55 Chapters
Medium 9781935249191

4 Setting and Monitoring Nonnegotiable Goals for Instruction

Robert J. Marzano Solution Tree Press ePub

Setting and monitoring nonnegotiable goals for instruction at the district level might not be as obvious a need as is setting and monitoring nonnegotiable goals for achievement (see chapter 3). However, recall the findings reported in chapter 2 from the OECD study of the highest-performing school systems in the world. All ten systems focused on ensuring effective teachers in every classroom. It was their singular method of enhancing student achievement.

A singular focus on instruction is quite consistent with the NCLB mandate of 2002. Specifically, in the 2002 report Meeting the Highly Qualified Teachers Challenge (U.S. Department of Education), then Secretary of Education Rod Paige noted,

Just a few months ago, President George W. Bush and the United States Congress issued a compelling challenge to our nation: to ensure that in this great land, no child is left behind. . . . As part of the No Child Left Behind Act, Congress issued another challenge to ensure that, by the end of the 2005-2006 school year, every classroom in America has a teacher who is “highly qualified.” After all, only with a talented teacher in every classroom will our students have the opportunity to excel. Will our nation meet the “highly qualified teachers” challenge? As this report explains, this challenge will be met only if our state policies on teacher preparation and certification change dramatically. (p. iii)

See All Chapters
Medium 9781935249191

1 Does District Leadership Matter?

Robert J. Marzano Solution Tree Press ePub

 

In his state of education address in 1987, Secretary of Education William Bennett attached the nickname “the blob” to administrators and the administrative system in public schools. The blob, he argued, is made up of people in the education system who work outside of classrooms, soaking up resources and resisting reform without contributing to student achievement (Walker, 1987). According to Bennett, the term blob is an acronym for “bloated educational bureaucracy.” Those who are science fiction aficionados might also make a connection to the 1958 sci-fi movie The Blob starring Steve McQueen and the 1988 remake starring Kevin Dillon. For those who are not, the blob was an amorphous mass from outer space that assimilated all living tissue in its path. Those organisms unlucky enough to be assimilated by the blob ceased to exist as independent entities. Rather, they existed only as a source of nutrients for the blob. Whether or not Bennett intended the allusion to the other-worldly blob, the moniker was not a complimentary one for school administrators and the administrative system.

See All Chapters
Medium 9780991374878

Chapter 7 Physiology

Robert J. Marzano Marzano Research ePub

Physiology dictates our most salient and basic of needs within the hierarchy and greatly impacts students’ ability to learn at a particular moment in time. In this chapter, we address five issues related to physiology: (1) hunger, (2) sleep, (3) physical health, (4) mental health, and (5) homelessness.

Hunger can drastically affect student learning, particularly over the long term. As such, it is crucial that teachers are aware of the extent to which their students have access to adequate and nutritious food, including identifying chronically hungry students, providing food in the classroom, and programs that address food needs.

The first step in combating student hunger is to identify food-insecure students. Unfortunately, this is not always as easy as directly asking students about their hunger needs. Instead, teachers should become adept at identifying signs of chronic hunger and learn how to discuss hunger with students in a sensitive and conscientious manner.

Consider the following topics when identifying these particular students: (1) differentiating between normal hunger versus food insecurity and (2) questioning students about hunger.

See All Chapters
Medium 9780983351238

Appendix A: Answers to Comprehension Questions

Robert J. Marzano Marzano Research ePub

1. Why is a model of effective performance in a domain important to the development of expertise in that domain?

A model of effective performance is important to the development of expertise in a domain because it provides options from which an individual can quickly select the best or most effective actions. As an expert’s model of performance develops, this individual has more options to choose from and can quickly and accurately decide on the right course of action in a specific situation. More complex models also allow experts to take more variables into consideration.

2. What is the overall structure of the model of effective teaching presented in this chapter?

The model of effective teaching presented in this chapter is taken from the framework in The Art and Science of Teaching (Marzano, 2007). It has forty-one elements organized using a set of design questions that teachers can ask themselves periodically to remind them of the elements of effective instruction. These design questions are organized into three broad categories: (1) lesson segments involving routine events, (2) lesson segments addressing content, and (3) lesson segments enacted on the spot.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781945349171

Chapter 3: Discussing the CA Paradigm for Reliability

Robert J. Marzano Solution Tree Press ePub

chapter 3

Discussing the CA Paradigm for Reliability

As mentioned in the introduction, the view of reliability from the CA perspective represents a dramatic shift in measurement theory, because it is based on determining score precisions for individual students as measured over a set of parallel assessments as opposed to the differences between students’ scores on a single test. What is perhaps most unique and powerful about the new paradigm for reliability is that it involves explicit estimation of each student’s true score on each assessment. These estimations account for the possible error in the observed scores. To understand this shift in perspective, it is useful to discuss the traditional view of reliability in some depth. Later in this chapter, I’ll also discuss estimating true scores using mathematical models, using technology, discussing the implications for formative and summative scores, using instructional feedback, employing the method of mounting evidence, and considering the issue of scales.

See All Chapters

See All Chapters