William D Middleton (23)
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10 A Diverse Inventor

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

As an inventor, Frank Sprague presents us with a complex character of sometimes seemingly contradictory traits. On the one hand, he provides a textbook example of the “inventor’s shop” model of focused, directed research on a specific set of design problems—working with his colleagues and employees methodically testing and revising designs in a disciplined shop environment. On the other hand, he also displayed characteristics more in accordance with the “lone inventor” stereotype—jotting down ideas and plans as they occurred to him, on nearly any design problem that presented itself during his daily business. Throughout his career, Sprague relied on both spontaneous creativity in recognizing and meeting design challenges, and disciplined, methodical work in refining his ideas. He combined both of these traits with an indomitable sense of purpose and tireless zeal for pursuing and promoting his ideas, as well as asserting his priority to specific inventions or design elements, particularly when he believed himself to be in the right. He must at times have seemed to his “opponents,” and probably to some of his colleagues as well, as something of a gadfly. He did not accept failure easily, and at times persevered against the odds to his cost. We will return to this aspect of Sprague the inventor below.

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11 An Inventor and Engineer to the End

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

In July 1927 Frank Sprague moved into the 70th year of his life, and one might have expected him to begin easing up on the level of his work, or to have begun to enjoy the pleasures of a life of semiretirement. But this, of course, would not have been Frank Sprague. From the time of his youth onward he had always held these strong interests in an extraordinary range of diverse topics, and he would hold them throughout his life.

Sprague, working with his eldest son, Desmond, would continue his long-running work on his Sprague Safety Control & Signaling Corp. until well into the 1930s. He was in his 69th year when he began work on his innovative dual car elevator design in 1926. And before the end of the decade he would begin his work on his patented Universal Electric Sign System which would use massed electric lamps to display a great variety of signs in either still or moving arrangements, and which could move in different arrangements and at different speeds. At least one example of the Sprague sign technology used was a large moving sign that he designed as part of the Time-Fortune exhibit at the 1933–1934 Chicago Century of Progress Exhibition.

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12 Epilogue

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

Frank Sprague and Thomas Edison were contemporaries as electrical engineers and inventors in the exciting new world of electricity in the latter part of the nineteenth century. They sometimes worked in cooperation, and sometimes in competition with such great early electrical engineers as Nikola Tesla, Alexander Graham Bell, Elihu Thomson, George Westinghouse, or Charles Steinmetz. From the time the two men met in June 1878, just after Sprague’s graduation from the U.S. Naval Academy, over the next half-century until Edison’s death in 1931, the relationship between Sprague and Edison was one that varied widely. Working together and supporting each other sometimes, engaging in angry disagreements at others, they always acknowledged each other as great electrical engineers and inventors. They had much in common, both had sharp inquisitive minds, and both would prove to be extraordinarily inventive men.

The two men, however, were very different in the way that they approached an inventive task, and this might explain some of their disagreements. Edison, who had limited formal education, often used an intuitive approach, frequently spending hours or days working with different materials—sometimes dozens of them—trying to find one that would work well, or work at all. Sprague, on the other hand, benefited from his scientific training and worked in a much more directed process, proceding in a focused way toward specific designs. Sprague worked according to a set of proven principles, and regularly used mathematics to help resolve questions or achieve the proper design of an instrument.

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1 A Boyhood in New England

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

Milford, Connecticut, is now a city of more than 50,000 residents, lying some 10 miles southwest of New Haven and stretching along the shores of Long Island Sound. Milford grew large only in the recent past with the growth that followed World War II, but it has been there a long time. What became Milford, named after the English city, was purchased by English settlers from the chief of the local Paugusset tribe in 1639, making it the sixth oldest community in Connecticut. Even today Milford retains much of the character that dates to the nineteenth century and before. The Wepawaug River winds down through the town and into the oyster-rich estuary of Long Island Sound. Just west of the river, Milford’s carefully maintained “town green”—the second longest in all New England, boast the residents—stretches a block wide and six blocks long. The green of the square is intermingled with trees and monuments from Milford’s—and America’s—past.

A century and a half ago Milford had scarcely 2,500 residents, and the working population was occupied with farming, oystering, shipbuilding, and a few industrial plants, while the Long Island Sound shore served as a beach resort for residents of New Haven and Bridgeport. The young David Cummings Sprague came to Milford about 1852 to become a plant superintendent for a hat manufacturing firm, one of many in the southwest Connecticut area centered on Danbury that made the state a major supplier of hats. Born in Wardsboro, Vermont, in 1833, D. C. Sprague was one of ten children born to Joshua Sprague, who was of the eighth American generation descended from Ralph Sprague. The latter had left England from the hamlet of Upwey in Devonshire in 1628.1

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1 Western European Trains

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

Western European Trains. A Holyhead-Crewe train emerges from the ornate tunnel portal at Conwy, Wales.

 

1

THE UNITED KINGDOM WAS THE BIRTHPLACE of the railroad and brought to it such things as the world’s predominance of British standard gauge, the early technology and development of the steam locomotive, the basic formation of trains made up of locomotives and cars, train ordering, train braking, and one of the most important of all, the technology and development of the construction of the civil works that supported the railway. In these civil works were some of the most significant differences often found between British and American practice. In the British Isles, the cities and towns were well developed, and agriculture, mining, and manufacturing were already well established. Thus the British could build the new railways to high standards and could likely begin operations with good traffic from already developed resources.

In the United States, in contrast, cities and towns, commerce, and financial support were often less well developed, and the railways were forced to build to a much lower standard, just enough to run the railroad, with the expectation that when traffic was built up the roadbed and its structures could be rebuilt to better standards. And the farther west the railroads went, the more likely that this was true. A new British railway, on the other hand, would likely build its roadbed to high standards of curvature and grade; such appurtenances as culverts, tunnel portals, and the like were often masonry with decorative work of stone on brick; and longer, high bridge structures were commonly masonry. Large bridges were also built in wrought iron or steel, designed for the specific locations, and put together on the site by skilled ironworkers. New U.S. railroads were often built with the lightest iron rail that would carry the loads, and crossties were made with whatever wood could be located in the vicinity. There was little ballast employed: sometimes ashes, dirt, or none at all. Treatment of crossties was seldom seen. The favorite material for building smaller bridges was timber ties, while later wrought iron and steel members were often from a factory and assembled in a post-and-pin manner.

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Simon Cordery (18)
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10 Bridge Building and “Overbuilding”

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

Illinois railroad expansion began to fall behind national growth rates in the 1870s and 1880s. For the decade of the 1870s, railroads built 3,095 route miles in Illinois, adding 64 percent compared with 76 percent nationally, but in the 1880s, Illinois’s 26 percent fell dramatically behind the nation’s 79 percent of added mileage. The reasons were simple: railroads continued to push farther west, while the development of new lines slowed in the Prairie State as it did elsewhere east of the Mississippi River. Nationally, more track was laid during the 1880s than in any other decade in US history. The 73,741 route miles built between 1881 and 1890 represented a two-thirds increase over all rail laid in the United States before 1880.

By 1880 some observers began to complain of “overbuilding” east of the Mississippi, by which they meant that newly constructed lines duplicated existing routes and, consequently, neither could be profitable. In Illinois approximately two thousand route miles were built in the 1880s, still an impressive amount. In northern Illinois the “Little Grangers” made tentative forays into the state, while the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe finalized its long-awaited entrance into Chicago. Though the construction of new lines slowed, the railroads themselves grew in importance. Trains became longer and faster, passenger travel became more comfortable, and direct services across new bridges helped to center Illinois in the railroad network.

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11 Excursions and Interurbans

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

Railroads created new markets by advertising special excursion trains for vacationers. Long-distance holiday services gained in popularity as Niagara Falls, the Florida coasts, and other locales became fashionable destinations for escape-minded Illinoisans. Growth in this area did not hinder the development of locally oriented interurban railroads around the turn of the twentieth century. Usually powered by overhead electrical wires and using lightweight equipment, interurbans attracted capital and customers in the first twenty or so years of the new century by offering speedy trips between towns. Illinois was home to two of the nation’s largest interurban networks, including one audacious but unsuccessful attempt to link Chicago with St. Louis. Interurbans signaled the desire for fast, frequent, comfortable services and, ultimately, for the types of freedom and mobility automobiles would offer.

Taking a vacation of any distance in the nineteenth century involved riding a train. Railroads catered to a growing taste for travel by operating popular and inexpensive excursions, giving rise to the somewhat exaggerated saying “it was cheaper to travel than to stay at home.” Excursions—literally, to run out—provided cheap vacations for people whose horizons might otherwise remain restricted to their immediate surroundings. Group outings were commonplace and often garnered positive press coverage, serving as early tourist advertisements. An account of a trip to Madison, Wisconsin, for example, described the destination as “the most attractive point for an excursion . . . the prettiest city in the northwest,” where the visitors were treated “with great cordiality.” Methodists created camp-meeting grounds across Illinois and hired trains to get there, highlighted by the Des Plaines gathering of 1860, which attracted twenty thousand people. The CRI&P offered Illinois Oddfellows special fares to Denver between September and October 1887, for example. The Chicago & Alton sold “excursion tickets” to any station within two hundred miles of its line, offered in cooperation with nine other railroads serving Kansas City. Organizations booked round-trip journeys to special events, as with the Chicago-area teachers’ “Grand Excursion” on the Michigan Central for the 1896 National Education Association convention in Buffalo, New York. This included a stop at Niagara Halt “overlooking the grandest panorama in the country.”1

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12 Coal and Competition

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

Coal lies beneath two-thirds of Illinois and has been mined at one time or another in three-quarters of the state’s counties. More than 7,400 mines have operated within the Prairie State’s borders. Illinois is in a bituminous (soft coal) field also covering much of Indiana, Ohio, and western Pennsylvania, providing a source of power for individuals and industries along the East Coast and into the Midwest. The price of Illinois coal fluctuated with national demand trends and regulatory shifts, creating periods of boom and bust over which mining companies had almost no control.1 Railroads were likewise at the mercy of the marketplace until they built lines into coal fields, contracting directly with the mines for the resource.

Coal was vital to the financial health of the railroads, but the operational and commercial problems of finding and transporting it were not the only challenges the railroads faced at the beginning of the twentieth century. In 1915 between three-quarters and four-fifths of total rail revenue came from freight, but the rates being charged in 1915 were virtually the same as they had been in 1900 despite prices rising by 30 percent. The Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) refused to grant anything other than minimal rate increases.2 This situation, coupled with a disastrous takeover, led to the Rock Island’s first bankruptcy.

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13 Progressive Regulation

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

The perceived excesses symbolized by the Reid-Moore syndicate’s bleeding of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway contributed to a political and social climate conducive to further regulation. Behind this renewed regulatory fervor was a fear of dependence on enormous economic entities. Corporations appeared to be getting too big, too powerful, and too likely to control an entire industry. Democratic republics were not supposed to give rise to monopolies dominating entire sectors of the economy, but that is precisely what seemed to be happening. When Minnesota-based railroader James J. Hill and Wall Street banker J. P. Morgan merged the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy into a holding company already containing the Northern Pacific and the Great Northern Railroads, the government called foul. President Theodore Roosevelt, spurning Morgan’s gentlemanly offer to “send your man to see my man and tell him to fix it up,” instead mobilized the might of the federal government and established a precedent for future trust busting.

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14 World War I and the 1920s

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

The First World War—or the “war to end all wars,” as President Woodrow Wilson called it—nearly brought private ownership of the railroads to an end. Refusing to cooperate and unwilling to coordinate train movements, the lines became so congested in the East and so empty in the West that the federal government took them over. Plans were prepared, and seriously considered, to leave the trains in government hands at war’s end. But the probusiness Republican Party regained power in 1920 and the owners regained their property. The 1920s witnessed a massive program of railroad improvements when as much total capital was expended on railroad physical plant and rolling stock as had been the case during the entire history of the industry up to 1920. Yet even as the railroads improved, public policy turned slowly toward highways. During the 1920s the state of Illinois ranked first in the nation for miles of concrete roadways, and a vibrant auto-building industry developed.1 The Good Roads movement continued to gain adherents, and traffic switched slowly but surely from rail to truck, car, and bus with devastating long-term effects for Illinois railroads.

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Rushjr Loving (51)
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10 Some High Society Sex

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

As the snowdrifts melted and the flowers started blooming on Philadelphia’s Main Line, Stuart Saunders was still demanding savings, but no one could find anything else to cut—except for workers, but that would have cost millions because of the labor agreement. More urgently than ever, Saunders and David Bevan went on searching for new capital, but now no source seemed left but Washington.

Bevan and Saunders were walking a high-wire, because one was trying to keep the financiers thinking all was relatively well while the other was trying to convince Washington that Penn Central’s straits were so dire that help was imperative. This, plus the constant search for more savings and more paper profits, would tax the time and imagination of the most formidable chief executive officer, and although a man of whirlwind energy, Saunders’s days were being stretched to the limit. In the middle of all that, the chairman’s attention and even valuable working hours were captured and diverted by a much more personal concern that was so well guarded that only three or four of his closest aides ever knew of it.

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10 “The Greatest Thing Since Sex and Watermelon”

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 10

“The Greatest Thing Since Sex & Watermelon”

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

ONCE THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION AND THE Interstate Commerce Commission had verified my Penn Central exposé, I was able to take on Gil Burck’s mantle as the magazine’s transportation specialist, and I went at it with exultation. The first piece was about United Air Lines. Six months after Penn Central’s fall, recognizing they should avoid the mistakes of the railroad’s board, United’s directors had staged a coup, replacing the company’s president with the man who ran a hotel chain the airline owned—Edward E. Carlson, who became one of the best chief executives in the air transport industry. Eddie, who started as a bellhop, turned around United in a year.

It was the makings of a magnificent story, and adding to it, I was able to ferret out how the directors had come to this wrenching decision. It was a drama from inside the boardroom, a place where reporters never ventured. The story caused a sensation, stirring the directors of Pan American World Airways to oust their CEO and causing other publications to begin producing boardroom dramas.

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11 The Merger That Worked

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 11

The Merger That Worked

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

THE PENN CENTRAL CRASH WAS SO DEVASTATING MANY railroaders and some journalists, including this one, were wondering whether any railroad as large as Penn Central would ever work. But when the Northern Pacific, Great Northern, and Chicago, Burlington and Quincy roads all came together, creating Burlington Northern, the merger did.

I was on my way home from Chicago one afternoon in early spring of 1972 and stopped by United Air Lines to see Eddie Carlson, who had asked me to visit him next time I was in town. When it came time for my flight, Eddie offered to drop me off on his way home, and as we neared O’Hare, I mentioned I was searching for another story, preferably one on transportation. “I met a very interesting man named Lou Menk the other day,” said Eddie. “He’s president of Burlington Northern, and he’s put together a successful merger. You ought to meet him.”

A few weeks later I was at BN’s headquarters in St. Paul talking to Louis W. Menk, and what I was finding confirmed that the merger was indeed working. The company’s 1971 ordinary earnings had totaled $35 million, a healthy 34 percent increase over 1970, the year in which the roads had merged. They were saving $4.4 million a year by combining local freight trains and another $7 million by laying off duplicate office workers.

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11 “They Are Going to Run Out of Cash”

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

When he arrived at the Treasury, Stuart Saunders confided to Secretary David Kennedy that commercial paper was being redeemed faster than it was being sold, and he described the tightening bind on Penn Central’s cash supply. The debenture offering appeared doomed, he said, and if he could not obtain government guarantees for further loans, the railroad subsidiary, Penn Central Transportation Co., would have to consider filing for bankruptcy within the next few days.

Kennedy was stunned, all the more so because he was former chairman of Continental Illinois Bank & Trust Co., which held $15 million of Penn Central’s debt. He also was alarmed because the stock market already was in a serious slump and news of the bankruptcy of a company as large and venerable as Penn Central could trigger a chain reaction, if not an outright panic. Most of the nation’s largest banks were its creditors. Penn Central’s collapse would bring heavy losses as well to many of the country’s large mutual funds.

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12 The Dinner Debate with Graham Claytor

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 12

The Dinner Debate with Graham Claytor

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

PENN CENTRAL WAS NOT THE ONLY TROUBLED RAILROAD IN the Northeast. Smaller lines there and in the Midwest were ill as well. By late 1972, seven of the Northeast’s eleven largest railroads were in bankruptcy, and two were tottering so badly their creditors were demanding that they be liquidated. They were suffering because trucks were draining their traffic base and they were burdened by too many routes. Worse yet, the regulators in Washington were indifferent when the roads pled to abandon excess tracks and money-losing services or to offset higher costs by raising their rates.

One night I was having dinner in New York with Graham Claytor and several of his top officers. As usual we began tossing ideas back and forth. This evening, as we began our appetizers, Claytor launched into a long spiel about the bankruptcy problem. As he went on laying out the dilemma that faced the industry, his concern became increasingly visible, for some legislators were even talking of nationalizing all the railroads, a prospect that disturbed both of us.

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Reevy Tony (6)
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Appendix One: Notes on the Plate Captions and on the Plates

Reevy, Tony Indiana University Press PDF

APPENDIX ONE

NOTES ON THE PLATE C AP TIONS AND ON THE PLATES

Notes on the Photograph Titles in the Plate Captions

The captions are as the photographer prepared them. Generally, the only changes that have been made are minor corrections to capitalization (for example, “Union Station” for “Union station”), incorrect punctuation or character spacing (for example, “E. K. Hill” for “E.K. Hill”), and abbreviations (such as substituting names of states for their abbreviated forms). James E. Valle, in his groundbreaking 1977 book, The Iron

Horse at War, did not use Delano’s captions, but instead provided his own, extended captions. The design and photographic reproduction in his book does not reflect contemporary art-book standards, but these extended captions provide a wealth of information for those who desire more background on the subjects of the 272 Delano photographs included in the book. The Iron Horse at War covers only Delano’s blackand-white Chicago and Santa Fe photographs; it does not cover his FSA railroad-subject work, nor does it include any color photographs.

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Appendix Two: Roy Stryker’s FSA/OWI Shooting Scripts concerning American Railroads

Reevy, Tony Indiana University Press PDF

APPENDIX T WO

ROY STRYKER’S FSA /OWI SHOOTING SCRIP TS CONCERNING AMERIC AN RAILROADS

Historical Section head Roy Stryker prepared “shooting scripts,” also termed “assignments” or “outlines,” both for the photographers working for him generally, and also for named photographers being sent on specific assignments. A relatively large number of these shooting scripts – five are known to exist – concerned American railroads. They are both historically interesting and also of value for railroad-subject photographers today. All of the known railroad-subject shooting scripts are presented here together for the first time. They are reproduced as Stryker wrote them, with italics used here in place of his underlining.

A fascinating aspect of these scripts is the depth of railroad knowledge Stryker demonstrates; for example, his knowing the details of how men lived and ate in work trains at the time, and that there were hand-powered and motorized track inspection cars during this period.

Stryker also demonstrates a strong knowledge of existing photographic work concerning American railroads at the time; for example, see his mention in one of the scripts of the “wealth of material already in existence” depicting American locomotives.

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PORTFOLIO FOUR: FSA/OWI: The American Railroad in Color, 1940–1943

Reevy, Tony Indiana University Press PDF

PORTFOLIO FOUR

FSA /OWI: THE AMERIC AN RAILROAD IN COLOR, 1940 –1943

Kodachrome, introduced in the mid-1930s, proved to be one of the best and most durable color films used for the next seventy years.1 The film was used for both still and motion picture cameras, and was available in a variety of formats. The rise of so-called “E-6” films such as Ektachrome and Fujichrome and the widespread adoption of digital media, combined with the complex methods required to process

Kodachrome, led to its discontinuance in 2009. Kodachrome’s widespread use in the decades after its introduction, along with its relative resistance to color-format challenges such as color shifts, is a boon to those interested in period, color documentation of the American scene from 1935 through 2010.

The introduction of Kodachrome coincided with the opening of the Historical Section in 1935. Although the vast majority of FSA/OWI images were shot in black-and-white, a substantive number of images were recorded using color film. According to the Library of Congress website, about 1,600 color FSA/OWI images were made between 1939 and 1944. Most of the FSA color images are color slides shot on Kodachrome 35mm film; others are color transparencies in sizes as large as 4 × 5 inches. The OWI images, which include most of Delano’s railroad-subject FSA/OWI images, are color transparencies in sizes up to

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PORTFOLIO ONE: The Farm Security Administration Photos, 1940–1942

Reevy, Tony Indiana University Press PDF

PORTFOLIO ONE

THE FARM SECURIT Y ADMINISTRATION PHOTOS, 1940 –1942

Figure 1.1. Washington, DC. Portrait of

Jack Delano, Office of War Information photographer. September 1942. John Collier.

Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, FSAOWI Collection, Reproduction Number LC-USF34-014739-E.

In February 1940, Roy Stryker, chief of the FSA Historical Section, wrote to John R. Fischer, director of the Division of Information:

We are going to have to move fast to get a new man on the payroll to replace Arthur Rothstein. As you know, it is not going to be the easiest thing in the world to find a man to take hold of Arthur’s job and get into the swing of production in the manner of Lee, Rothstein, and

Post. . . . We have already found the man, Mr. Jack Delano. . . . We have an outstanding person. He is an artist by training, and has used the camera for several years. He did one of the finest jobs on the story of the coal miners in the anthracite region that I have ever seen. A man that can turn out as excellent a job is not to be lost.1

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PORTFOLIO THREE: OWI: Across the Continent on the Santa Fe

Reevy, Tony Indiana University Press PDF

PORTFOLIO THREE

OWI: ACROSS THE CONTINENT ON THE SANTA FE

If Chicago was, and is, the great city of American railroading, during World War II the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway

(AT&SF) was, by any measure, one of the great transportation companies. The Pennsylvania Railroad was, by many standards, more important to the United States, the servant of its industrial heartland, but the

Santa Fe was one of the major transcontinentals.1

It was also an innovator, pioneering in its attempts to advance its passenger traffic by encouraging tourist travel. These efforts included acting as a patron for artists of the American West, making notable innovations in advertising, and encouraging the parallel evolution of the famed Fred Harvey Company and its “Harvey Houses” and “Harvey

Girls.” These innovations had ripples throughout American society, including the development of Santa Fe, New Mexico, as an internationally significant art center, and the great and lasting popularity of the

Grand Canyon as a tourist attraction.

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R4educated Solutions (12)
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Appendix A: Selected Glossary

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

Appendix A

Selected Glossary

Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS): This is the language ability required for social communication. It takes between one and three years to attain this basic level of oral proficiency.

bilingual education: Students are allowed to develop language proficiency in two languages by receiving instruction in some combination of English and the student’s primary language.

cognates: These are words in English closely related to the student’s primary language.

Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP): This refers to the mastery of academic language necessary for students to succeed in context-reduced and cognitively demanding content areas. It takes between five and ten years for a second-language student to perform at grade level without ELL support.

comprehensible input: This is content in which the level of language difficulty has been adapted to the student’s proficiency level to enable him or her to understand.

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Appendix B: English/Spanish Cognates in Math

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

Appendix B

English/Spanish Cognates in Math

English

Spanish

activity

actividad

algebraic

algebraico

analyze

analizar

apply

aplicar

appropriate unit

unidad apropiada

approximate

aproximado

area

área

bar graph

gráfica de barras

calendar

calendario

capacity

capacidad

circle

círculo

common

común

compare

comparar

conclusion

conclusión

concrete model

modelo concreto

cone

cono

construct (v.)

construir

cube

cubo

cylinder

cilindro

data

datos

day

día

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Appendix C: Sample Responses to Tasks and Reflections

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

Appendix C

Sample Responses to Tasks and Reflections

Reflection 1.1

Some students transition to English very quickly because they are eager to learn, have supportive families, and are encouraged by teachers who care and provide appropriate instruction and a welcoming environment.

Task: Identifying Language Proficiency Levels

Case Study: Li

Early intermediate

Possible indicators:

•   Attempts to speak English but relies heavily on gestures and facial expressions

•   Becomes frustrated when solving word problems

•   Shows some understanding of the lesson vocabulary and concepts

Case Study: Heinz

Proficient

Possible indicators:

•   Understands and uses academic language

•   Demonstrates understanding of abstract mathematical concepts

•   Functions on grade level

•   Uses advanced sentence structure, including academic language, in justifying answers

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Appendix D: Reproducibles for Lesson on Three-Dimensional Figures

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

Appendix D

Reproducibles for Lesson on Three-Dimensional Figures

Who Am I?

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Cooperative Grouping Guide Cards

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Vocabulary Organizer

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Three-Dimensional Geometric Figures Cards

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Three-Dimensional Geometric Figures

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

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Appendix E: Cooperative Grouping for the ELL Classroom

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

Appendix E

Cooperative Grouping for the ELL Classroom

Advanced Preparation

•   Copy, cut, and glue the grouping shapes on page 153 to index cards.

•   Cut teacher cue cards (page 154).

•   Laminate index cards and teacher cue cards to make them last longer.

How to Use

Assign Cooperative Grouping Cards based on the student’s ability level, using the following guide, for example:

•   Beginning and early intermediate English language learners—bear

•   Intermediate English language learners—zebra

•   Advanced English language learners—lion

•   Proficient English language learners—giraffe

Cards will need to be reassigned every two to three weeks based on the amount of cooperative grouping used during the time frame and the changing dynamics of the classroom. For example, the beginning English language learners could be changed to the zebra.

Teacher cue cards will help facilitate smooth group transitions and aid the beginning learners in the classroom.

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