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Appendix B: Reproducibles for Lesson in Chapter 5

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Appendix E: Cooperative Grouping for the ELL Classroom

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COOPERATIVE GROUPINGS

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Chapter 4: Accomodating Mathematics for Students With Special Needs

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Chapter4: Accommodating Mathematics for Students With Special Needs
Make everything as simple as possible, but not simpler.—Albert Einstein

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000, pp. 12–14) established the following as its equity principle: “High expectations and worthwhile opportunities for all, accommodating differences to help everyone learn mathematics, and providing resources and support for all classrooms and students.”Accommodations are practices and procedures of presentation, response, setting, and timing or scheduling that provide equitable access during instruction and assessment. Accommodations are tools that assist students in accessing the curriculum, just as eyeglasses or corrective lenses allow many people to access written material.Modifications are changes in the content and/or curriculum and performance expectations. Only after implementing high-quality, effective instruction and trying all appropriate accommodations in the classroom should modifying the grade-level expectations be even considered. Data reflecting that the student is incapable of accessing grade-level mathematics, along with the list and results of documented quality accommodations tried, are critical in making the decision to modify the curriculum for a student. Modifications or changes to the curriculum can only be made through an individualized education program (IEP) committee and must be recorded in an IEP document. See All Chapters
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Appendix A: Selected Glossary

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A p p e n d i x A: Selected Glossary
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS): This is the language ability required for social communication. It takes between one and three years to attain this basic level of oral proficiency. bilingual education: Students are allowed to develop language proficiency in two languages by receiving instruction in some combination of English and the student’s primary language. cognates: These are words in English closely related to the student’s primary language.Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP): This refers to the mastery of academic language necessary for students to succeed in context-reduced and cognitively demanding content areas. It takes between five and ten years for a second-language student to perform at grade level without ELL support. comprehensible input: This is content in which the level of language difficulty has been adapted to the student’s proficiency level to enable him or her to understand.English as a second language (ESL): This is an educational approach in which See All Chapters
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Chapter 5: Applying Strategies for ELLs: A 5E Lesson

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5

Applying Strategies for ELLs: A 5E Lesson

Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous.

—Confucius

In the first four chapters, we examined the needs of English language learners and how to support them in the affective, linguistic, and cognitive domains. The question now arises of how to incorporate the tools, practices, and strategies into practical classroom use. Perhaps you are asking yourself:

•   What does a lesson look like that meets the needs of my English language learners?

•   How can I meet the needs of my English language learners and still meet the needs of other students in my classroom?

Echevarria, Vogt, and Short (2004) identify the critical instructional features necessary for the academic and language development of English language learners.

Lesson preparation: Planning should result in lessons that enable students to make connections between their knowledge and experiences and the new information being taught.

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