Zohar Danah (11)
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6 The Twelve Principles of Transformation

Zohar, Danah Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Being new, nameless, hard to understand, we premature births of an as yet unproven future, we need for a new goal also a new means.

—Nietzsche, Ecce Homo

Expanding spiritual capital is my goal in this book, but it is a goal unlike any before. It requires that we act from our higher, sometimes our highest, motivations. It means that we transform ourselves as human beings. To achieve this new goal, we need some new means. For that we must look to the principles of transformation available to spiritual intelligence.

As noted, a human being’s IQ is pretty well steady throughout life, barring brain illness or damage. But EQ, or emotional intelligence, can be learned, nurtured, and improved. And all human beings are born with a potential for high SQ. Most children have a high potential for it. But our spiritually dumb culture and educational system, and our often spiritually deadening work patterns and pressures, reduce our capacity to practice our SQ. Like EQ, SQ must be nurtured. It can be relearned, and it can be improved. To do so, we must look for those qualities of a person’s being and behavior that signify the presence of SQ at work. Finding and exploring these qualities also helps us understand SQ itself. But this requires that we ask what kind of systems or organizations we human beings are, and what kind of system is operating in the human brain when SQ is in use. To know a thing’s qualities, we must know that thing itself.76

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11 Is It Still Capitalism?

Zohar, Danah Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

I have argued throughout this book that spiritual capital is a vital component of sustainable capitalism, and of the sustainability of individuals and organizations functioning within an open, capitalist society. That has been the raison d’être of the book, showing individuals how they can access, draw on, and embed their deepest meanings and values in their lives, families, communities, and organizations to ensure sustainability. But as capitalism traditionally has been value neutral and without a moral dimension, skeptics might wonder whether it would still be capitalism if we added these. Wouldn’t embedding deep values and exercising moral concern for wider society constrain the freedom and flexibility so vital to the very essence of capitalism and an open society?

Past attempts to control, constrain, or replace capitalism, all motivated by a desire to limit its wider excesses and to make it more socially responsible, have not offered encouraging results. Marxism, socialism, Keynesianism, and Europe’s new Third Way have all failed to match the dynamism and material wealth-creating abilities of free-market capitalism. Their accompanying social ideals have in some cases limited the individual and institutional freedoms necessary to an open society. But there is a very sound, single reason for these failures, the same in each case. They failed to understand the kind of system that an open capitalist society and economy is (they failed to understand its essential dynamics), and their remedial measures had the unavoidable effect of further damaging the patient. They could not have done otherwise.148

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4 Applying the Motivational Scale

Zohar, Danah Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

The sixteen motivational states described on the scale are, as I said, “attractors” or whole paradigms that encompass behavior, emotions, attitudes, assumptions, values, thinking processes, and strategies. Thus to know the motivation or set of motivations driving individuals or whole cultures is to know a great deal about their internal state as well as how they will react with and influence their environment. It is to know the individual or organizational “psychology” and to be able to predict their approach to action—and its effectiveness.

We can assume from historical accounts of his past and his emotional reaction to Germany’s humiliating defeat in World War One, and his own disastrous failure as an artist, for instance, that Adolf Hitler was motivated by guilt and shame (ࢤ7), craving (for power and glory, ࢤ3), anger (ࢤ2), and a good bit of self-assertion (ࢤ1). These motives were apparent in Hitler’s speech and body language, as well as in the aggressive strategies he evolved. If world leaders had been able to see this during his rise to power, they would have had little difficulty believing that his Reich might pose a great threat to surrounding countries and to certain ethnic groups within Germany. Perhaps, seen at an earlier date, this would have allowed allied countries to counter Hitler’s threat from a position of power-within (+3) or mastery (+4). Instead they waited until he began invading Austria and Poland, and then they responded from a position of fear (ࢤ4). Eleven million people died because they got it wrong.48

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1 The Monster That Consumes Itself

Zohar, Danah Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

In Ovid’s tales from Greek mythology, we learn of a wealthy timber merchant named Erisychthon (Er-is-ya-thon). Erisychthon is a greedy man who thinks only of profit. Nothing is sacred to him. But on Erisychthon’s land there is a special tree beloved of the gods. Prayers of the faithful are tied to its prodigious branches and holy spirits dance round its magnificent trunk. Erisychthon cares nothing for this. He looks at the tree and assesses the volume of timber it will produce, then he takes an axe to it. Against all protest he chops until the tree is withered and fallen and all divine life that inhabited the tree has fled. But one of the gods puts a curse on Erisychthon for his greed. From that day forward, Erisychthon is consumed by an insatiable hunger. He begins by eating all his stores, then he turns all his wealth into food he can consume. Still not satisfied, he consumes his wife and children. In the end, Erisychthon is left with nothing to consume but his own flesh. He eats himself.

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2 What Is Spiritual Capital?

Zohar, Danah Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Spiritual capital” is a new paradigm. It requires that we radically change our mind-set about the philosophical foundations and the practice of business. It is not anticapitalist—or even noncapitalist, but it does require the addition of moral and social dimensions to capitalism. Spiritual capital itself is not monetary wealth, but it argues the possibility of making a profit—perhaps even more profit—by doing business in a wider context of meaning and value. It can generate profit that both draws on and adds to the wealth of the human spirit and to general human well-being.

In Chapter One, I described the shadow side of capitalism— and most of my points were not new. These same observations and criticisms have been made by socialists, communists, environmentalists, and some sociologists. But the alternative visions they have offered have not worked either. Marxism offers a clear-cut example.

According to Marx, capitalism appeals to humanity’s selfish motives and leads to the exploitation of the weak by the powerful. This in turn breeds suffering and resentment. Marx believed that the whole problem lay in the class structure that supported capitalism. If we could rid ourselves of this class structure, mankind’s highest motives would be unleashed. Our innate community spirit would prevail and we would have “the Brotherhood of Man.” Economically, The Communist Manifesto maintained, wealth would be divided happily according to the principle, “From each according to his abilities; to each according to his needs.”22

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Zhexembayeva Nadya (10)
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Chapter 6 Principle Four: Plan to Model

Zhexembayeva, Nadya Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

AT A GLANCE

MODERN MANAGEMENT HAS A thing for putting life in boxes. We are obsessed with making neat, controllable plans broken into clear, manageable steps. Yet the companies mastering the Overfished Ocean Strategy seem to live in a different universe—one that is messy, iterative, and full of happy (and devastating) accidents. Every company that dared to venture into the unknown terrain from line to circle had to do so in the near dark, each step leading to the next, experimenting, taking action, and producing results long before a truly comprehensive strategy could be articulated. In other words, they had to learn their way into the Overfished Ocean Strategy. Welcome to the exciting world of continuous business modeling.

It happens to me with a surprising frequency. A short e-mail, a quick phone call, a Facebook post, and suddenly you feel like all is right with the world. Like there is true justice. Like good guys really do finish first.

This was one of those e-mails.

Brief and to the point, professional as ever, Iztok Seljak, president of the Management Board of Hidria, shared the happy news: beating more than 15,000 other companies, Hidria Corporation won the title of Europe’s most innovative company of 2013. That put a smile on my face!

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Chapter 7 Principle Five: Department to Mind-Set

Zhexembayeva, Nadya Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

AT A GLANCE

DIVISION OF LABOR HAS been around for millennia. From the ancient Sumerians to Plato to Henry Ford, everyone seems to champion the divide-and-conquer approach. Yet when a complete overhaul of strategic thinking is required, putting the transformation on the shoulders of a few is simply not good enough. The Overfished Ocean Strategy is not a department. It’s a mind-set.

“Well then, how will our state supply these needs? It will need a farmer, a builder, and a weaver, and also, I think, a shoemaker and one or two others to provide for our bodily needs…. So that the minimum state would consist of four or five men.”1 With these words, written around 380 BC, Plato solidified the division of labor as the cornerstone of our lives—and the central functional principle of any organization as large as a state or as small as a family.

This was not a new invention. The ancient Sumerians, who had preceded Plato by a few millennia, developed and implemented the concept of the division of labor with clear jobs assigned to inhabitants of ancient cities. By the time the word department was first used in 1735,2 the modern corporation had begun its slow conquest of the world, growing in size, complexity, and compartmentalization. Dividing the work in the form of clearly marked departments seemed like a perfect idea—so perfect, in fact, that by 1922 the bureaucracy model was hailed as the ideal form of organization. It was Max Weber, one of the greatest sociologists of all time and a specialist on the topic, who elevated the status of the concept:

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Chapter 8 The Death of Green, or Is Your Marriage Sustainable?

Zhexembayeva, Nadya Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

AT A GLANCE

THE GLOBAL “GREEN” MOVEMENT has offered many solutions for the growing resources crunch. Many companies already have sustainability projects and green products. Why invent another strategy?

Once upon a time, there was a group of change makers that, it seemed, had figured it all out. Long before the awakening of the majority, this tiny minority saw the overfishing of the ocean at a distance and decided to act on it. They took on the challenge of the disappearing economy to a new level and attacked it head-on with new products, new processes, and new services. They wrote numerous books and spoke at many conferences. They pushed for industry-wide changes and gave birth to one unified answer to the resource challenge: the “green” economy.

I used to be one of them.

“Used to” is the crucial element here. For over a decade, I worked with countless companies on a range of sustainability risks and wrote articles and books on how to turn them into opportunities. All those years, it was a real pleasure and honor to work on projects that were much more than skin deep. Like many of you, I watched the rise in importance of everything “green” in media of every kind and attended the never-ending list of events that all seemed to suggest that “green” was the new black. The companies were courageous, the projects had impact, and the discoveries were potent. Yet in the bigger scheme of things, I could barely see any change in the mind-sets, behaviors, and outputs of the majority of companies worldwide. Green—as the answer to the challenge of the overfished oceans—was not working. Increasingly, something simply did not add up.

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Contents

Zhexembayeva, Nadya Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub
Medium 9781609949648

Chapter 1 Where Are the Fish? The New Competitive Reality

Zhexembayeva, Nadya Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

AT A GLANCE

FOR MOST OF THE history of modern business, we have enjoyed falling prices on nearly all raw materials, which has made us dangerously oblivious to the shaky foundations of our global market economy But the tides are turning: the new era is upon us It is time to look into the facts—and to prepare a strategy for dealing with them.

Like his father and grandfather before him, Al Cattone has been living off the sea for all his life. For the Gloucester fisherman who spent over 30 years braving the Atlantic’s waters, fishing is “not so much a job as it is an identity.”1 But this legacy is coming to abrupt end. In light of extreme declines of cod stocks, the New England Fishery Management Council voted to slash cod catch rates by 77 percent in the area from Cape Cod to Nova Scotia. The destruction of fishing communities across the region is expected to follow, with a domino effect on seafood processors, wholesalers, distributors, and retailers—an entire industrial ecosystem. But the unpopular move is backed by the harsh reality that the cod stocks today are very far from healthy, with some communities netting a bare 7 percent of moderate targets set by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

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Zavala Alice (9)
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Chapter 6 - Requirements Analysis Meetings

Zavala, Alice Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

In This Chapter:

Challenges

Business Modeling Workshops

Types of Analysis Meetings

Business Process Modeling Workshops

Prototype Review Meetings

Risk Management Workshops

Requirements are first stated in simple terms and are then analyzed and decomposed for clarity. Requirements analysis is the process of grouping requirements information into various categories, evaluating requirements for selected qualities, representing requirements in different forms, deriving detailed requirements from high-level requirements, and negotiating priorities. Requirements analysis also includes activities to determine required function and performance characteristics, the context of implementation, stakeholder constraints and measures of effectiveness, and validation criteria. Through the analysis process, requirements are decomposed and captured in a combination of text and graphical formats.

The purpose of analysis activities is to restate requirements in different forms to clarify and further define the nature and scope of the requirement. In addition, the feasibility of the requirements is analyzed and the risks are assessed.

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Chapter 7 - Requirements Specification Review Meetings

Zavala, Alice Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

In This Chapter:

Challenges

Types of Meetings

Requirements Specification Review Meeting

The specification of what is to be accomplished supplements the scoping and analysis models. During the process of specifying what is needed, the business analyst continues to work collaboratively with the customers and end-users of the new solution and with key members of the solution development team. One or more text deliverables might result from this step. Typically the specification documents are the user requirements document and the software requirements specification document. Other requirements specifications include the requirements document, business requirements document, use case document, concept of operations (ConOps), requirements definition, requirements statement, system definition, functional specification, supplemental specification, and technical specification. Minimally, a business requirements document is created.

In addition to drafting the business requirements documentation, requirements specification involves progressively elaborating, refining, and organizing the requirements into a structured set of requirement artifacts. As requirements are documented during this activity, they are continually validated by both the business and technical teams.

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Chapter 5 - Requirements Elicitation Meetings

Zavala, Alice Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

In This Chapter:

Challenges

Roles and Responsibilities

Individual and Small Group Interviews

Facilitated Requirements Elicitation Workshops

Requirements elicitation involves conducting initial requirements-gathering sessions with customers, users, and stakeholders to begin the documentation process. Requirements-gathering techniques include discovery sessions, facilitated workshops, interviews, surveys, prototyping, review of existing system and business documents, and note-taking and feedback loops to customers, users, and stakeholders.

The purposes of requirements elicitation are to:

Identify the customers, users, and stakeholders to determine who should be involved in the requirements-gathering process

Understand the business goals and objectives and identify the essential user tasks that support the organizational goals

Identify and define requirements to understand the needs of the users, customers, and stakeholders

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Chapter 9 - Closing Comments

Zavala, Alice Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Following a structured process to plan, facilitate, and follow up on business analysis meetings contributes to the quality of the requirements generated. As you develop your business analyst skills, focus on sharpening facilitation skills like listening, restating ideas for clarity and asking pointed questions, and the basics of meeting management. Hone your belief in the power of the team, demonstrate patience, and remain objective. In general, a good facilitator is energetic, respectful, and supportive of the team process. There is no substitute for experience. You will become better with each meeting. Take advantage of each experience to objectively evaluate your abilities to effectively use group process techniques, and grow with each experience.

To become a great facilitator, focus on the following development activities:

Enroll in facilitation classes.

Enroll in presentation and communication skills classes.

Consider becoming a professional certified facilitator.

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Chapter 8 - Deliverable Verification and Validation Meetings

Zavala, Alice Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

In This Chapter:

Challenges

Types of Meetings

Deliverable Inspection Meeting

Verification and validation are the processes of evaluating work products to determine whether they satisfy the business needs and are built according to specifications.

A major control gate review for projects occurs upon exiting the requirements phase and transitioning to the design phase. All requirement artifacts are presented to management for review and approval at a formal control gate review session. At this point, the project schedule, cost, and scope estimates are updated, and the business case is revisited, to provide the salient information needed to determine whether continued investment in the project is warranted. Upon securing approval to proceed, the business analyst baselines the requirements, implements a formal requirements change control process, and transitions into requirements management activities in support of solution design efforts. At the conclusion of the requirements phase, a make or buy decision is made whether to outsource the solution design and development or do the work in-house. If the work is to be outsourced, a Request for Quote (RFQ) is developed and issued. As the project moves into the design, construction, and test phases, verification and validation sessions are conducted throughout the business solution life cycle (BSLC).

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Zack Devora (34)
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Chapter 3. Your Mind

Zack, Devora Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Focus and simplicity. You have to work hard to get your thinking clean, to make it simple. It is worth it because then you can move mountains.

STEVE JOBS

As noted, singletasking means taking control of your environment and your mind. Singletasking is not only what you do in the world; it is also about developing willpower.

If you meet someone and instantly forget his name, there’s a solid chance your brain wasn’t present when he said “Hector” because you were preoccupied with other matters entirely. The inability to concentrate on another person when being introduced or holding a conversation is evidence of an undisciplined cerebellum. What I call the Scattered Brain Syndrome (SBS) is at least partially attributable to the fact that we are hesitant to be alone with our thoughts.

Do you consciously manage your thoughts, perceptions, and reactions? Or do you squander your brain waves thinking about how much better life would be if external factors changed? Do you allow a zillion thoughts to zing through your head simultaneously? Or do you choose how to direct your attention as you glide gracefully through your day?

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Chapter 2. The Singletasking Principle

Zack, Devora Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Singletasking is an unobtainable luxury.

Singletasking is a fundamental necessity.

The shortest way to do many things
is to do one thing at a time.

SAMUEL SMITH

We are not learning to singletask. We are relearning. Single-tasking is rooted in the dawn of humankind. Early hunter-gatherers singletasked. That’s how our species survived. This book is not about introducing a newfangled way of being. It is about reclaiming our natural mental state.

Singletasking means being here, now, immersing yourself in one thing at a time.

Multitasking means living in a state of ceaseless distraction. In case you were wondering.

Want a real-life example of singletasking in action?

Brazil’s 2014 World Cup brought the U.S. team to Sao Paolo, reigniting excitement in soccer/football throughout America. The U.S. team lost a riveting 2–1 match against Belgium in overtime during the Round of 16, and the hero of the game was U.S. goalkeeper Tim Howard, whose sixteen amazing saves were broadcast over and over around the world. He was undeniably pivotal in ensuring the United States wasn’t trampled, though he still magnanimously credited his teammates. The team arrived as underdogs and played what Howard described as “a world-class team with world-class players,” a level of competition previously considered out of their league.

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Chapter 7. Home Sweet Home

Zack, Devora Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Singletasking is for the workplace.

Singletasking is for all aspects of life.

Always do one thing less than you think you can do.

BERNARD MANNES BARUCH

I want you to have an inherently fulfilling, positive, rewarding, meaningful career. I just want you to be home when you’re at home. Singletask it, baby.

The high-tech TiVo Roamio device can record several television shows simultaneously, enabling users to watch live or recorded shows anywhere. Isn’t that wonderful?

Rather than highlighting the life-enhancing aspects of enabling consumers to never miss a show, however, a tongue-in-cheek campaign from 2014 featured users:

Crashing into a tree from distracted downhill skiing

Watching TiVo during a family therapy session

Being imprisoned for watching television in the Vatican

Even the promoters of this high-tech device see the downside of splitting attention.

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Chapter 5. Your Interactions

Zack, Devora Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Singletasking means letting people down.

Singletasking means giving others your full attention.

Every action done in company ought to be done with some sign of respect to those that are present.

GEORGE WASHINGTON

I’ve been asked, “Isn’t singletasking ultimately a selfish act? Doesn’t singletasking mean accepting that I’ll be letting people down?”

No … and no. Singletasking is not self-serving, dismissive, or rude. It’s for others, and it’s for you. Singletasking means setting a good example. Plus, you’re much more present for others.

I was invited to facilitate a New Leader Training session to build rapport between Liz, a newly appointed senior executive, and her recently inherited team of thirty employees. Liz reached out to me because she recognized the value in strengthening communication within work groups. She was willing to invest the time and resources required for a full-day, off-site training session to achieve her goal of building a strong working relationship with her department.

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Appendix: Retorts To Multitask Hardliners

Zack, Devora Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Conviction is worthless unless it is converted to conduct.

CARLYLE

How can you explain the singletasking way to those die-hard multitaskers in your life?

Enjoy this sampling of real-life statements I’ve collected from my loveable, delusional, multitasking friends, accompanied by snappy replies for your edification (table 6). Add your own zingers in the third column.

Go ahead and tear out this chart and carry it everywhere you go. Be my guest. Think of it as a cheat sheet of retorts.

TABLE 6: Responses to Multitaskers

MUFFLED PROTEST OF MISGUIDED YET WELL-INTENTIONED DIE-HARD TASK-SWITCHERS

MY POLITE, YET FIRM RESPONSE, SUPPORTED BY MORE FIGURES THAN A PARISIAN FASHION SHOW

YOUR OWN DAZZLING, EDGY REPLY THAT FAR OUTPACES MINE IN SHEER BRILLIANCE

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Yudkowsky Moshe (13)
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Chapter Five From Horses and Buggies to Jet Planes: The Revolution in Manufacturing

Yudkowsky, Moshe Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Where do all these machines come from? My house is full of machines, from little clever-but-simple ones like retractable ballpoint pens, to medium-size ones like paper shredders and microwave ovens, all the way to full-size ones like recliners and washing machines. My house is partly a machine: the walls are full of machinery (pipes, switches, cables, and ducts), and so is the roof, with its vents and fans. The furnace, water heater, and air conditioner are hidden in the basement.

I’ve visited reconstructed homes of the late 1700s, and there’s nothing remotely comparable to what we have today: the most intricate machine in the house is a technology that dates from the Middle Ages—a spinning wheel sitting in the corner. Furniture drawers open and close, and chest lids can be raised and lowered. The door has a metal hinge; that’s the most complicated bit of machinery built into the house itself. These houses were bare of almost anything we think of as a machine. The people of the time certainly could and did build complicated machines, but none of them were in ordinary people’s homes. How did our modern homes fill up with today’s wonderful machines?44

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Chapter Twelve Predictions: Three Revolutions in Progress

Yudkowsky, Moshe Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Question: I’ve got names and addresses stored in my PDA, in my cell phone, on two different computers, and on at least two different Web sites; none of them are synchronized with each other. Why not?

Answer: At least a half-dozen different industries are battling to control your address book.

Question: Why does the phone ring when I’m watching football games? Answer: Your phone isn’t smart enough to realize you’re watching the game. That’s about to change.

Question: How does The Wall Street Journal manage to publish a print edition, a Web edition, and a mobile edition? Because each edition is different, don’t they have to rewrite the story three times?128

Answer: At first they had to rewrite the stories, but today it’s a lot easier—now that they have started to use some pretty significant technology in their back offices.

Each of these questions and answers comes from a revolution in progress. One started when a quiet innovation triggered multiple avalanches and at the same time founded a new industry. Another avalanche is rapidly sweeping competitors from the marketplace but will likely cause its current round of investors to lose billions of dollars. One revolution is only just beginning—and might never get off the ground.

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Chapter Four Four Stages to Revolution: Devise, Interface, Accept, Evaluate

Yudkowsky, Moshe Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Revolutions don’t just happen; they have to be planned and executed. In this chapter, I’m going to discuss strategies and tactics to help accomplish the four stages of disaggregation, which are:

In this first stage, you analyze your problem, generate a solution, and then carry it out. The trick is to construct those key ideas that lead to a solution, and here are a few methods to help that process along—ways to think about disaggregation that lead to insights into the problem and its solution.28

Simple Inspection

Sometimes it’s very easy to see how to achieve disaggregation. If my problem has to do with my company’s structure, then my company is probably already divided into neat departments, sections, and divisions, and they even have convenient names like Shipping Department and Widget Solutions Division. If my problem has to do with computer hardware, I will find conveniently discrete items when I open up the computer case: disk drives, memory cards, and cables. I have no trouble imagining how to take a computer apart into separate components.

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Chapter Nine Coping with Surprises

Yudkowsky, Moshe Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

I enjoy a surprise as much as the next person, but I have to admit that there are some surprises I can really do without, such as jury duty; dental work; late night adventures in plumbing repair; or an early morning round of hand-to-mouse combat in the kitchen. I suspect that most everyone will agree that the sudden realization that your company is in the path of an avalanche is something else that isn’t very popular. As I hope I’ve made clear, sweeping technological changes can’t be avoided—and because they will happen, you’d best be ready for them. In this chapter, I discuss strategies to cope with the inevitable reality that one day, despite your best intentions, you will be surprised by a technological revolution.

The primary example I use in this chapter is digital photography. Digital photography accomplishes a series of remarkable disaggregations.

Here is a list of the innovations that went into popularizing digital photography:

Digital photography is a classic case of synergy, a revolution built out of parts of other revolutionary technology. The revolution didn’t happen overnight; anyone who was paying attention had time to prepare for the consequences. And as the cost and size of each item on the link continues to shrink, the revolution is bound to continue.

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Chapter Ten Marx, Lenin, and Gates: Failed Counterrevolutions

Yudkowsky, Moshe Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Stopping an avalanche is a losing proposition, but that hasn’t stopped people, companies, and nations from trying. In this chapter, I’m going to discuss the strategy of resistance—the strategy of trying to stop or reverse disaggregation. There have been a few successes. Well… not really successes. I don’t think I’ve found any examples of permanent victories over disaggregation. What I’ve found is that suppressing disaggregation usually relies on force, and, although force is very effective in the short run, in the long run it’s almost impossible to permanently suppress a good idea. Let’s look at some of the examples, starting with an experiment in reaggregation that killed millions and millions of people.

One of the worst regimes of the twentieth century was that of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union dominated an empire that stretched across Asia into Europe. The government deliberately murdered tens of millions of its own citizens and sent many others into a vast system of internal prison camps. Why? What drove the Soviet Union to such extreme behavior?

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