers to lesson progression, which allows students to move from an initial understanding of content to application of content while continuously reviewing and upgrading their knowledge. Context refers to the following student psychological needs: engagement, order, a sense of belonging, and high expectations. (p. 6)

Embedded in these three categories are subcategories of strategies that are designed to produce specific outcomes in students. Additionally, each of these ten subcategories has related questions teachers ask of themselves as they design instruction. The ten subcategories and their related design questions are presented in table A.1.

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