William D Middleton (23)
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1 A Boyhood in New England

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

Milford, Connecticut, is now a city of more than 50,000 residents, lying some 10 miles southwest of New Haven and stretching along the shores of Long Island Sound. Milford grew large only in the recent past with the growth that followed World War II, but it has been there a long time. What became Milford, named after the English city, was purchased by English settlers from the chief of the local Paugusset tribe in 1639, making it the sixth oldest community in Connecticut. Even today Milford retains much of the character that dates to the nineteenth century and before. The Wepawaug River winds down through the town and into the oyster-rich estuary of Long Island Sound. Just west of the river, Milford’s carefully maintained “town green”—the second longest in all New England, boast the residents—stretches a block wide and six blocks long. The green of the square is intermingled with trees and monuments from Milford’s—and America’s—past.

A century and a half ago Milford had scarcely 2,500 residents, and the working population was occupied with farming, oystering, shipbuilding, and a few industrial plants, while the Long Island Sound shore served as a beach resort for residents of New Haven and Bridgeport. The young David Cummings Sprague came to Milford about 1852 to become a plant superintendent for a hat manufacturing firm, one of many in the southwest Connecticut area centered on Danbury that made the state a major supplier of hats. Born in Wardsboro, Vermont, in 1833, D. C. Sprague was one of ten children born to Joshua Sprague, who was of the eighth American generation descended from Ralph Sprague. The latter had left England from the hamlet of Upwey in Devonshire in 1628.1

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8 The Naval Consulting Board and the Great War

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

By the start of the second decade of the twentieth century it became increasingly apparent that war was coming to Europe. Many in the United States realized that despite its isolationism, the United States would eventually have to join the conflict, and that it was neither militarily nor industrially ready to do so, and that furthermore, if steps weren’t taken to prepare the country, the United States might be “knocked out” before it could even join in the conflict. This concern became increasingly pressing once war actually broke out in August of 1914. Although it would be more than two years before the United States finally declared war on Germany, in April of 1917, preparations began for that eventuality almost immediately once hostilities broke out in Europe. A significant aspect of these preparations, and in fact the first, was the formation of a civilian Naval Consulting Board.

The board was seen at the time of its formation as a radical departure from the navy’s standard mode of operation, but one that was necessary given the navy’s need to cope with “the new conditions of warfare”1 that the European conflict presented as well as the unprecedented threat from submarine warfare. It was the latter, most vividly demonstrated by the torpedoing and sinking of the Lusitania on May 7, 1915, that was the immediate impetus for the formation of the board.

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Appendix A. Frank Julian Sprague Patents

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

Frank Sprague was issued 95 patents during his career. They are listed in the order in which they were issued, by number, title, patentees, application date, issue date, and assignee.

TABLE A.1.

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Appendix B. Frank Julian Sprague Honors and Awards

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

Awards

Gold Medal, Paris Exposition, 1889, “presented to the Sprague Electric Railway and Motor Company for the most perfect system of Electric Rail Way Equipment.”

Elliott Cresson Medal, The Franklin Institute, 1904, for the development of the multiple unit system of electric traction.

Grand Prize, Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, 1904, for Invention and Development on Electric Railways.

Edison Medal, American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1910, “for Meritorious Achievement in Electrical Science, Electrical Engineering, or the Electrical Arts.”

The Franklin Medal, The Franklin Institute, 1921, “in recognition of his many and fundamentally important inventions and achievements in the field of electrical engineering; notably contributions to the development of the electric motor and its application to industrial purposes, and in the art of electric traction, signally important in forming the basis of world-wide industries and promoting human welfare.”

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7 Electrifying the Main Line Railroads

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

Frank Sprague’s principal area of interest had shifted from electric traction to the development of the electric elevator with his sale of the Sprague Electric Railway & Motor Co. in 1890, and the subsequent establishment of the Sprague Electric Elevator Co. in 1892. But as we have already noted, Sprague also remained very much interested—and involved—in the development of electric traction. Best known was his continuing (although unsuccessful) effort through most of the 1890s to convince the New York elevated railways to shift from steam power to electrification, and his invention of the multiple unit system for the electrification of Chicago’s South Side elevated in 1897–1898. Much less well known was his involvement from 1892 to 1894 in the development of what was the first electric locomotive capable of handling main line railroad traffic.

In 1890 electric railway operation was still confined to street railways. Heavier rapid transit electric railways would soon be used for subway or elevated lines, and a few small electric locomotives for railroad lines were employed for mining or switching lines. But even at this early date, Frank Sprague could clearly see the great potential that electrification might have for main line railroads. While some early proponents could even see electrics replacing steam power on a wholesale basis, Sprague had a more realistic view of where electrics would have a significant advantage over steam. Recognizing the high cost of building the power plants and distribution systems needed for electrification, Sprague thought they would be limited to those systems which supported an extremely dense traffic, such as the heavy suburban lines operated by the New York Central in New York or the Illinois Central in Chicago, large switching services in major cities, or unusually dense inter-city passenger services such as those between New York and Albany, or between New York and Philadelphia.1

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Simon Cordery (18)
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3 Optimism Revived

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

Travelers in Illinois during the 1840s may have paused to puzzle over sporadic strips of artificially flattened ground, mute testimony to the recent infatuation with railroads. In Bureau County, for example, work on the original Illinois Central Railroad (ICRR) got no further than “cutting away strips of timber” and leveling small stretches of territory for rails that never arrived. The Jacksonville & Savannah Railroad used land between Canton and Farmington flattened for the Peoria to Warsaw line. Stone culverts and bridge abutments also remained as a memory of the 1837 Illinois Internal Improvements Act. At the southern tip of the state, ribbons of graded land and a lengthy embankment near Cairo, remnants of “the wild State internal improvement craze,” reminded people of how “the State and whole communities were left bankrupt—stranded upon dirt embankments.”1

Disillusionment lasted barely a decade, however. The passion for railroads reignited in the 1850s, and Chicago emerged as a major commercial center. Trains from the east brought in new inhabitants and departed with grain from the prairies. Developments downstate signaled the temporary prominence of Alton and the permanent rise of St. Louis. On a national scale, the ICRR set an important precedent by using federal land grants to stimulate interest and investment.

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8 A Kaleidoscope of Regulations

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

Strikes alienated customers, angered politicians, and fomented a climate of mistrust. Passengers and shippers began to feel that railroad corporations wielded too much influence. Politicians at every level—from municipal to federal—created regulations to address their concerns. Legal precedents based on US Supreme Court cases originating in Illinois gave the federal government the authority to establish minimum and maximum prices for transporting people and products. These regulations restricted railroad managers’ power to set the prices (“rates”) or negotiate with customers from the 1870s to the 1980s. Lowering or raising rates was painfully slow, hurting railroads’ ability to respond to market conditions and contributing to the ossification of the industry in the twentieth century.

By 1870 three railroads—the Chicago & North Western, the Rock Island, and the Burlington—were crossing Illinois and Iowa and preparing to converge on Omaha, the eastern end of the original transcontinental. They earned increased traffic from the new connection, augmenting the grain, pork, and beef they hauled into Chicago from the rich agricultural region they served. But cutthroat competition among the three lines lowered rates and profits, putting pressure on other parts of the systems to compensate. To dampen the competition, the three railroads agreed to share the traffic across Iowa. This informal “pool” collapsed in the face of economic depression, but after 1874 formal, regional associations emerged to share revenues and eliminate competition.1 From the perspective of the railroads, pools were a rational response, but shippers thought they deliberately stifled competition in the name of higher profits. Regulation ensued.

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10 Bridge Building and “Overbuilding”

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

Illinois railroad expansion began to fall behind national growth rates in the 1870s and 1880s. For the decade of the 1870s, railroads built 3,095 route miles in Illinois, adding 64 percent compared with 76 percent nationally, but in the 1880s, Illinois’s 26 percent fell dramatically behind the nation’s 79 percent of added mileage. The reasons were simple: railroads continued to push farther west, while the development of new lines slowed in the Prairie State as it did elsewhere east of the Mississippi River. Nationally, more track was laid during the 1880s than in any other decade in US history. The 73,741 route miles built between 1881 and 1890 represented a two-thirds increase over all rail laid in the United States before 1880.

By 1880 some observers began to complain of “overbuilding” east of the Mississippi, by which they meant that newly constructed lines duplicated existing routes and, consequently, neither could be profitable. In Illinois approximately two thousand route miles were built in the 1880s, still an impressive amount. In northern Illinois the “Little Grangers” made tentative forays into the state, while the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe finalized its long-awaited entrance into Chicago. Though the construction of new lines slowed, the railroads themselves grew in importance. Trains became longer and faster, passenger travel became more comfortable, and direct services across new bridges helped to center Illinois in the railroad network.

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18 Salvation

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

The collapse of the Rock Island and the failure of Penn Central sent shockwaves throughout the railroad industry and beyond. The former suggested that recovery would be a slow process, while the latter indicated that mergers alone could not save the trains. A dramatic shift was needed or they would vanish completely. The ICC paid attention to the consequences of delaying merger proposals, and a period of consolidation followed. Then, in 1980, reacting to the continued decline of the industry, the federal government passed legislation to deregulate railroads. The new law, called the Staggers Act in honor of one of its House sponsors, generated an immediate and positive upswing in virtually all railroad indices. The number of railroad corporations and route mileage in use continued to shrink, but the survivors enjoyed a renaissance, competing effectively with long-distance trucking, creating new markets for their services, and finding favor with Wall Street. Profitability followed.

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11 Excursions and Interurbans

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

Railroads created new markets by advertising special excursion trains for vacationers. Long-distance holiday services gained in popularity as Niagara Falls, the Florida coasts, and other locales became fashionable destinations for escape-minded Illinoisans. Growth in this area did not hinder the development of locally oriented interurban railroads around the turn of the twentieth century. Usually powered by overhead electrical wires and using lightweight equipment, interurbans attracted capital and customers in the first twenty or so years of the new century by offering speedy trips between towns. Illinois was home to two of the nation’s largest interurban networks, including one audacious but unsuccessful attempt to link Chicago with St. Louis. Interurbans signaled the desire for fast, frequent, comfortable services and, ultimately, for the types of freedom and mobility automobiles would offer.

Taking a vacation of any distance in the nineteenth century involved riding a train. Railroads catered to a growing taste for travel by operating popular and inexpensive excursions, giving rise to the somewhat exaggerated saying “it was cheaper to travel than to stay at home.” Excursions—literally, to run out—provided cheap vacations for people whose horizons might otherwise remain restricted to their immediate surroundings. Group outings were commonplace and often garnered positive press coverage, serving as early tourist advertisements. An account of a trip to Madison, Wisconsin, for example, described the destination as “the most attractive point for an excursion . . . the prettiest city in the northwest,” where the visitors were treated “with great cordiality.” Methodists created camp-meeting grounds across Illinois and hired trains to get there, highlighted by the Des Plaines gathering of 1860, which attracted twenty thousand people. The CRI&P offered Illinois Oddfellows special fares to Denver between September and October 1887, for example. The Chicago & Alton sold “excursion tickets” to any station within two hundred miles of its line, offered in cooperation with nine other railroads serving Kansas City. Organizations booked round-trip journeys to special events, as with the Chicago-area teachers’ “Grand Excursion” on the Michigan Central for the 1896 National Education Association convention in Buffalo, New York. This included a stop at Niagara Halt “overlooking the grandest panorama in the country.”1

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Rushjr Loving (51)
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5 An Eleventh Hour Surprise

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

As McClellan—now at the Central—watched the merger’s inevitable approach, he and the other junior officers of the two railroads grew increasingly apprehensive. Although they could not imagine its impact, they were about to be caught in the middle of the biggest debacle the transportation industry had ever experienced. For McClellan it would be a watershed that would determine everything he was to experience or do for the rest of his life.

If the Central had joined with the C&O–B&O and the Pennsy with the N&W, it would have created two competitive lines. Instead, they were being amalgamated out of fear, not from some grand dream of creating a better transport system. “I didn’t think it was a particularly good merger, but we were trapped into some kind of merger,” Perlman said later. They had too many tracks, too many yards, too much railroad, and they needed to cut back by consolidating. It did not seem normal for two such fierce competitors to join up. “Those of us inside the New York Central or Pennsy said, ‘This is an unnatural act! Not the way to go. This is crazy. It’s going to be a monopoly,’” said McClellan. In his view, railroads got lazy and unimaginative when they held monopolies.

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10 Some High Society Sex

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

As the snowdrifts melted and the flowers started blooming on Philadelphia’s Main Line, Stuart Saunders was still demanding savings, but no one could find anything else to cut—except for workers, but that would have cost millions because of the labor agreement. More urgently than ever, Saunders and David Bevan went on searching for new capital, but now no source seemed left but Washington.

Bevan and Saunders were walking a high-wire, because one was trying to keep the financiers thinking all was relatively well while the other was trying to convince Washington that Penn Central’s straits were so dire that help was imperative. This, plus the constant search for more savings and more paper profits, would tax the time and imagination of the most formidable chief executive officer, and although a man of whirlwind energy, Saunders’s days were being stretched to the limit. In the middle of all that, the chairman’s attention and even valuable working hours were captured and diverted by a much more personal concern that was so well guarded that only three or four of his closest aides ever knew of it.

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13 Booted Off the Property

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

As he had watched Penn Central unravel from his post at the Federal Railway Administration, Jim McClellan had continued exploring ways to relieve Penn Central of its passenger losses. He and the staff of the ICC had found that while the railroads were overstating the losses, the railroad labor unions and politicians who advocated continuing passenger trains were understating them by a significant margin. Moreover, not only Penn Central but all the nation’s railroads were losing more and more cash every month on passenger services.

Their report had been sent to Congress in July 1969, sparking a Senate hearing two months later when Stuart Saunders had traveled down to urge immediate government action. Some senators had responded with open skepticism. “This house is on fire now, and it has been on fire for some time!” Saunders had retorted.

The problem was lack of revenue and high costs. The railroads had a market share of only 7.5 percent, and train after train was leaving the station nearly empty. For example, two Penn Central trains between Harrisburg and Buffalo were carrying an average of only 17 passengers apiece. Just after its merger, Penn Central was allowed to discontinue two trains that ran between St. Louis and the Indiana/Ohio border that carried an average of only seven passengers a day at a loss of more than a half-million dollars a year. The passenger business had once been as profitable as it was glamorous. Twenty-six percent of the Pennsylvania Railroad’s operating revenues in 1900 had come from passenger service. Except for those people who journeyed by river or coastal steamer, the railroad industry’s market share of intercity travelers had been essentially 100 percent. Forty years later, private automobiles had accounted for nearly 90 percent of the mileage traveled by intercity passengers, and railroads had provided only 7.5 percent. Cars would retain pretty much that share of the market for the decades to come.

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17 Merging Railroads over Bourbon

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

Claude Brinegar had been wasting no time. Just a few months after the 45-Day Report, knowing that the new bill would require an even more detailed study of the problem by DOT, he had put to work a team of analysts, Jim McClellan among them. Viewing his brief March report to Congress as merely the forerunner of more advice and counsel, Brinegar wanted a document that would outline the kind of rail system that the region between the Mississippi and the Mid-Atlantic and New England needed. The secretary intended that it become a blueprint for resolving the crisis, and that is what the new law was to require of him. “Brinegar had us solving a problem,” said the Federal Railway Administration’s Bill Loftus. “We were searching for the solution, but Brinegar wanted a nongovernment solution.”

The network that would result had to be solvent and strong enough to provide dependable service to the region’s shippers. Early in their study the FRA staff agreed that they must look at all the railroads in the region, healthy as well as sick. Unquestionably, a lot of blood would flow. For instance, a line that wound past the estates of northern Baltimore and through the Amish farms of southern Pennsylvania had carried for decades the Pennsy’s sleepers and express trains bound from Washington to Harrisburg, Buffalo, Pittsburgh, and points west. Now it bore not one passenger train and barely any freight. Just to the west lay the tracks of the Western Maryland Railway, which paralleled the Pennsylvania almost all the way to York and carried at least five times the tonnage that moved over the Pennsy line.

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24 John Snow, CEO

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

Norfolk Southern may have lost the round, but the war was by no means over, and while NS licked its wounds, McClellan assessed its mistakes. Quickly he concluded that in the next confrontation he and the others would concentrate on the media and geographical targets that were important and try not to spread themselves so thin. Furthermore, they would not let themselves be constrained by price. Norfolk had more money than CSX. It should be willing, if needed, to outspend its opponent.

In the meantime, Norfolk Southern expanded by acquiring a moving van company. Of much greater importance, the railroad bought the rights to a new kind of highway trailer that was designed so that railroad wheels could be attached to it, thereby enabling it to run both on the road and on the tracks, where it was pulled along on the back of a train. Since NS’s corporate symbol was a racehorse, the marketing department named the new enterprise Triple Crown Service. The innovative van would some day help boost Norfolk’s intermodal revenues to the point where they excelled income from every commodity the railroad carried, except coal.

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Reevy Tony (6)
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PORTFOLIO TWO: OWI: Chicago

Reevy, Tony Indiana University Press PDF

PORTFOLIO T WO

OWI: CHIC AGO

PLAYER WITH RAILROADS AND THE

NATION’S FREIGHT HANDLER . . .

FROM “CHIC AGO,” BY C ARL SANDBURG

After a steep decline in activity during the years of the Great

Depression, the railroads of the United States were suddenly faced with an onslaught of traffic as the country prepared for, and entered, World

War II. Since passenger travel was still largely by rail during this period, the increase included dramatic expansions of freight and passenger traffic, the latter driven both by troop trains and by restrictions on civilian purchases of items such as tires and gasoline.1

Chicago, as the most important railroad interchange point in the

United States, was dramatically impacted by this upsurge in railway traffic. Roy Stryker, as ever the strategic thinker behind the FSA and

OWI photographers and their assignments, had long viewed the railroad as an important part of the American scene.2 In late 1942, Stryker sent Jack Delano to Chicago to conduct an extended project focused on documenting the railroad industry’s contribution to the US war effort.3

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PORTFOLIO FOUR: FSA/OWI: The American Railroad in Color, 1940–1943

Reevy, Tony Indiana University Press PDF

PORTFOLIO FOUR

FSA /OWI: THE AMERIC AN RAILROAD IN COLOR, 1940 –1943

Kodachrome, introduced in the mid-1930s, proved to be one of the best and most durable color films used for the next seventy years.1 The film was used for both still and motion picture cameras, and was available in a variety of formats. The rise of so-called “E-6” films such as Ektachrome and Fujichrome and the widespread adoption of digital media, combined with the complex methods required to process

Kodachrome, led to its discontinuance in 2009. Kodachrome’s widespread use in the decades after its introduction, along with its relative resistance to color-format challenges such as color shifts, is a boon to those interested in period, color documentation of the American scene from 1935 through 2010.

The introduction of Kodachrome coincided with the opening of the Historical Section in 1935. Although the vast majority of FSA/OWI images were shot in black-and-white, a substantive number of images were recorded using color film. According to the Library of Congress website, about 1,600 color FSA/OWI images were made between 1939 and 1944. Most of the FSA color images are color slides shot on Kodachrome 35mm film; others are color transparencies in sizes as large as 4 × 5 inches. The OWI images, which include most of Delano’s railroad-subject FSA/OWI images, are color transparencies in sizes up to

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Appendix One: Notes on the Plate Captions and on the Plates

Reevy, Tony Indiana University Press PDF

APPENDIX ONE

NOTES ON THE PLATE C AP TIONS AND ON THE PLATES

Notes on the Photograph Titles in the Plate Captions

The captions are as the photographer prepared them. Generally, the only changes that have been made are minor corrections to capitalization (for example, “Union Station” for “Union station”), incorrect punctuation or character spacing (for example, “E. K. Hill” for “E.K. Hill”), and abbreviations (such as substituting names of states for their abbreviated forms). James E. Valle, in his groundbreaking 1977 book, The Iron

Horse at War, did not use Delano’s captions, but instead provided his own, extended captions. The design and photographic reproduction in his book does not reflect contemporary art-book standards, but these extended captions provide a wealth of information for those who desire more background on the subjects of the 272 Delano photographs included in the book. The Iron Horse at War covers only Delano’s blackand-white Chicago and Santa Fe photographs; it does not cover his FSA railroad-subject work, nor does it include any color photographs.

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Appendix Two: Roy Stryker’s FSA/OWI Shooting Scripts concerning American Railroads

Reevy, Tony Indiana University Press PDF

APPENDIX T WO

ROY STRYKER’S FSA /OWI SHOOTING SCRIP TS CONCERNING AMERIC AN RAILROADS

Historical Section head Roy Stryker prepared “shooting scripts,” also termed “assignments” or “outlines,” both for the photographers working for him generally, and also for named photographers being sent on specific assignments. A relatively large number of these shooting scripts – five are known to exist – concerned American railroads. They are both historically interesting and also of value for railroad-subject photographers today. All of the known railroad-subject shooting scripts are presented here together for the first time. They are reproduced as Stryker wrote them, with italics used here in place of his underlining.

A fascinating aspect of these scripts is the depth of railroad knowledge Stryker demonstrates; for example, his knowing the details of how men lived and ate in work trains at the time, and that there were hand-powered and motorized track inspection cars during this period.

Stryker also demonstrates a strong knowledge of existing photographic work concerning American railroads at the time; for example, see his mention in one of the scripts of the “wealth of material already in existence” depicting American locomotives.

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PORTFOLIO ONE: The Farm Security Administration Photos, 1940–1942

Reevy, Tony Indiana University Press PDF

PORTFOLIO ONE

THE FARM SECURIT Y ADMINISTRATION PHOTOS, 1940 –1942

Figure 1.1. Washington, DC. Portrait of

Jack Delano, Office of War Information photographer. September 1942. John Collier.

Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, FSAOWI Collection, Reproduction Number LC-USF34-014739-E.

In February 1940, Roy Stryker, chief of the FSA Historical Section, wrote to John R. Fischer, director of the Division of Information:

We are going to have to move fast to get a new man on the payroll to replace Arthur Rothstein. As you know, it is not going to be the easiest thing in the world to find a man to take hold of Arthur’s job and get into the swing of production in the manner of Lee, Rothstein, and

Post. . . . We have already found the man, Mr. Jack Delano. . . . We have an outstanding person. He is an artist by training, and has used the camera for several years. He did one of the finest jobs on the story of the coal miners in the anthracite region that I have ever seen. A man that can turn out as excellent a job is not to be lost.1

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R4educated Solutions (12)
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Chapter 1: The Challenges Facing English Language Learners and Their Teachers

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

1

The Challenges Facing English Language Learners and Their Teachers

Every student should have equitable and optimal opportunities to learn mathematics free from bias—intentional or unintentional—based on race, gender, socioeconomic status, or language. In order to close the achievement gap, all students need the opportunity to learn challenging mathematics from a well-qualified teacher who will make connections to the background, needs, and cultures of all learners.

—National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

Reflection 1.1

Choose one or more of the following questions, and respond in the margin. Write from your heart, your beliefs, and your past experience. Compare your answers to those on page 131.

•   Why do some students transition to English very quickly while others attend English-speaking schools for many years without acquiring academic English?

•   How can we make grade-level mathematics accessible to all students regardless of language proficiency?

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Chapter 5: Applying Strategies for ELLs: A 5E Lesson

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

5

Applying Strategies for ELLs: A 5E Lesson

Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous.

—Confucius

In the first four chapters, we examined the needs of English language learners and how to support them in the affective, linguistic, and cognitive domains. The question now arises of how to incorporate the tools, practices, and strategies into practical classroom use. Perhaps you are asking yourself:

•   What does a lesson look like that meets the needs of my English language learners?

•   How can I meet the needs of my English language learners and still meet the needs of other students in my classroom?

Echevarria, Vogt, and Short (2004) identify the critical instructional features necessary for the academic and language development of English language learners.

Lesson preparation: Planning should result in lessons that enable students to make connections between their knowledge and experiences and the new information being taught.

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Appendix D: Reproducibles for Lesson on Three-Dimensional Figures

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

Appendix D

Reproducibles for Lesson on Three-Dimensional Figures

Who Am I?

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Cooperative Grouping Guide Cards

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Vocabulary Organizer

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Three-Dimensional Geometric Figures Cards

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Three-Dimensional Geometric Figures

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

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Chapter 2: Providing Affective Supports for English Language Learners

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

2

Providing Affective Supports for English Language Learners

There are hundreds of languages in the world, but a smile speaks them all.

—Anonymous

Reflection 2.1

Imagine you are going to be an exchange student in a country where you do not know the language. What positive classroom aspects could motivate you to learn the language relatively quickly? Compare your answers to those on page 133.

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000) has articulated the importance of a positive classroom climate in learning mathematics. The classroom environment communicates subtle messages about what is valued in learning and doing mathematics and encourages students to participate in the learning and doing of mathematics. The English language learner’s first impression of the classroom and the teacher sets the tone for learning and success. Putting yourself in the place of the student and envisioning what would make you feel welcome will put you on the right path toward creating a positive classroom climate that meets the needs of English language learners in learning mathematics.

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Chapter 4: Providing Cognitive Supports for English Language Learners

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

4

Providing Cognitive Supports for English Language Learners

The true spirit of delight, the exaltation, the sense of being more than Man, which is the touchstone of the highest excellence, is to be found in mathematics as surely as in poetry.

—Bertrand Russell

In chapter 2, we looked at factors that affect language acquisition. Since the factor over which educators have the most control is the quality of instruction, we will continue to emphasize the importance of the role of the mathematics teacher as we look at increasing student understanding, participating, and communicating. In much the same way that we examined how to provide linguistic supports for language acquisition in chapter 3, here we will examine how to provide cognitive supports for the development of the skills, conceptual understanding, and thought processes that lead to mathematical proficiency.

When students encounter a word problem, they must not only read the text but also decode the mathematics involved. They must determine relevant concepts, including whether there is extraneous information, and decide which operations to use on any numbers.

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