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Chapter 6 Safety

Robert J. Marzano Marzano Research ePub

When considering safety, teachers can examine how they support both the actual and perceived safety of students. Despite tragic and widely publicized violent incidents (such as those at Columbine High School in 1999 and Sandy Hook Elementary School in 2012), statistically speaking, schools tend to succeed at creating environments free of genuine danger. Nevertheless, teachers can ensure students feel safe by addressing various aspects of perceived safety in addition to securing the actual safety of their classrooms. In this chapter, we address four aspects of safety: (1) actual safety, (2) order, (3) fairness, and (4) consistency.

Strategies for meeting the actual safety needs of students are often implicit in K–12 schools. For example, while some classes may be more predisposed to potentially dangerous situations (for example, science laboratories), state and school requirements often mandate the development of standard operating and emergency procedures as well as the presence of specific safeguards to ensure students’ actual safety. Additionally, many schools have security guards, metal detectors, and support from local law enforcement as a means to further bolster their actual safety. This being stated, teachers can still take specific actions to support actual safety throughout the year.

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Chapter 1 What Content Will We Address?

Robert J. Marzano Marzano Research ePub

One of the first questions a school or district seeking to create a PCBE system should consider is, What content will we address? Three general categories are commonly part of the answer to this question: (1) traditional academic content, (2) cognitive skills, and (3) metacognitive skills. The content should also be accompanied by tools that allow for easy and appropriate assessment of learning in PCBE classrooms. Hence, we will also discuss the creation of learning targets and proficiency scales, and the translation of existing progressions or rubrics into proficiency scales. While identifying content for a PCBE system, it is important to remember that all subject areas are applicable. Even though the examples in this book generally deal with mathematics, science, social studies, and English language arts, a PCBE approach can also apply to physical education, foreign languages, the arts, and high school electives. We address some of these issues in subsequent sections of this chapter.

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2 Putting Our Findings in Perspective

Robert J. Marzano Solution Tree Press ePub

 

The findings reported in chapter 1 imply new hope for and a new view of district leadership—one that assumes district leadership can be a critical component of effective schooling. Under this new view, district leaders should adopt a proactive stance that ensures certain uniform behaviors occur in every school in every classroom. This stands in contrast to what we believe is the current perspective that district leadership should allow schools to operate as independent entities and allow the teachers within those units to operate as independent contractors. This perspective has been driven by the theory that districts and schools are by definition loosely coupled systems.

In a series of articles, Karl Weick (1976, 1982) set the stage for what is arguably the reigning view of districts and schools as administrative units. Drawing on general organizational theory (such as Glassman, 1973), he made the distinction between tightly coupled and loosely coupled organizations. He noted that tightly coupled organizations have four defining characteristics:

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Chapter 7 Physiology

Robert J. Marzano Marzano Research ePub

Physiology dictates our most salient and basic of needs within the hierarchy and greatly impacts students’ ability to learn at a particular moment in time. In this chapter, we address five issues related to physiology: (1) hunger, (2) sleep, (3) physical health, (4) mental health, and (5) homelessness.

Hunger can drastically affect student learning, particularly over the long term. As such, it is crucial that teachers are aware of the extent to which their students have access to adequate and nutritious food, including identifying chronically hungry students, providing food in the classroom, and programs that address food needs.

The first step in combating student hunger is to identify food-insecure students. Unfortunately, this is not always as easy as directly asking students about their hunger needs. Instead, teachers should become adept at identifying signs of chronic hunger and learn how to discuss hunger with students in a sensitive and conscientious manner.

Consider the following topics when identifying these particular students: (1) differentiating between normal hunger versus food insecurity and (2) questioning students about hunger.

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Chapter 5 How Will Scheduling Accommodate Student Learning?

Robert J. Marzano Marzano Research ePub

In a PCBE system, the primary dynamic is that students move at their own pace through the required content. With this shift, a teacher transitioning from a traditional classroom to a PCBE system might quietly consider the worst-case scenario and ask, “How do I manage thirty different students doing thirty different things?” (For strategies that discuss how to deal with this concern, please see chapter 3, page 69.) Taken at face value, this concern seems valid. However, in a well-run PCBE system, scheduling should produce an environment where any given teacher is dealing with students who are at or close to the same level of competence for a particular subject area. This approach actually makes teaching in a PCBE system more efficient since in the traditional system, students organized by age typically produce grade-level classes with students spanning a wide range of levels of expertise. In the traditional system, then, each teacher must differentiate curriculum, instruction, and assessment for a wide range of students. In a PCBE system, a teacher is dealing with either only one level of student competence or a few relatively well-defined levels of competence.

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