William D Middleton (23)
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4 Across the Middle East from Berlin to Baghdad

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

Crossing the Bosporus. Coming or going to the station, the handsome white and buff ferry boats that served the Bosporus operated between the ferries near the Istanbul center on the European side and Haydarpasa on the Asian side. Just to the north of the ferry stood the distinctive Galata Tower, while to the west was the Galata Bridge, which transited an immense traffic of pedestrians, autos and taxis, streetcars, and prospective ferry riders. Also to the west are the towers of the splendid mosques and buildings of the old city of Seraglio, such as Hagia Sophia or Sultan Ahmed, while to the north, Leander’s Tower can be seen on a small island near the eastern shore. A view of Haydarpasa station across the Bosporus.

 

4

There may have been a rail-shipway somewhere more fascinating than that of Istanbul’s Bosporus, but I have never heard of it. These rail-shipway intersections, where the rail crossing is too great for building a bridge or tunnel link, almost always create a conjunction of great fascination. Southern Pacific’s crossing from East Bay across San Francisco Bay or New York’s big Hudson River ferries that carried great crowds of passengers between the New Jersey terminals and Manhattan were favorites of American train riders, while such rail-water links as the train-ship-train crossings between Great Britain and the Channel terminals of France, Belgium, or Holland were equally popular among European railroad fanciers. These and others, many now gone, had their own supporters, but for me the splendid rail crossing on the Bosporus had become my own special favorite from the first time I saw it in 1961.

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7 A Glimpse of Australia

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

The Sydney Harbour Bridge. One can say with little fear of contradiction that the magnificent Sydney Harbour Bridge ranks among the best works of Australia’s railway infrastructure. Indeed, it stands among a very short list of the world’s greatest railway structures. Construction of the bridge began in 1923, and its opening was celebrated on March 19, 1932. Chief engineer of the bridge was John J. C. Bradfield, who patterned the design after New York’s Hell Gate Bridge. The dimensions of the bridge are massive. Overall, it spans some 3,769 feet, and the span of the main arch itself is 1,650 feet, half again that of the Hell Gate Bridge. The arch reaches a high point of 440 feet, and the bridge clears 161 feet for ships under the main span. The four massive pylons, standing 292 feet high, are enclosed in Moruya granite quarried from a site 190 miles north of the city. Located just north of Sydney’s center, the bridge occupies a splendid position. Just to its south are Sydney’s towering office buildings, just to the east on the south bank is Sydney’s magnificent opera house, while the bridge itself spans above the busy waters of the Sydney Harbour in Port Jackson. The bridge’s eight highway lanes and two rail tracks carry a prodigious traffic. This view of the bridge is from the north shore in September 1991.

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5 Trains of the Far East

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

Japanese Trains: The Super Express of Dreams. Building the world’s fastest railroad brought forth the sleek image of the New Tokaido Line, seen here in a 130 mph eastbound Hikari Super Express at Atami. The front end design suggests why the “Bullet Train” name became so popular.

 

5

Railways were very much an invention of the western world, with the United Kingdom, the United States, and European countries heading the development of the technology for more than a century. When steam engines came to the Far East, they were very much a foreign technology. Quite often early lines continued to be developed by westerners, with equipment and public works that were reminiscent of their country of origin. Only Japan, among all the Far Eastern countries, developed a major railway supply industry.

All of that changed on October 1, 1964, when Japanese National Railways moved into the world’s first rank of railways with the opening of a 320-mile line between Tokyo and Osaka called “The Bullet Train,” or “The Super Express of Dreams,” or – officially – the New Tokaido Line, from the ancient “Eastern Sea Road.” New standards would be required for virtually every part of the line: standards for railway curves, curvature, and track construction; advanced technologies for power supply, signaling, and train control systems; and development of equipment that could sustain 130 mph speeds. Planning and building the line took 5 years and some one billion 1964 dollars. For example, the building of the required tunnels, with sixty-six of them making up more than 10 percent of the line, was very costly. The system was a huge success at the time of its opening, which coincided with the 1964 Olympic Games in Tokyo, and it has grown ever since, with Shinkansen routes now covering 1,388 miles to almost every major point on Kyushu and Honshu and carrying more than 150 million passengers annually. Several generations of equipment that could operate at speeds up to 170 mph have been developed. Overseas, too, countries in Asia, Europe, and North America were already operating or planning new high-speed rail systems.

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3 On the North Edge of Africa

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

On the North Edge of Africa. A 72 mph electric passes through the bountiful Mamora cork forests around Rabat. Westbound Rapide No. 2 was on its way to Casablanca.

 

3

MOROCCO AND ITS CHEMINS DE FER DU MAROC, or Railways of Morocco (CFM), turned out to have a surprisingly modern railroad early in 1951. A substantial part of the railroad – the busiest part of its line – had already been converted to electric power, and the balance of the line haul had been converted to diesel power since the end of World War II. Steam power, mostly secondhand and elderly power – some dated to the Civil War period – was confined to switching service, and this, too, would be gone within the next few years. The CFM even offered premier trains between Casablanca and Algeria (the CA or AC trains, depending on direction of travel) that carried such amenities as Wagons-Lits sleeping and dining cars, while the Casablanca-Tangier express train carried passengers from the Maroc Express, which ran by train through Spain, followed by a steamer across the Gibraltar Straits between Algeciras and Tangier.

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1 Western European Trains

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

Western European Trains. A Holyhead-Crewe train emerges from the ornate tunnel portal at Conwy, Wales.

 

1

THE UNITED KINGDOM WAS THE BIRTHPLACE of the railroad and brought to it such things as the world’s predominance of British standard gauge, the early technology and development of the steam locomotive, the basic formation of trains made up of locomotives and cars, train ordering, train braking, and one of the most important of all, the technology and development of the construction of the civil works that supported the railway. In these civil works were some of the most significant differences often found between British and American practice. In the British Isles, the cities and towns were well developed, and agriculture, mining, and manufacturing were already well established. Thus the British could build the new railways to high standards and could likely begin operations with good traffic from already developed resources.

In the United States, in contrast, cities and towns, commerce, and financial support were often less well developed, and the railways were forced to build to a much lower standard, just enough to run the railroad, with the expectation that when traffic was built up the roadbed and its structures could be rebuilt to better standards. And the farther west the railroads went, the more likely that this was true. A new British railway, on the other hand, would likely build its roadbed to high standards of curvature and grade; such appurtenances as culverts, tunnel portals, and the like were often masonry with decorative work of stone on brick; and longer, high bridge structures were commonly masonry. Large bridges were also built in wrought iron or steel, designed for the specific locations, and put together on the site by skilled ironworkers. New U.S. railroads were often built with the lightest iron rail that would carry the loads, and crossties were made with whatever wood could be located in the vicinity. There was little ballast employed: sometimes ashes, dirt, or none at all. Treatment of crossties was seldom seen. The favorite material for building smaller bridges was timber ties, while later wrought iron and steel members were often from a factory and assembled in a post-and-pin manner.

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Simon Cordery (18)
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3 Optimism Revived

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

Travelers in Illinois during the 1840s may have paused to puzzle over sporadic strips of artificially flattened ground, mute testimony to the recent infatuation with railroads. In Bureau County, for example, work on the original Illinois Central Railroad (ICRR) got no further than “cutting away strips of timber” and leveling small stretches of territory for rails that never arrived. The Jacksonville & Savannah Railroad used land between Canton and Farmington flattened for the Peoria to Warsaw line. Stone culverts and bridge abutments also remained as a memory of the 1837 Illinois Internal Improvements Act. At the southern tip of the state, ribbons of graded land and a lengthy embankment near Cairo, remnants of “the wild State internal improvement craze,” reminded people of how “the State and whole communities were left bankrupt—stranded upon dirt embankments.”1

Disillusionment lasted barely a decade, however. The passion for railroads reignited in the 1850s, and Chicago emerged as a major commercial center. Trains from the east brought in new inhabitants and departed with grain from the prairies. Developments downstate signaled the temporary prominence of Alton and the permanent rise of St. Louis. On a national scale, the ICRR set an important precedent by using federal land grants to stimulate interest and investment.

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8 A Kaleidoscope of Regulations

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

Strikes alienated customers, angered politicians, and fomented a climate of mistrust. Passengers and shippers began to feel that railroad corporations wielded too much influence. Politicians at every level—from municipal to federal—created regulations to address their concerns. Legal precedents based on US Supreme Court cases originating in Illinois gave the federal government the authority to establish minimum and maximum prices for transporting people and products. These regulations restricted railroad managers’ power to set the prices (“rates”) or negotiate with customers from the 1870s to the 1980s. Lowering or raising rates was painfully slow, hurting railroads’ ability to respond to market conditions and contributing to the ossification of the industry in the twentieth century.

By 1870 three railroads—the Chicago & North Western, the Rock Island, and the Burlington—were crossing Illinois and Iowa and preparing to converge on Omaha, the eastern end of the original transcontinental. They earned increased traffic from the new connection, augmenting the grain, pork, and beef they hauled into Chicago from the rich agricultural region they served. But cutthroat competition among the three lines lowered rates and profits, putting pressure on other parts of the systems to compensate. To dampen the competition, the three railroads agreed to share the traffic across Iowa. This informal “pool” collapsed in the face of economic depression, but after 1874 formal, regional associations emerged to share revenues and eliminate competition.1 From the perspective of the railroads, pools were a rational response, but shippers thought they deliberately stifled competition in the name of higher profits. Regulation ensued.

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10 Bridge Building and “Overbuilding”

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

Illinois railroad expansion began to fall behind national growth rates in the 1870s and 1880s. For the decade of the 1870s, railroads built 3,095 route miles in Illinois, adding 64 percent compared with 76 percent nationally, but in the 1880s, Illinois’s 26 percent fell dramatically behind the nation’s 79 percent of added mileage. The reasons were simple: railroads continued to push farther west, while the development of new lines slowed in the Prairie State as it did elsewhere east of the Mississippi River. Nationally, more track was laid during the 1880s than in any other decade in US history. The 73,741 route miles built between 1881 and 1890 represented a two-thirds increase over all rail laid in the United States before 1880.

By 1880 some observers began to complain of “overbuilding” east of the Mississippi, by which they meant that newly constructed lines duplicated existing routes and, consequently, neither could be profitable. In Illinois approximately two thousand route miles were built in the 1880s, still an impressive amount. In northern Illinois the “Little Grangers” made tentative forays into the state, while the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe finalized its long-awaited entrance into Chicago. Though the construction of new lines slowed, the railroads themselves grew in importance. Trains became longer and faster, passenger travel became more comfortable, and direct services across new bridges helped to center Illinois in the railroad network.

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18 Salvation

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

The collapse of the Rock Island and the failure of Penn Central sent shockwaves throughout the railroad industry and beyond. The former suggested that recovery would be a slow process, while the latter indicated that mergers alone could not save the trains. A dramatic shift was needed or they would vanish completely. The ICC paid attention to the consequences of delaying merger proposals, and a period of consolidation followed. Then, in 1980, reacting to the continued decline of the industry, the federal government passed legislation to deregulate railroads. The new law, called the Staggers Act in honor of one of its House sponsors, generated an immediate and positive upswing in virtually all railroad indices. The number of railroad corporations and route mileage in use continued to shrink, but the survivors enjoyed a renaissance, competing effectively with long-distance trucking, creating new markets for their services, and finding favor with Wall Street. Profitability followed.

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11 Excursions and Interurbans

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

Railroads created new markets by advertising special excursion trains for vacationers. Long-distance holiday services gained in popularity as Niagara Falls, the Florida coasts, and other locales became fashionable destinations for escape-minded Illinoisans. Growth in this area did not hinder the development of locally oriented interurban railroads around the turn of the twentieth century. Usually powered by overhead electrical wires and using lightweight equipment, interurbans attracted capital and customers in the first twenty or so years of the new century by offering speedy trips between towns. Illinois was home to two of the nation’s largest interurban networks, including one audacious but unsuccessful attempt to link Chicago with St. Louis. Interurbans signaled the desire for fast, frequent, comfortable services and, ultimately, for the types of freedom and mobility automobiles would offer.

Taking a vacation of any distance in the nineteenth century involved riding a train. Railroads catered to a growing taste for travel by operating popular and inexpensive excursions, giving rise to the somewhat exaggerated saying “it was cheaper to travel than to stay at home.” Excursions—literally, to run out—provided cheap vacations for people whose horizons might otherwise remain restricted to their immediate surroundings. Group outings were commonplace and often garnered positive press coverage, serving as early tourist advertisements. An account of a trip to Madison, Wisconsin, for example, described the destination as “the most attractive point for an excursion . . . the prettiest city in the northwest,” where the visitors were treated “with great cordiality.” Methodists created camp-meeting grounds across Illinois and hired trains to get there, highlighted by the Des Plaines gathering of 1860, which attracted twenty thousand people. The CRI&P offered Illinois Oddfellows special fares to Denver between September and October 1887, for example. The Chicago & Alton sold “excursion tickets” to any station within two hundred miles of its line, offered in cooperation with nine other railroads serving Kansas City. Organizations booked round-trip journeys to special events, as with the Chicago-area teachers’ “Grand Excursion” on the Michigan Central for the 1896 National Education Association convention in Buffalo, New York. This included a stop at Niagara Halt “overlooking the grandest panorama in the country.”1

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Rushjr Loving (51)
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12 The Dinner Debate with Graham Claytor

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 12

The Dinner Debate with Graham Claytor

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

PENN CENTRAL WAS NOT THE ONLY TROUBLED RAILROAD IN the Northeast. Smaller lines there and in the Midwest were ill as well. By late 1972, seven of the Northeast’s eleven largest railroads were in bankruptcy, and two were tottering so badly their creditors were demanding that they be liquidated. They were suffering because trucks were draining their traffic base and they were burdened by too many routes. Worse yet, the regulators in Washington were indifferent when the roads pled to abandon excess tracks and money-losing services or to offset higher costs by raising their rates.

One night I was having dinner in New York with Graham Claytor and several of his top officers. As usual we began tossing ideas back and forth. This evening, as we began our appetizers, Claytor launched into a long spiel about the bankruptcy problem. As he went on laying out the dilemma that faced the industry, his concern became increasingly visible, for some legislators were even talking of nationalizing all the railroads, a prospect that disturbed both of us.

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7 The Locomotive That Sashayed

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 7

The Locomotive That Sashayed

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

TO BE SUCCESSFUL, THE N&W-CHESSIE MERGER WOULD HAVE to depend on a new tool, the computer. Until the mid-1960s most railroads used their computer systems almost solely to manage their finances. Although the railroads had been leaders in technological change in the 1800s, most modern railroaders were slow to adapt. One exception was the Southern Railway’s Bill Brosnan. He introduced railroad operations to computers, taking the Southern into a new era.

The first computer I had ever seen had stood in a basement room in one our buildings at Fort Devens. Compared with the machines NSA operates today, that contraption was inconsequential, yet I had been immensely impressed. Now I was about to meet computers far more sophisticated, machines that would do as much to transform railroad operations as early computers had done for code breaking.

Not long after I began to increase our coverage of railroads, our publisher, Tennant Bryan, returned from a directors meeting of the Southern Railway System. For years a representative of Richmond Newspapers had sat on the Southern’s board. Bryan’s predecessor had been Dr. Douglas Southall Freeman, the Pulitzer Prize–winning Civil War historian, who had edited the News-Leader. At their gathering, Brosnan had shown his directors a new computer system, and on his return to Richmond Bryan suggested to my boss, John Leard, that I go down to Atlanta and see it.

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10 “The Greatest Thing Since Sex and Watermelon”

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 10

“The Greatest Thing Since Sex & Watermelon”

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

ONCE THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION AND THE Interstate Commerce Commission had verified my Penn Central exposé, I was able to take on Gil Burck’s mantle as the magazine’s transportation specialist, and I went at it with exultation. The first piece was about United Air Lines. Six months after Penn Central’s fall, recognizing they should avoid the mistakes of the railroad’s board, United’s directors had staged a coup, replacing the company’s president with the man who ran a hotel chain the airline owned—Edward E. Carlson, who became one of the best chief executives in the air transport industry. Eddie, who started as a bellhop, turned around United in a year.

It was the makings of a magnificent story, and adding to it, I was able to ferret out how the directors had come to this wrenching decision. It was a drama from inside the boardroom, a place where reporters never ventured. The story caused a sensation, stirring the directors of Pan American World Airways to oust their CEO and causing other publications to begin producing boardroom dramas.

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14 “Who Knows Hays Watkins?”

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 14

“Who Knows Hays Watkins?”

ONE FIRST-CLASS PASSAGE

ALL INDUSTRIES AT ONE TIME OR ANOTHER ARE VICTIMS OF changes in technology, and sometimes it can be fatal. Some of my wife’s ancestors were wagon makers. They were said to be one of the South’s largest producers of wagons, turning out 15,000 a year, and, when the public began buying automobiles and trucks, the men running the company thought them a passing fad. Despite their prediction, the market for cars and trucks took off, and in the 1940s Nissen wagons finally succumbed to the new competition.

Newspapers, magazines, and railroads were created by new technology and could die by the same hand. The train had replaced the canal boat and the stagecoach, but by the 1970s it was losing to trucks, automobiles, and airliners. In fact, when the Post Office shut down its mail cars and moved all its intercity mail to trucks and airliners, the railroads’ traditional businesses of express packages and less-than-carload freight were shifting to the highways, and once again it was made possible by another innovation, the interstate highway system.

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18 J. B. Hunt Takes a Ride on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 18

J. B. Hunt Takes a Ride on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

WHILE A FEW PEOPLE LIKE SWEENEY AND BILL JOHNSON wanted out of the business, other railroaders were struggling to decrypt the mysteries of the free market. Most still did not understand the key to the industry’s future—the intermodal business—and some did not want to. Many men like CSX’s Jim Hagen had always recognized its potential, if it could be priced high enough to bring in a reasonable profit.

Although intermodal traffic, especially trips combining transportation modes like boats and trains, had been in existence since the infancy of the railroads, mixing rail service with trucking was a late bloomer. Tractor-trailers, or semis, had been traveling America’s highways since the 1920s, and some, delivering new cars to dealers, had been operating since the invention of the automobile, two decades before that. Railroads had experimented with piggyback, or intermodal, as early as the 1930s. Yet, it was not until 1955 that the first batch of highway trailers was placed on regularly scheduled intermodal trains. The Pennsylvania Railroad opened the service with dedicated trains, one each way, each day, between New York and Chicago. The business grew, and other railroads expanded their own services.

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Reevy Tony (6)
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PORTFOLIO TWO: OWI: Chicago

Reevy, Tony Indiana University Press PDF

PORTFOLIO T WO

OWI: CHIC AGO

PLAYER WITH RAILROADS AND THE

NATION’S FREIGHT HANDLER . . .

FROM “CHIC AGO,” BY C ARL SANDBURG

After a steep decline in activity during the years of the Great

Depression, the railroads of the United States were suddenly faced with an onslaught of traffic as the country prepared for, and entered, World

War II. Since passenger travel was still largely by rail during this period, the increase included dramatic expansions of freight and passenger traffic, the latter driven both by troop trains and by restrictions on civilian purchases of items such as tires and gasoline.1

Chicago, as the most important railroad interchange point in the

United States, was dramatically impacted by this upsurge in railway traffic. Roy Stryker, as ever the strategic thinker behind the FSA and

OWI photographers and their assignments, had long viewed the railroad as an important part of the American scene.2 In late 1942, Stryker sent Jack Delano to Chicago to conduct an extended project focused on documenting the railroad industry’s contribution to the US war effort.3

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PORTFOLIO FOUR: FSA/OWI: The American Railroad in Color, 1940–1943

Reevy, Tony Indiana University Press PDF

PORTFOLIO FOUR

FSA /OWI: THE AMERIC AN RAILROAD IN COLOR, 1940 –1943

Kodachrome, introduced in the mid-1930s, proved to be one of the best and most durable color films used for the next seventy years.1 The film was used for both still and motion picture cameras, and was available in a variety of formats. The rise of so-called “E-6” films such as Ektachrome and Fujichrome and the widespread adoption of digital media, combined with the complex methods required to process

Kodachrome, led to its discontinuance in 2009. Kodachrome’s widespread use in the decades after its introduction, along with its relative resistance to color-format challenges such as color shifts, is a boon to those interested in period, color documentation of the American scene from 1935 through 2010.

The introduction of Kodachrome coincided with the opening of the Historical Section in 1935. Although the vast majority of FSA/OWI images were shot in black-and-white, a substantive number of images were recorded using color film. According to the Library of Congress website, about 1,600 color FSA/OWI images were made between 1939 and 1944. Most of the FSA color images are color slides shot on Kodachrome 35mm film; others are color transparencies in sizes as large as 4 × 5 inches. The OWI images, which include most of Delano’s railroad-subject FSA/OWI images, are color transparencies in sizes up to

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Appendix One: Notes on the Plate Captions and on the Plates

Reevy, Tony Indiana University Press PDF

APPENDIX ONE

NOTES ON THE PLATE C AP TIONS AND ON THE PLATES

Notes on the Photograph Titles in the Plate Captions

The captions are as the photographer prepared them. Generally, the only changes that have been made are minor corrections to capitalization (for example, “Union Station” for “Union station”), incorrect punctuation or character spacing (for example, “E. K. Hill” for “E.K. Hill”), and abbreviations (such as substituting names of states for their abbreviated forms). James E. Valle, in his groundbreaking 1977 book, The Iron

Horse at War, did not use Delano’s captions, but instead provided his own, extended captions. The design and photographic reproduction in his book does not reflect contemporary art-book standards, but these extended captions provide a wealth of information for those who desire more background on the subjects of the 272 Delano photographs included in the book. The Iron Horse at War covers only Delano’s blackand-white Chicago and Santa Fe photographs; it does not cover his FSA railroad-subject work, nor does it include any color photographs.

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Appendix Two: Roy Stryker’s FSA/OWI Shooting Scripts concerning American Railroads

Reevy, Tony Indiana University Press PDF

APPENDIX T WO

ROY STRYKER’S FSA /OWI SHOOTING SCRIP TS CONCERNING AMERIC AN RAILROADS

Historical Section head Roy Stryker prepared “shooting scripts,” also termed “assignments” or “outlines,” both for the photographers working for him generally, and also for named photographers being sent on specific assignments. A relatively large number of these shooting scripts – five are known to exist – concerned American railroads. They are both historically interesting and also of value for railroad-subject photographers today. All of the known railroad-subject shooting scripts are presented here together for the first time. They are reproduced as Stryker wrote them, with italics used here in place of his underlining.

A fascinating aspect of these scripts is the depth of railroad knowledge Stryker demonstrates; for example, his knowing the details of how men lived and ate in work trains at the time, and that there were hand-powered and motorized track inspection cars during this period.

Stryker also demonstrates a strong knowledge of existing photographic work concerning American railroads at the time; for example, see his mention in one of the scripts of the “wealth of material already in existence” depicting American locomotives.

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PORTFOLIO ONE: The Farm Security Administration Photos, 1940–1942

Reevy, Tony Indiana University Press PDF

PORTFOLIO ONE

THE FARM SECURIT Y ADMINISTRATION PHOTOS, 1940 –1942

Figure 1.1. Washington, DC. Portrait of

Jack Delano, Office of War Information photographer. September 1942. John Collier.

Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, FSAOWI Collection, Reproduction Number LC-USF34-014739-E.

In February 1940, Roy Stryker, chief of the FSA Historical Section, wrote to John R. Fischer, director of the Division of Information:

We are going to have to move fast to get a new man on the payroll to replace Arthur Rothstein. As you know, it is not going to be the easiest thing in the world to find a man to take hold of Arthur’s job and get into the swing of production in the manner of Lee, Rothstein, and

Post. . . . We have already found the man, Mr. Jack Delano. . . . We have an outstanding person. He is an artist by training, and has used the camera for several years. He did one of the finest jobs on the story of the coal miners in the anthracite region that I have ever seen. A man that can turn out as excellent a job is not to be lost.1

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R4educated Solutions (12)
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Chapter 1: The Challenges Facing English Language Learners and Their Teachers

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

1

The Challenges Facing English Language Learners and Their Teachers

Every student should have equitable and optimal opportunities to learn mathematics free from bias—intentional or unintentional—based on race, gender, socioeconomic status, or language. In order to close the achievement gap, all students need the opportunity to learn challenging mathematics from a well-qualified teacher who will make connections to the background, needs, and cultures of all learners.

—National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

Reflection 1.1

Choose one or more of the following questions, and respond in the margin. Write from your heart, your beliefs, and your past experience. Compare your answers to those on page 131.

•   Why do some students transition to English very quickly while others attend English-speaking schools for many years without acquiring academic English?

•   How can we make grade-level mathematics accessible to all students regardless of language proficiency?

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Chapter 5: Applying Strategies for ELLs: A 5E Lesson

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

5

Applying Strategies for ELLs: A 5E Lesson

Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous.

—Confucius

In the first four chapters, we examined the needs of English language learners and how to support them in the affective, linguistic, and cognitive domains. The question now arises of how to incorporate the tools, practices, and strategies into practical classroom use. Perhaps you are asking yourself:

•   What does a lesson look like that meets the needs of my English language learners?

•   How can I meet the needs of my English language learners and still meet the needs of other students in my classroom?

Echevarria, Vogt, and Short (2004) identify the critical instructional features necessary for the academic and language development of English language learners.

Lesson preparation: Planning should result in lessons that enable students to make connections between their knowledge and experiences and the new information being taught.

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Appendix D: Reproducibles for Lesson on Three-Dimensional Figures

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

Appendix D

Reproducibles for Lesson on Three-Dimensional Figures

Who Am I?

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Cooperative Grouping Guide Cards

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Vocabulary Organizer

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Three-Dimensional Geometric Figures Cards

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Three-Dimensional Geometric Figures

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

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Chapter 2: Providing Affective Supports for English Language Learners

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

2

Providing Affective Supports for English Language Learners

There are hundreds of languages in the world, but a smile speaks them all.

—Anonymous

Reflection 2.1

Imagine you are going to be an exchange student in a country where you do not know the language. What positive classroom aspects could motivate you to learn the language relatively quickly? Compare your answers to those on page 133.

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000) has articulated the importance of a positive classroom climate in learning mathematics. The classroom environment communicates subtle messages about what is valued in learning and doing mathematics and encourages students to participate in the learning and doing of mathematics. The English language learner’s first impression of the classroom and the teacher sets the tone for learning and success. Putting yourself in the place of the student and envisioning what would make you feel welcome will put you on the right path toward creating a positive classroom climate that meets the needs of English language learners in learning mathematics.

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Chapter 4: Providing Cognitive Supports for English Language Learners

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

4

Providing Cognitive Supports for English Language Learners

The true spirit of delight, the exaltation, the sense of being more than Man, which is the touchstone of the highest excellence, is to be found in mathematics as surely as in poetry.

—Bertrand Russell

In chapter 2, we looked at factors that affect language acquisition. Since the factor over which educators have the most control is the quality of instruction, we will continue to emphasize the importance of the role of the mathematics teacher as we look at increasing student understanding, participating, and communicating. In much the same way that we examined how to provide linguistic supports for language acquisition in chapter 3, here we will examine how to provide cognitive supports for the development of the skills, conceptual understanding, and thought processes that lead to mathematical proficiency.

When students encounter a word problem, they must not only read the text but also decode the mathematics involved. They must determine relevant concepts, including whether there is extraneous information, and decide which operations to use on any numbers.

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