36 Chapters
Medium 9781935249047

Chapter 2: The Language of Science

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Chapter 2
The Language of Science Greek and Latin Roots and Affixes Note: This lesson plan can also be adapted for use in social studies and mathematics classrooms. Greek and Latin roots and affixes are used extensively in science vocabulary. Students need to have knowledge of these word parts to support the comprehension of written science text and concepts.Implications for High-Stakes Testing Limited conceptual knowledge and difficulty in understanding the meanings of words can hinder English language learners’ success on high-stakes exams. Understanding Greek and Latin affixes will help students build vocabulary for comprehending more complex text and ideas. Lesson Plan for Greek and Latin Roots and AffixesMaterials Greek and Latin Word Parts List (page 44), one copy per student. Question Cards (pages 45–47), one set per group. Word Web handout (page 48), five copies per group. Word Parts Scavenger Hunt handout (page 49), one copy per student. Highlighters in two different colors, one set per student. See All Chapters
Medium 9781934009628

Chapter 6: Adapting a Traditional Textbook Lesson

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Adapting a Traditional Textbook Lesson

A small part of even the most reluctant student wants to learn.


Traditional textbook lessons present several concerns. The lesson format generally lends itself to teacher-centered instruction instead of student-centered instruction. The content of standard textbook lessons rarely includes examples and problems with the cognitive rigor necessary to prepare students for success—whether success is measured by standardized tests or readiness for post–high school education. Such lessons seldom include strategies for building common background, developing vocabulary, providing comprehensibility, and solving authentic problems in an atmosphere ripe for interaction. Therefore, teachers are often faced with the challenge of adapting traditional lessons to meet the needs of English language learners.


Tell me and I’ll forget, show me and I may remember, involve me and I’ll understand.

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Medium 9781934009635

Appendix A: Selected Glossary

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A p p e n d i x A: Selected Glossary
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS): This is the language ability required for social communication. It takes between one and three years to attain this basic level of oral proficiency. bilingual education: Students are allowed to develop language proficiency in two languages by receiving instruction in some combination of English and the student’s primary language. cognates: These are words in English closely related to the student’s primary language.Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP): This refers to the mastery of academic language necessary for students to succeed in context-reduced and cognitively demanding content areas. It takes between five and ten years for a second-language student to perform at grade level without ELL support. comprehensible input: This is content in which the level of language difficulty has been adapted to the student’s proficiency level to enable him or her to understand.English as a second language (ESL): This is an educational approach in which See All Chapters
Medium 9781935249030

Appendix: The ELA Academic Vocabulary Word Lists

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Appendix The ELA Academic Vocabulary Word Lists Literary Terms allusion, analogy, antagonist, author, autobiography,biography, character, comedy,comic-relief, conflict, context, dialect, dialogue, drama, element, exposition, falling action, figurative, language, flashback, foreshadow, imagery, irony, meaning, melody, metaphor, mood,narrative narrator, paradox, personification, plot, poetry, point of view, protagonist, relevance, resolution, rising, action, rhythm, setting, short story, simile, structure, suspense, symbol, theme, time, frame, tone, tragedy.
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Medium 9781935249030

Chapter 3 Teaching the Language of the Open-Ended Response

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Chapter 3

Teaching the Language of the Open-Ended Response

Plot Elements

This sample lesson illustrates how a teacher can teach explicitly the components of the literary elements using graphic organizers. The topic chosen for instruction is plot elements. Students need to be taught each literary element individually. As each element is taught, students can add it to their Plot Elements chart (page 100) to keep a record of their learning.

Implications for High-Stakes Testing

A knowledge of literary elements is key to understanding the language of both the multiple-choice questions and the open-ended or short-answer response questions on the English language arts and reading portions of standardized assessments. On these tests, students are required to analyze fiction for literary elements.

Lesson Plan for Plot Elements


•  Plot Elements handout (page 100), one per student and one transparency

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