Zurayk R Woertz E Bahn R (20)
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4 Water, Agriculture and Conflict: Global, National and Local Analysis of Conflict in MENA, sub-Saharan Africa and the United States

Zurayk, R.; Woertz, E.; Bahn, R. CABI PDF


Water, Agriculture and Conflict: Global,

National and Local Analysis of Conflict in MENA, sub-Saharan Africa and the United States

Martin Keulertz*

American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon


The agrarian question is deeply shaped by

­conflict. The struggle of the global peasantry has been a prime concern in capitalist societies for most of the 19th and 20th century. The livelihood systems of peasants have always been negatively affected by their state of development and the enclosure of global capitalism of the agricultural sector. Conflict over water is a topic of growing concern in international and national politics adding a new dimension to the struggle of peasants. Due to population growth in various parts of the world, increased living standards and urbanization, the Food and Agriculture

Organization of the United Nations (FAO) projects food production to increase by 70% to meet demands of a global society reaching 9.1 billion human beings by 2050 (FAO, 2009). Annual

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7 The ‘Arab Spring’ in North Africa: Egypt and Tunisia

Zurayk, R.; Woertz, E.; Bahn, R. CABI PDF


The ‘Arab Spring’ in North Africa:

Egypt and Tunisia

Ray Bush*

School of Politics and International Studies (POLIS), University of Leeds,

Leeds, UK


It is now more than 30 years since the editor of essays focusing on the Middle East and North

­Africa’s (MENA) agrarian question concluded:

Unless the Middle Eastern and North African countries can adopt ‘equitable growth’ strategies, the situation of those at the bottom of the social scale, especially in the rural areas is likely to remain rather grim.

(Richards, 1986, p. 17).

This was poignant indeed as the 2010–2011 uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt demonstrated. Yet, apart from a couple of exceptions, there remains very little published in relation to rural conflict and inequality, social differentiation and household ­social reproduction in North Africa and the

Middle East, including Egypt and Tunisia (Ayeb,

2013; 2017; Gana, 2017). Most of the debate since 2010 has focused on urban conflict, campaigns against authoritarianism in Egypt and the limited democratic opening in Tunisia (Korany and El-Mahdi, 2012; Achcar, 2013; Alexander and

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11 Farming for Freedom: the Shackled Palestinian Agricultural Sector

Zurayk, R.; Woertz, E.; Bahn, R. CABI PDF


Farming for Freedom: the Shackled

Palestinian Agricultural Sector

Alaa Tartir*

Al-Shabaka: The Palestinian Policy Network, Washington, DC, USA and

The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (IHEID),

Geneva, Switzerland


closer reflection shows that this backbone has been severely distorted and damaged, if not parIn the occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip, agri- alysed (Abu Sa’da and Tartir, 2014). The resilculture is commonly perceived by the Palestinian ience and resistance of the farmers have been people to be the backbone of the Palestinian so- hampered, mainly by the continuation of the ciety and economy, with farmers widely viewed ­Israeli occupation and its policies, but also by as the last stronghold of resistance (Sansour and the unsupportive and rather damaging policies

Tartir, 2014). Agriculture is not merely viewed as of the Palestinian Authority (PA). In engaging at an ordinary economic sector, but is instead both points, this chapter argues that Palestinian widely perceived to be an act of resistance and agriculture and farmers have been shackled an illustration of steadfastness (Dana, 2014a). by  Israeli colonialism, but also by Palestinian

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2 Geopolitics, Food and Agriculture

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Geopolitics, Food and Agriculture

Eckart Woertz*

CIDOB (Barcelona Centre for International Affairs) Barcelona, Spain, and Kuwait Chair, Sciences Po, Paris, France


In academic debates the subject of agriculture and conflict is mostly associated with domestic development issues such as the disenfranchisement and dislocation of traditional farming ­populations during a process of ‘primitive accumulation’ (Marx) or class-based conflicts surrounding the ‘agrarian question’, once commodification of the agricultural sector and of the larger economy have been achieved (see Bahn and Zurayk, Chapter 1, this volume). Yet food supplies and agriculture also have geopolitical importance. They have occupied planners and strategists, who sought to exploit them to further sovereign interests. In doing so they interacted with the domestic development dimension of agricultural conflict on various levels.

Food supplies are a necessary precondition of urbanization and the rise of the city as the locus of state power. Initially such supplies were local, but the first examples of long-distance grain trade occurred during the Roman Empire.

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9 Crisis and Agricultural Change in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, 1980s–2010s: an Interdisciplinary Approach

Zurayk, R.; Woertz, E.; Bahn, R. CABI PDF


Crisis and Agricultural Change in the

Kurdistan Region of Iraq, 1980s–2010s: an Interdisciplinary Approach


Lina Eklund1,* and Katharina Lange2

Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark;


Leibniz-Zentrum Moderner Orient, Berlin, Germany


The Middle East has been confronted with a number of challenges that are severely impacting local food production systems. Rapid population growth, urbanization, armed conflict and changing patterns of food consumption are weakening domestic food supply bases, making the region increasingly food insecure and reliant on food imports (Kamrava et al., 2012). At the same time limitations in natural resource availability, especially water and arable land, are putting biophysical constraints on food production, and aggravating national and regional tensions. Thus, social, political and ecological factors interact in shaping complex and challenging conditions for local food production. To gain a more systematic and complete understanding of this multidimensional field, we argue, it is necessary to use integrated approaches drawing on qualitative and quantitative methods from different disciplines (Stock and

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2: The Contribution of Bamboo to Human Beings Is Far More Than Is Imagined

Zhaohua, Z.; Wei, J. CABI PDF


The Contribution of Bamboo to Human

Beings Is Far More Than Is Imagined

2.1  Bamboo is One of the Easiest to be Sustainably Managed

(Self-renewable) Plants

2.1.1  Is bamboo a tree or a grass?

Bamboos are a special type of plant. They have a tenacity that trees cannot compare with and special properties that make them very easily sliced; both are strong in self-renewal. At the same time, bamboos have the characteristics that herbaceous plants do not possess, such as high hardness and elasticity; they can maintain exuberant growing capacity for many years. The international community classifies bamboo as a non-timber forest resource. China’s first monograph about bamboo was called The Bamboo

­Monograph (Zhu Pu, 《竹谱》). It was written by

Dai Kaizhi (戴凯之) during the Southern Dynasties (ad 420–589). The first line of the book says

‘Among all the plants, there is one called bamboo, the property is not too strong nor too soft, it belongs to neither herb nor wood (植类之中,

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4: Develop or Create a Featured Bamboo Industry According to Local Conditions

Zhaohua, Z.; Wei, J. CABI PDF


Develop or Create a Featured Bamboo

Industry According to Local Conditions

By reviewing the various factors affecting the sustainability of the bamboo sector, it can be concluded that the sector is complicated and that its sustainability is subject to various


1. The first is the creation of a comprehensive strategic plan with many aspects of the local ecology, economy and society considered.

2. Another indispensable condition is a close cooperation among the stakeholders – the ­farmers, enterprises, government and scientists.

3. The third condition is to keep tight connections between the primary, secondary and tertiary industries of the sector, so that the cultivation of the bamboo resource, its processing and its marketing form a complete supply chain.

4. The fourth is to be creative in the face of various difficulties in the course of development, the changes and challenges to be met, and the new methods that need to be innovated to take the sector into a higher level of

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Annex 1: Abstract of the Development Plan for China’s Bamboo Industries (2013–2020)

Zhaohua, Z.; Wei, J. CABI PDF

Annex 1

Abstract of the Development Plan for China’s Bamboo Industries


Being critical ecological, industrial and cultural resources of the world and commonly acknowledged as the ‘second largest forests of the planet’, bamboos make up an essential ingredient of the global forestry resources. China, one of the primary bamboo growers and known to the world as the ‘Kingdom of Bamboos’, ranks top of the world in terms of bamboo germplasm, sizes of bamboo groves, volumes of bamboo stock, and output and export volumes of bamboo products. Over the years, China has gone through speedy growth in both the sizes of its bamboo groves and its standing bamboo stocks. China also leads the world in product innovation as well as in R&D on bamboo processing techniques, and steadily supplies the world with thousands of bamboo products that fall roughly into dozens of categories, including, but not limited to, construction materials, household bamboo products, bamboo-based panels, bamboo charcoal, bamboo-based furniture, bamboo fibre and bamboo-derived drinks. In the year 2012, the total outputs generated from the bamboo industries in China, which provide jobs for over 7.75 million people, reached a value of US$19.5 billion. The bamboo industries have emerged as a dynamic force in China’s forestry sector and offer tremendous ­ potential for its overall economic growth and for enhancing household income in the country’s rural areas.

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1: Introduction

Zhaohua, Z.; Wei, J. CABI PDF



1.1  The Imbalanced Status of

Bamboo Development in the World

Bamboo is widely distributed in the developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America, while many developed countries in Europe and North

America, including Japan and Australia, are key consumer countries of bamboo products.

Among these developed countries, Japan is an exception, because it has a natural distribution of bamboos. The country used to have a very developed bamboo sector, but because of labour shortage and costs, there is no longer any large-­ scale bamboo production in Japan, and it has now become an important bamboo consumer country, especially of bamboo food products.

Although the global distribution of bamboos is quite wide, people’s awareness of the roles of bamboo is quite different. Before the

1980s, in most bamboo-producing countries, bamboos were still growing in natural stands, with little or no management. Bamboo products were made in a traditional, handmade way, using traditional technologies, and they were also traditional products for local markets; there was little or no industrial processing.

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Annex 2: Report on a Chinese Consultancy for  The Bamboo Company in Vietnam

Zhaohua, Z.; Wei, J. CABI PDF

Annex 2

Report on a Chinese Consultancy for  The Bamboo Company in Vietnam

This is a report from a consultancy undertaken by a team of experts from China for The Bamboo

Company in Vietnam; it was first mentioned in

Chapter 3, Section 3.6.4, Case study 7.

A2.1 Introduction

As invited by one of the bamboo companies in

Vietnam, henceforward designated ‘The Bamboo

Company’, a team of experts from China conducted a consultancy visit to the company’s factories in a village. The expert team was composed of Prof. Zhu Zhaohua and a bamboo engineer, an economics expert and a bamboo processing expert. The expert team visited the primary processing factory of the company first, and the manager gave an introduction to the production process and stated the major technical problems.

Next, the expert team visited a composite board factory belonging to the company and had a detailed discussion with the local managing staff and technicians on each of the processing steps.

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3 Sensing for Stress Detection and High-throughput Phenotyping in Precision Horticulture

Zhang, Q. CABI PDF


Sensing for Stress Detection and High-throughput

Phenotyping in Precision


Sindhuja Sankaran*, Chongyuan Zhang and

Afef Marzougui

Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA

3.1 Overview

Sensing is a critical component of automation in tree fruit production, which includes site-specific management of resources (water, nutrients), precision chemical application for disease control, mechanical harvesting, and other crop protection applications to enhance the production efficiency and environmental stewardship. Another application of advanced sensing technologies that has developed in the past decade is crop scouting. The sensing technologies have a potential to assess abiotic (water stress, nutrient deficiencies, etc.) and biotic (bacterial, viral, fungal diseases, insect damage, etc.) stress conditions in different crops, sometimes in asymptomatic stages. The sensor technologies are greatly beneficial in determining the regions within an orchard that have anomalies (unhealthy or poorly performing trees), rather than specific types of disease or stress condition. The identification of such localized regions through remote sensing technologies can assist in the scouting process, thereby enhancing the scouting efficiency and decreasing the associated costs. Similarly, in the past few years, there has been great interest in high-throughput crop phenotyping using sensing technologies to assist genetics and breeding programs towards crop improvement efforts. The controlled studies (­focusing on one or few traits at a given time, e.g. disease resistance) and assessment of relative differences between different cultivars enhance the feasibility of using sensing for crop trait/phenotype

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7 Precision Technologies for Pest and Disease Management

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Precision Technologies for Pest and Disease Management

Lav Khot1*, Gwen-Alyn Hoheisel1, Yasin Osroosh1 and Reza Ehsani2

Washington State University, Prosser, Washington, USA; 2University of California, Merced, California, USA


7.1 Introduction

Precision pest and disease management has become increasingly important in tree fruit production with the rising incidents of invasive insects, pests and pathogenic infestation. As consumers are becoming technology savvy, demand for quality produce that can readily be traced back to the source has been growing steadily. Regulatory agencies are also pushing for best management practices and traceability to effectively address produce safety and environmental concerns. Integrated pest and disease management (IPDM) is vitally important in such efforts.

The success of IPDM is heavily dependent on effective infestation monitoring. Monitoring is carried out with the purpose of spotting pest and disease damage and identifying pests and their key natural enemies, also known as beneficial organisms. As a basis for decision making, monitoring provides valuable information about the population densities and developmental stage of insects and their natural enemies. Over the years, technology has enabled us to transition from traditional labor-intensive pest and disease monitoring to digital ‘smart’ insect traps, pest modeling with orchard weather data, and remote sensing for disease infection mapping.

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8 Precision Nutrient Management

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Precision Nutrient Management

Gerry Neilsen* and Denise Neilsen

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Summerland, British Columbia, Canada

8.1 Introduction

In horticultural production systems, increased precision in the application of both water and nutrients can lead to improvements in the efficiency of nutrient uptake by the crop, particularly when using simultaneous applications – a process that is commonly referred to as f­ertigation.


Fertigation principles and practices have previously been reviewed

(Haynes, 1985; Bar-Yosef, 1999). Fertigation has been applied to a wide range of perennial fruit crops, including apple (Neilsen et al., 1999), sweet cherry (Neilsen et  al., 2004a), pecans (Wells, 2015), peach (Bussi et  al.,

1991), grape (Treeby, 2008), blueberry (Vargas et al., 2015), coffee (Bruna et al., 2015) and citrus (Alva, 2008).

This chapter will focus on cumulative fertigation research undertaken primarily in high-density apple and cherry as a case study of the practical application of fertigation. Thus the information is most relevant to semi-arid fruit-growing regions, where irrigation is required to achieve production. However, the principles may also have relevance to more humid regions where supplemental irrigation is used as a buffer against erratic precipitation. Fertigation is of particular interest in orchards that are located on coarse-textured sandy loams, loamy sands or sandy soils.

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1 Tree Fruit Production Automation

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Tree Fruit Production


Qin Zhang*

Washington State University, Prosser, Washington, USA

1.1 Introduction

One solution for producing high-quality, high-yield fruit, with minimal dependence on seasonal human labor, is to create a means for automatous mechanized precision production in orchards. This involves three key technologies: agricultural automation; mechanization; and precision farming. Among them, mechanization and precision farming are at the core of a comprehensive system using automation technologies.

As one of the top-ranked engineering accomplishments of the 20th century, agricultural mechanization has made revolutionary changes in field crop production technology and made it possible to achieve high yields using minimal human labor to meet continuously growing needs for food, feed, fiber and fuel. To make machines operate efficiently, one feature of mechanized production is the uniformity of operation in a field.

Even though tree fruit production is quite different from field crop production, many of the fundamental mechanization technologies for field crop production can be used directly or modified for use in tree fruit production. The uniformity of mechanized production increases efficiency at the expense of being able to respond to crop growth variabilities often caused by inter- or intra-field soil type, fertility and moisture variance.

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2 The Economics of Perennial Crops’ Production Automation

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The Economics of Perennial

Crops’ Production Automation

R. Karina Gallardo1* and David Zilberman2

Washington State University, Puyallup, Washington, USA; 2University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA


2.1 Background

During the 20th century, technological innovations played a major role in improving agricultural productivity. Five decades ago, futurists envisioned agricultural farms that today are not that far away from that vision. In today’s agricultural fields, soil sensors, drones, satellite images, efficient irrigation and mechanical harvesters, among other technologies, are a regular component of farming practices (Lusk, 2016).

It is interesting to note that mechanization devices have been readily available for grains, beans and cotton since the 1960s. However, mechanization devices for fruit and vegetables in general are lagging behind. Today, mechanical harvesters are massively used for some fruit or vegetables

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16 Flavobacterium spp.

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�Flavobacterium spp.

Thomas P. Loch* and Mohamed Faisal

Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, College of Veterinary

Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA

16.1  Introduction

Flavobacterial diseases in fish are mainly attributed to three Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented bacteria: Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the cause of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) and rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS; Davis, 1946; Borg,

1948; Holt, 1987; Bernardet and Grimont, 1989);

F. columnare, the cause of Columnaris disease (CD;

Davis, 1922; Ordal and Rucker, 1944; Bernardet and Grimont, 1989); and F. branchiophilum, the putative agent of bacterial gill disease (BGD;

Wakabayashi et al., 1989).

16.1.1  Flavobacterium psychrophilum

Description of the microorganism

Borg (1948) described epizootics at water temperatures of 6–10°C in farmed coho salmon

(Oncorhynchus kisutch) fry and fingerlings that were caused by masses of bacterial rods, now known as F. psychrophilum. The bacterium underwent multiple taxonomic reappraisals and was eventually placed within the genus Flavobacterium

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8 Channel Catfish Viral Disease

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Channel Catfish Viral Disease

Larry A. Hanson1* and Lester H. Khoo2


Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi

State University, Mississippi,USA; 2Thad Cochran Warmwater Aquaculture

Center, Stoneville, Mississippi, USA

8.1  Introduction

Channel catfish viral disease (CCVD) is an acute viraemia that occurs primarily among young (0–4 month old) channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in aquaculture. CCVD outbreaks occur almost exclusively in the summer when water temperatures exceed 25°C and may exceed 90% mortality in less than 2 weeks. Older fish may experience a more chronic outbreak, often with secondary Flavo­ bacterium columnare or Aeromonas infections that can mask the underlying CCVD (Plumb, 1978).

Pond-to-pond spread is often reported within fingerling production facilities. The disease was first described by Fijan et al. (1970) and the most notable clinical signs were exophthalmia, abdominal distension, disoriented swimming and rapidly increasing mortality.

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15 Edwardsiella spp.

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Edwardsiella spp.

Matt J. Griffin,* Terrence E. Greenway and David J. Wise

Thad Cochran National Warmwater Aquaculture Center,

Mississippi State University, Stoneville, Mississippi, USA

15.1  Introduction

The Edwardsiella (family Enterobacteriacae) was originally described as a new genus of the Enter­ obacteriaceae in the mid-1960s; it represented 37 isolates recovered from open wounds, blood, urine and faeces of humans and animals in the USA,

Brazil, Ecuador, Israel and Japan (Ewing et  al.,

1965). In spite of this, the species of Edwardsiella are mostly considered to be pathogens of fish

(Mohanty and Sahoo, 2007; Table 15.1). E. tarda was first reported from outbreaks in farmed channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in Arkansas in the

USA (Meyer and Bullock, 1973) and has become one of the most globally recognized fish pathogens, affecting both wild and cultured fish worldwide

(Park et al., 2012).

Similarly, E. ictaluri was described from farmraised catfish in the south-eastern USA in the early

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2 Infectious Haematopoietic Necrosis Virus

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Infectious Haematopoietic

Necrosis Virus

Jo-Ann C. Leong1* and Gael Kurath2


Hawai‘i Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawai‘i at Maˉnoa,

–ne‘ohe, Hawai‘i, USA; 2Western Fisheries Research Center, US


Geological Survey, Seattle, Washington, USA

2.1  Introduction

Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus) is a

Rhabdovirus that causes significant disease in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), Atlantic salmon

(Salmo salar), and rainbow and steelhead trout

(O. mykiss). The disease that it causes, infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN), was first detected in cultured sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the Pacific

Northwest of North America and IHNV was first cultured in 1969 (see Bootland and Leong, 1999).

IHNV is the type species and reference virus for the

Novirhabdovirus genus of the family Rhabdoviridae.

The viral genome is a linear, single-stranded RNA

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23 Vibriosis: Vibrio anguillarum, V. ordalii and Aliivibrio salmonicida

Woo, P.T.K.; Cipriano, R.C. CABI PDF


ibriosis: Vibrio anguillarum,


V. ordalii and Aliivibrio salmonicida

Alicia E. Toranzo,1* Beatriz Magariños1 and Ruben



Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 2Laboratorio de Patología de

­Organismos Acuáticos y Biotecnología Acuícola, Universidad Andrés Bello,

Viña del Mar, Chile

23.1  Introduction

Vibriosis is a group of diseases caused by different bacterial species formerly classified as belonging to the Vibrio genus, although some of them have since been transferred to new genera within the family

Vibrionaceae. These include Moritella viscosa (formerly Vibrio viscosus) (Benediktsdóttir et al., 2000),

Aliivibrio salmonicida (formerly Vibrio salmonicida)

(Urbanczyk et al., 2007) and Photobacterium dam­ selae (formerly Vibrio damsela) (Smith et al., 1991).

This chapter focuses on the detection/diagnosis, antigenic/genetic characterization, disease mechanism and control/prevention of three species – Vibrio anguil­ larum, V. ordalii and Aliivibrio salmonicida – which are responsible for serious haemorrhagic septicaemia worldwide in marine and brackish water fishes. All are Gram-negative motile rods, oxidase and catalase positive, halophilic, and facultative anaerobes.

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18 The Contribution of Smallholder Irrigated Urban Agriculture Towards Household Food Security in Harare, Zimbabwe

WinklerPrins, A.M.G.A. CABI PDF


The Contribution of Smallholder

Irrigated Urban Agriculture Towards

Household Food Security in Harare,


Never Mujere

University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe

18.1  Introduction

Agriculture is no longer seen as just a rural

­activity but is now embraced as part of a livelihood and an important income-earning strategy in most cities. It has become an important economic and social activity, contributing to the aesthetic value of the city and socio-economic uplift of urban households. Most urban dwellers engage in urban agriculture (UA) as a survival strategy due to challenges of absolute and relative growth in urban poverty and food insecurity

(Gallaher et al., 2013; Korir et al., 2015; Chapters 7 and 12, this volume). A significant proportion of low-income urban households face serious difficulties in accessing adequate basic foodstuffs, which are sold at prices beyond what consumers can afford. High food prices have drastically reduced people’s purchasing power and raised the spectre of food and income disequilibrium at the household level. The urban food crisis is further worsened by a massive population shift from rural to urban areas. As a result, some urban authorities have reserved patches of land for urban agriculture in their municipalities (Olufemi and

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2 A View from the South: Bringing Critical Planning Theory to Urban Agriculture

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A View from the South: Bringing Critical

Planning Theory to Urban Agriculture

Stephanie A. White* and Michael W. Hamm

Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA

2.1  Introduction: Re-framing Urban


This chapter discusses the role that urban agriculture (UA) plays in urban food systems and how theoretical framings of UA that draw attention to it as an ‘urbanistic practice’, both constituting and constituted by urban assemblages, offer new directions for research. We argue that studies of urban agriculture can be ‘put to work’ to:

1. develop more accurate understandings of regional and city food provisioning and exchange, especially in relation to informality;

2. shed light on urban socio-ecological processes and relationships, including those that reproduce food insecurity, poverty and social marginalization;

3. provide case-study accounts of peripheral livelihoods that challenge ‘conventional understandings about how the city is put together’

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13 Relying on Urban Gardens for Survival within the Building of a Modern City in Colombia

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Relying on Urban Gardens for

Survival within the Building of a Modern

City in Colombia

Colleen Hammelman*

University of Toronto-Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

13.1  Introduction

Interest in urban agriculture (UA), at various scales, has been growing around the world

(Mougeot, 2005; Colasanti et al., 2012; Hampwaye,

2013). This interest includes a focus on the motivations and benefits of UA in relation to urban planning. This chapter adds to the discussion through investigating how displaced women in

Medellín, Colombia, utilize urban gardens as a survival strategy in the face of tenuous support from local government. It contributes to literature on UA by providing a clear example of the ways in which urban planning (that is influenced by global political economic systems) impacts on a critical survival strategy: growing food. Significant research on UA has been conducted to date (Guitart et al., 2012) that includes considerations of insecure land tenure (e.g. DeKay, 1997; Irvine et  al., 1999; Schmelzkopf, 2002; Bryld, 2003).

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5 Gardens in the City: Community, Politics and Place in San Diego, California

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Gardens in the City: Community,

Politics and Place in San Diego, California

Fernando J. Bosco* and Pascale Joassart-Marcelli

San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA

5.1  Introduction

In the Global North alternative food practices have become increasingly common as a response to growing dissatisfaction with the industrial and corporate food system. In particular, in the US, scholars and activists have called for a relocalization of food systems, including urban agriculture and community gardening, as a way to foster health, justice and sustainability. Scholars describe these food practices as forms of resistance against the capitalist pressures that strain the food system (Kloppenburg et al., 2000; Hendrickson and Heffernan, 2002;

Norberg-Hodge et al., 2002; Heynen, 2009).

Similarly, the sites where these activities take place, especially community gardens, have also been conceptualized as ‘spaces of resistance’ or

‘counter-spaces’, to the extent that they represent a collective spatial strategy to redistribute value away from the global corporate food system into disenfranchised communities (Schmelzkopf, 2002; Staeheli et al., 2002; Eizenberg,

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6 ‘Growing food is work’: The Labour Challenges of Urban Agriculture in Houston, Texas

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‘Growing food is work’: The Labour

Challenges of Urban Agriculture in

Houston, Texas

Sasha Broadstone1 and Christian Brannstrom2*

Stokes Nature Center, Logan, Utah, USA; 2Texas A&M University,

College Station, Texas, USA


6.1  Introduction

6.2  Background

Urban agriculture (UA) contributes to improved food access, eating habits and community interaction. Although UA offers modest contribution to food supply in cities, many scholars report the importance of UA in improving food sovereignty and producing alternative food systems. Details on the management, production and distribution strategies of UA in the

Global North (GN) are poorly documented, but relatively better knowledge exists in the Global

South (GS) on these topics. Knowledge and understanding of these aspects of UA are important for practitioners and policy makers in the GN and GS. Here we ask: how, and under what conditions, do UA sites in the GN produce food? We answer this question through an agricultural systems approach applied to UA organizers in Houston, Texas, regarding management strategies and food production practices. UA site objective and site-access regimes were closely related and influential in determining decision-making strategies, division of labour, and destination of the harvest. As our title suggests, labour was a major concern among respondents.

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