Askary T H Editor (19)
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9: Nematophagous Bacteria as Biocontrol Agents of Phytonematodes

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF

9 

Nematophagous Bacteria as Biocontrol

Agents of Phytonematodes

Mohamed F.M. Eissa* and Mahfouz M.M. Abd-Elgawad

Phytopathology Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt

9.1  Introduction

Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) are a severe constraint to agricultural production worldwide, in turn impacting international trade, social and economic development (Perry and

Maurice, 2013). A great deal of research has been done on phytonematodes and their hosts including many horticultural and field crops in tropical, subtropical (e.g. Luc et al., 2005), temperate (e.g. Evans et al., 1993) and other regions (e.g. Perry and Maurice, 2013). The nematodes can damage their host plants directly, act as vectors of viruses, or form disease complexes with other pathogens. In addition, nematode penetration of infected plants may facilitate subsequent infestation by ­secondary pathogens such as fungi and bacteria (Powell, 1971). Yet, due to their often subterranean habit and microscopic size, phyto­nematodes usually remain invisible to the naked eye (Ngangbam and Devi, 2012), which complicates their control. Monetary estimates of global annual yield losses caused by the nematodes demonstrated staggering figures whether in the past (e.g. Sasser and

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6: Nematophagous Fungi: Formulation, Mass Production and Application Technology

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6 

Nematophagous Fungi: Formulation,

Mass Production and Application

Technology

Paulo Roberto Pala Martinelli,1* Pedro Luiz Martins Soares,1

Jaime Maia dos Santos1 and Arlete Jose da Silveira2

1

Department of Plant Protection, UNESP Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil;

2

Department of Agrarian and Environmental Sciences, State University of Santa Cruz, Ilheus-Bahia, Brazil

6.1  Introduction

A successful plant-parasitic nematode (PPN) management requires a combination of management tactics, such as exclusion measures, crop rotation, use of antagonistic plants, resistant varieties and chemical and biological methods. Among these, the biological method of nematode management by using nematophagous fungi has drawn considerable attention by researchers all over the world (Barron,

1977; Fattah, 1988; Maia et al., 2001; Bernardo,

2002; Corbani, 2002; Martinelli et al., 2012a,b).

These carnivorous fungi are the most studied organisms for the management of nematodes.

The first report of fungi parasitizing nematodes was reported by Zopf (1888), and the first attempt of using these microorganisms in nematode control was taken by Cobb in

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18: Factors Affecting Commercial Success of Biocontrol Agents of Phytonematodes

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF

18 

Factors Affecting Commercial

Success of Biocontrol Agents of

Phytonematodes

1

Mohammad Reza Moosavi1* and Rasoul Zare2

Department of Plant Pathology, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University,

Marvdasht, Iran; 2Department of Botany, Iranian Research Institute of Plant

Protection, Tehran, Iran

18.1  Introduction

Phytonematodes represent a global threat to agricultural production either as causing yield loss or quality loss, both included in the concept of crop loss. To date, approximately

4100 species of phytonematodes have been described that can cause various plant diseases (Decraemer and Hunt, 2006). They are of considerable importance and their deleterious impacts on crops have great economic and social effects. Total annual losses caused by phytonematodes in developing and developed countries are estimated to be about

14.6 and 8.8%, respectively (Nicol et  al.,

2011), that is approximately equal to US$157 billion (Abad et al., 2008; Escudero and

Lopez-Llorca, 2012).

Management of phytonematodes is

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12: Nematophagous Bacteria: Field Application and Commercialization

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12 

Nematophagous Bacteria: Field

Application and Commercialization

1

Mahfouz M.M. Abd-Elgawad1* and Ioannis K. Vagelas2

Phytopathology Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt;

2

Technological Education Institute of Larissa, Department of Plant

Production, Larissa, Greece

12.1  Introduction

In our world there is an uncountable variety of nematodes, which are usually classified into feeding types according to their main sources of nutrition. Kimpinski and Sturz (2003) considered them as the most numerous multicellular animals on earth. Among their major groups are plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs), which can cause considerable losses to a wide variety of economically important crops (see

Abd-Elgawad and Askary, Chapter 1, this volume). Chemical control is a widely used option for PPN management. However, chemical nematicides are now being reappraised with a clear aim at the avoidance of their hazards to  human beings. It is widely known that many such chemicals demonstrated environmental hazards, high costs, limited availability in numerous countries, or their reduced effectiveness following repeated applications.

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4: Nematophagous Fungi: Ecology, Diversity and Geographical Distribution

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4 

Nematophagous Fungi: Ecology,

Diversity and Geographical Distribution

Mrinal Kanti Dasgupta1* and Matiyar Rahaman Khan2

Visva-Bharati; Palli-Siksha Bhavana (Institute of Agriculture), Department of

Plant Protection, Sriniketan, India; 2Department of Agricultural

Entomology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, India

1

4.1  Introduction

An organism lives in a state of dynamic

­equilibrium with the environment. Interactions of an organism with members of its community are intraspecific and interspecific. The ecosystem comprises the biotic community and the non-living environment and is the basic functional unit, as it includes both the organism and the environment, each influencing the properties of the other and both necessary for the survival and maintenance of life. Climate is the primary environmental factor influencing the nature of flora and fauna in a  region. The climatic components are temperature, rainfall and relative humidity. The physical, chemical and biological conditions of soil are secondary to the climate. But they all determine the population, seasonality and determine the survival and population fluctuations of soil micro- and meso-biota in particular.

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Ball B C (9)
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7: Evaluating Land Quality for Carbon Storage, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Nutrient Leaching

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7 

Evaluating Land Quality for Carbon

Storage, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Nutrient Leaching

Joanna M. Cloy,1* Bruce C. Ball1 and T. Graham Shepherd2

1

SRUC, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK; 2BioAgriNomics Ltd,

Palmerston North, New Zealand

7.1  Introduction

Recently the importance of good soil structure in mitigating climate change and environmental contamination has been recognized because soil structure influences the storage of carbon (C) sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and cycling of nutrients, which are key soil system processes. This is because the maintenance of soil structure by aggregation, particle transport and formation of soil habitats operates across many spatial scales to regulate water drainage, water retention, air transfer to roots for favourable gas exchange and mineralization of nutrients for release to crop roots (Kibblewhite et al.,

2008; Ball et al., 2013a). For the functions being considered, the most important aspect of soil structure is the soil pore network, which determines the movement of gases, liquids and associated solutes, as well as particulates and organisms, through the soil matrix (Haygarth and Ritz, 2009;

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3: Reduction of Yield Gaps and Improvement of Ecological Function through Local-to-Global Applications of Visual Soil Assessment

Ball, B.C. CABI PDF

3 

Reduction of Yield Gaps and

Improvement of Ecological Function through Local-to-Global Applications of Visual Soil Assessment

David C. McKenzie,1* Mansonia A. Pulido Moncada2 and Bruce C. Ball3

1

Soil Management Designs, Orange, Australia; 2Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay, Venezuela; 3Scotland’s Rural College, Edinburgh, UK

3.1  Introduction

Although global hunger was reduced in the decade up to 2014, about one in every nine people in the world still had insufficient food for an active and healthy life (FAO et al., 2014). An estimated

25% increase in 2015 population to approximately 9.1 billion people in 2050 will aggravate the shortages of food. This means that the world’s farmers will be expected to boost their outputs, possibly by as much as 60% by 2050

(Fischer et al., 2014), and maintain those improvements indefinitely into the future in our pursuit of ‘food security’.

Food security is defined by the Food and

Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

(FAO et al., 2014) as: ‘A situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life’. Based on this definition, four food security dimensions can be identified: food availability, economic and physical access to food, food utilization and stability over time.

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9: The Expanding Discipline and Role of Visual Soil Evaluation

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9 

1

The Expanding Discipline and Role of Visual Soil Evaluation

Bruce C. Ball1* and Lars J. Munkholm2

SRUC, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK; 2Aarhus University, Tjele, Denmark

9.1  Introduction

Drawing on the conclusions of previous chapters, our objective here is to show that methods of visual soil evaluation (VSE) are key aids to the management of soils. They can identify and quantify soil degradation, particularly compaction. These methods can be used to monitor soil quality and thus to maintain its cropping potential. We also identify the future roles of VSE in soils and the environment and suggest improvements in the methods to support these roles.

The prominence of the role of soils for food security and environmental sustainability is likely to increase as the area of land available shrinks and the quality of what is left decreases. Soil is basically a non-renewable resource and, with limited scope to bring new land into cultivation, degradation needs to be decreased or negated by conservation and by restoration of prior degraded land (Lal, 2013). New technologies such as genetic modification are restricted in their ability to increase crop yields by limitations in soil water and/or nitrogen supply (Sinclair and Rufty, 2012) and the constraints of photosynthetic efficiency.

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6: Valuing the Neglected: Lessons and Methods from an Organic, Anthropic Soil System in the Outer Hebrides

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6 

Valuing the Neglected: Lessons and

Methods from an Organic, Anthropic Soil

System in the Outer Hebrides

Mary Norton Scherbatskoy,1* Anthony C. Edwards2 and Berwyn L. Williams3

1

Blackland Centre, Grimsay, North Uist, Scotland, UK; 2SRUC,

Craibstone, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK; 3formerly Macaulay

Land Use Research Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK

It is too simple to say that the ‘marginal’ farms of New England were abandoned because they were no longer productive or desirable as living places. They were given up for one very practical reason: they did not lend themselves readily to exploitation by fossil fuel technology . . . Industrial agriculture sticks itself deeper and deeper into a curious paradox: the larger its technology grows in order to ‘feed the world’, the more potentially productive ‘marginal’ land it either ruins or causes to be abandoned.

(Wendell Berry, 1979)

6.1  Introduction

Small-scale abandoned agricultural systems can be found worldwide: throughout Europe (MacDonald et al., 2000; Marini et al., 2011), on American prairie and hill farms (Manning, 1995; Berry,

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5: Choosing and Evaluating Soil Improvements by Subsoiling and Compaction Control

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5 

Choosing and Evaluating Soil

Improvements by Subsoiling and Compaction Control

Richard J. Godwin1* and Gordon Spoor2

Harper Adams University, Newport, UK; 2Model Farm, Maulden, UK

1

5.1  Introduction

Soil compaction can seriously affect crop

­production, soil quality and biological activity, and considerable time and energy are often expended in attempts to alleviate it. Problems arise through increased mechanical impedance restricting water availability, root development and air and water movement, increasing the risk of anoxic conditions. Figure 5.1 illustrates how alleviating the compaction layer or pan in a sandy loam soil has transformed the root development of sugarbeet.

The influence of compaction on crop production depends on the thickness, location, macroporosity and moisture status of the compact layer, together with the prevailing weather conditions and soil management techniques.

Compaction can also significantly influence soil infiltration rates and the efficiency of sub-surface drainage. These are important locally at farm level, but also at catchment level through their influence on soil erosion and surface flooding, concerns likely to increase in these times of increasing extremes of weather. Visual soil assessment (VSA) has an important part to play in identifying all such potential problems (Ball et al.,

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Banwart S A Noellemeyer E Milne E (31)
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28 Assessment of Organic Carbon Status in Indian Soils

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF

28 

Assessment of Organic Carbon

Status in Indian Soils

Tapas Bhattacharyya*

Abstract

Soil organic carbon (SOC) content in Indian soils has been reported as low, which is in tune with the fact that nearly 60% of the area in India represents the typical tropical climate, which does not permit

SOC accumulation. Recent evaluation with the help of more soil and site data, model approaches and long-term fertilizer experiments (LTFEs) show an increasing trend of SOC, as detailed in this chapter through different case studies in two important food growing zones of India, namely the Indo-­Gangetic

Plains (IGP) and the black soil region (BSR). The study shows the evaluation of Century, RothC and

InfoCrop models in LTFEs with contrasting bioclimate in the IGP and the BSR. The Century model experience necessitates the modification of crop information to suit the tropical conditions found in

India. The RothC output has been found to be useful to arrive at the threshold limit of the mean annual rainfall as an indicator of organic carbon storage in soil. The InfoCrop cotton model in the BSR indicated that the interaction of increased temperature and CO2 concentration had a compensatory effect on crop yield. A methane emission study on Indian agricultural soils has been computed as

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22 Basic Principles of Soil Carbon Management for Multiple Ecosystem Benefits

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22 

Basic Principles of Soil

Carbon Management for Multiple

Ecosystem Benefits

Elke Noellemeyer* and Johan Six

Abstract

Management of soil organic matter (SOM) has traditionally focused on improving crop productivity and hence been considered mainly as a source of plant nutrients. Recently, there has been an increasing focus on SOM as a reservoir for carbon (C) and a mechanism of C sequestration, but far less emphasis has been placed on managing the regulating, cultural and supporting ecosystem services.

Soils are living bodies, and their multiple ecosystem functions are intimately related to SOM transformations and dynamics, which are mediated by soil biotic activity and soil structural dynamics.

Hence, soil management for multiple ecosystem services needs to focus on the link between SOM, soil structure and soil biota, and the regulating factors for this link. Stable or even increased C stocks can potentially be achieved by using zero, reduced or conservation tillage, which diminishes the frequency and aggressiveness of ploughing and harrowing, thereby maintaining soil structure and soil biota. On the other hand, organic residue input to soil must be increased in order to stabilize or enhance C stocks. This implies that crop stubbles should not be burnt and/or only minimally grazed, and that pastures should not be overgrazed, leaving the maximum amount of above- and especially belowground plant material to be stabilized as SOM. These practices not only affect soil C stocks but also will prevent soil losses caused by wind and water erosion and will improve soil water infiltration, potentially avoiding flooding and runoff. In order to maintain these vital soil ecosystem functions, it is necessary to restore soil structure and the associated soil biodiversity.

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21 Impacts of Land-use Change on Carbon Stocks and Dynamics in Central-southern South American Biomes: Cerrado, Atlantic Forest and Southern Grasslands

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF

21 

Impacts of Land-use Change on Carbon Stocks and Dynamics in

Central-southern South American Biomes:

Cerrado, Atlantic Forest and Southern

Grasslands

Heitor L.C. Coutinho*, Elke Noellemeyer, Fabiano de Carvalho Balieiro,

Gervasio Piñeiro, Elaine C.C. Fidalgo, Christopher Martius and Cristiane Figueira da Silva

Abstract

Land-use changes (LUC) are one of most significant global change processes of the current era, with noticeable consequences on habitat loss, due mainly to agricultural expansion and urbanization. The carbon cycle dynamics can be affected significantly by LUC, with impacts on carbon sequestration and emission rates. Considering the direct effect of carbon gases enrichment of the atmosphere on climate change, it is of utmost importance to improve the knowledge base on the impacts of agricultural-based

LUC on carbon sinks, such as soils. This chapter reviews the available data on the effects of LUC on soil carbon stocks in three major biomes of the southern portion of the South American continent (the

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10 Soil Carbon and Agricultural Productivity: Perspectives from Sub-Saharan Africa

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF

10 

Soil Carbon and Agricultural

Productivity: Perspectives from

Sub-Saharan Africa

Andre Bationo*, Boaz S. Waswa and Job Kihara

Abstract

Soil carbon plays a key role in maintaining crop productivity in the soils in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

This is more so considering that most smallholder farmers cannot afford the use of adequate amounts of inorganic fertilizers to restore the proportion of nutrients lost through crop harvests, soil erosion and leaching. Complicating the situation is the huge proportion of land under threat of degradation in the form of soil erosion and nutrient decline. There are numerous opportunities for improving soil carbon as a basis of ensuing sustainable agriculture. This paper discusses the role of soil carbon in agricultural production, with special focus on sub-Saharan Africa. First, the paper presents a discussion on the functions of soil carbon (biological, chemical and physical). This is followed by a look at the causes of carbon variation across agroecosystems. Management of soil carbon and productivity is evaluated in the context of resource availability, quality and soil organic matter pools. Drawing from the integrated soil fertility management practices in Africa, the paper discusses various strategies for organic carbon management and the implication of the same on crop productivity and soil properties.

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11 Soil as a Support of Biodiversity and Functions

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11 

Soil as a Support of Biodiversity and Functions

Pierre-Alain Maron* and Philippe Lemanceau

Abstract

The soil is a major reservoir of biological diversity on our planet. It also shelters numerous biological and ecological processes and therefore contributes to the production of a considerable number of ecosystem services. Among the ecological, social and economic services identified, the role of soil as a reservoir of diversity has now been well established, along with its role in nutrient cycling, supporting primary productivity, pollution removal and storing carbon.

Since the development of industrialization, urbanization and agriculture, soils have been subjected to numerous variations in environmental conditions, which have resulted in modifications of the diversity of the indigenous microbial communities. As a consequence, the functional significance of these modifications of biodiversity, in terms of the capacity of ecosystems to maintain the functions and services on which humanity depends, is now of pivotal importance. The concerns emanating from the scientific community have been reiterated in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA, 2005) published by the policy makers. This strategic document underlines the need to consider biodiversity as an essential component of ecosystems, not only because of its involvement in providing services essential to the well-being of human societies but also because of its intrinsic value in terms of a natural patrimony that needs to be preserved. This objective cannot be raised without the improvement of our ability to predict the effects of environmental changes on soil biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and the associated services; this requires a better quantification of soil biodiversity at different temporal and spatial scales, and its translation into biological functioning. Major advances in molecular biology since the mid-1990s have allowed the development of techniques to investigate and resolve the diversity of soil microbial communities (Maron et al., 2007).

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Bedford M R Choct M O Neill H M (8)
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1 General Principles of Designing a Nutrition Experiment

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1

General Principles of

Designing a Nutrition

Experiment

M.R. BEDFORD*

AB Vista Feed Ingredients Ltd, Marlborough, UK

1.1 Introduction

The clear goal of animal nutrition is to facilitate the optimal use of resources for production of a desired trait. Animals are produced for meat, eggs, milk, wool, leather and many other outputs that have significant economic value.

The cost of producing these outputs largely depends on the cost of the feed employed and the concomitant efficiency of that feed to produce the output of interest. Commercial least-cost formulation programmes are routinely employed to establish the lowest cost route for meeting these needs. The success of such programmes is dependent upon both the accuracy of the requirement and ingredient nutrient content data employed. Nutrition experiments are central to this process as they provide the very information that drives this optimization. As a result, it is important to ensure that when an experiment is conducted, the data generated are both accurate and relevant to the intended application. There should also be a minimum requirement for reporting of methods and data, so that the context in which the data are reported is known. This is important not only for the data at hand, but also for retrospective analysis where data from multiple publications can be combined to determine if a holistic model can more accurately predict the optimum nutrient content for a given output of interest. Clearly, the success of such reviews in deriving a satisfactory model is dependent upon the consistency of reporting of the relevant independent variable in the publications considered. Sadly, in many works, that reporting is far from consistent and, as a result, considerable opportunity for discovery is lost (Rosen, 2001). The focus of this chapter is to highlight the multiple considerations that need to be taken into account if the data generated are to be of value to academia and industry at large. It is split into the two areas of interest to the commercial

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8 Presentation and Publication of Your Data

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8

Presentation and Publication of

Your Data

D. LINDSAY*

University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia

8.1 Publication Is Not the End of Your Research

This chapter on presentation and publication of your data may be the last in this book, but presentation and publication should be among the first things you consider when designing experiments. Too often, researchers begin to think about publication only after they have completed their experiment. As a result, they find themselves in unnecessary difficulty in presenting their results convincingly or explaining them clearly. In fact, it can be argued that the only reason for doing experiments is to write them up so that other people, scientists or non-scientists, can read them and be influenced by them.

That is because the written word is the only possible medium by which researchers can reach all but a tiny portion of the people who may potentially be interested in their findings and reasoning.

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2 Most Common Designs and Understanding Their Limits

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2

Most Common Designs and

Understanding Their Limits

G.M. PESTI*, R.A. ALHOTAN, M.J. DA COSTA AND L. BILLARD

University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA

2.1 Introduction

Animal and poultry sciences are applied sciences whose practitioners’ questions ultimately involve economic applications. In their simplest forms the questions researchers ask are most often, ‘How much of something needs be administered to maximize performance (and profits)?’ or ‘How much of something can be administered without inhibiting performance (and profits)?’ Monogastric animal research then often involves administering or feeding a series of different levels of something and observing how it affects performance. The independent factors may be things like nutrients or environmental temperatures and the response (output) variables may be things like growth and egg production, feed intake and efficiency, carcass composition, egg size and composition, behaviours, bone quality, etc.

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4 Characterization of the Experimental Diets

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4

Characterization of the

Experimental Diets

H.V. MASEY O’NEILL*

AB Agri Ltd, Peterborough, UK

4.1 Introduction

One of the key tenets of the scientific method is the ability for experiments to be reproduced (Blow, 2014). To allow for reproduction, experimental methods, published or presented, must be described in such a way that every stage can be carried out by an independent laboratory (see Chapter 8). The intricate detail of an experimental diet is no exception, as this is likely to impact the outcome greatly and will form the basis of any experimental treatment in a feeding experiment. Clarity is important, not only for scientific rigour in the community, but also to enable the reader to interpret the results and fully understand the experiment. It also follows that the justification for the choice of diet or ingredients should be clear. A literature review is usually performed at the conception of an idea for an experimental study (Johnson and Besselsen, 2002). In order to maximize the likelihood of a successful outcome, scientists need to be able to interpret the literature that went before.

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7 Extending the Value of the Literature: Data Requirements for Holo-analysis and Interpretation of the Outputs

Bedford, M.R.; Choct, M.; O'Neill, H.M. CABI PDF

7

Extending the Value of the

Literature: Data Requirements for Holo-analysis and

Interpretation of the Outputs

M.R. BEDFORD1,* AND H.V. MASEY O’NEILL2

1AB

Vista Feed Ingredients Ltd, Marlborough, UK; 2AB Agri Ltd,

Peterborough, UK

7.1 Introduction

Individual scientific papers address specific topics and deliver information relevant to the hypothesis being tested. The scope of most papers is necessarily narrow, as the goal is to control all sources of variation so that the variation attributed to the variables/treatments of interest can be isolated and detected. Ideally, each new paper yields information that is incremental to the current knowledge base, with some papers (the exceptions) providing quantum leaps.

In many cases, the response to a set of treatments within any given trial is subject to influence from a multitude of conditions, some of which are known and some unknown. Those conditions that are known to influence the response should be controlled or at least measured, and those that are unknown simply contribute to the variation in the data in the literature.

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Biddle A J (8)
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7 HARVESTING, NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND USES

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7

HARVESTING, NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND USES

As described in Chapter 1, peas and beans are used in a wide variety of ways, either fresh, where the immature pods or seeds are harvested and used as a vegetable, or processed, either by freezing or by canning, and as dried pulses as food ingredients or flour, or rehydrated and cooked. Cooked pulses may also be canned on their own or in mixtures, or processed in some other form. Dried pulses are also used in animal feed manufacture, either milled or heat processed with or without the seed coat, and fed to most types of livestock and in aquaculture. In all instances, the requirements for high-quality produce is important from a human health aspect but also economically in the processing: produce that is of poor quality is either unusable or will require cleaning and this will invoke payment penalties to the producer.

Each crop has its own particular set of operations to ensure an acceptable product, whether the product is consumed or marketed in a fresh state or processed at home or at a factory. In the case of dried pulses, the product must be harvested and stored in a safe environment before marketing.

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6 MANAGEMENT OF PESTS AND DISEASES

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6

MANAGEMENT OF PESTS AND DISEASES

Pests and diseases of peas and beans are capable of reducing yields, spoiling quality, jeopardizing the reliability of production and disrupting throughput at the packing and processing facilities. Very occasionally there are dramatic losses, due to infections of disease at epidemic proportions, or due to unusually heavy infestations of a particular pest. Both are often linked with climatic conditions. There are less serious losses, such as where patches of diseased plants appear, or when pest infestation is not heavy and there are subtle and often unnoticed losses that may result from a gradual build-up of a soil-borne pest or pathogen, but gradually reducing vitality and profitability.

Control methods are now becoming more reliant on management and measures of prevention rather than a direct approach of treating when symptoms or pests appear. The reliance on synthetic pesticides is being discouraged and more emphasis is being made on prediction, forecasting and monitoring as a means of providing an avoidance strategy or a managed approach, by identifying the optimum timing for the application of pesticides and justification for their use. In many countries that produce processed crop products, there is a strong emphasis on the need for crop traceability from the field to the factory, where every input – agronomic, crop nutrition and pesticide application – is recorded by the producer and the records remain available for inspection for some time after harvest. The UK Assured Produce Scheme known as Red Tractor has been in operation for several years as a voluntary standard set up by the food industry and a similar scheme is used in Europe (GLOBALG.A.P.). Both schemes include crop protocols that are standardized in agreement with retailers, food processors and merchants to provide a means of transparency and food safety for the consumer.

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4 AGRONOMY OF PEAS AND BEANS

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4

AGRONOMY OF PEAS AND BEANS

Peas and beans have specific requirements for successful crop establishment, growth and yield of high-quality produce. Whilst there are many similarities in agronomy, particularly between peas and Vicia faba, the requirements for

Phaseolus beans are not too dissimilar. The successful management of crops is dependent on a number of factors, including the use of high-quality seed, providing a suitable location and soil conditions for sowing and the supply of adequate nutrients and moisture to maintain growth. In addition, crops must be protected from weed competition and pests and diseases; these subjects are discussed in Chapters 5 and 6.

CROP ROTATION

There are a number of traditional reasons put forward for the necessity of crop rotation when including peas or beans. Weed control may be improved by the use of spring-sown crops and there is the value of residual nitrogen (see Chapter 2) to improve fertility of the soil for the following crop. Large-seeded legumes fit in well with a rotation with cereals and they can generally be grown using the same machinery and stored with existing equipment. The vegetable crops are more demanding on machinery, labour and harvesting equipment but nevertheless their value as a break crop and general soil improver is still the same.

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1 INTRODUCTION TO PEAS AND BEANS

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1

INTRODUCTION TO PEAS AND BEANS

Amongst the world’s most important non-cereal food crops, peas and beans are probably the most versatile. They provide a source of protein, are easily stored for long periods and can be consumed as processed or whole food by both humans and livestock. Commonly known as pulse crops or grain legumes, they are widely grown in temperate, subtropical and arid climates all over the world. They can be consumed as fresh vegetables or frozen, canned or dehydrated and also can be harvested as dry seed or pulses, which can be milled for use as a flour, or rehydrated and cooked whole. It seems likely that the adoption of legumes as agricultural crops in part reflects the nutritional balance between legumes and cereal seeds as well as the ability of legumes to break cereal rotations. Because of their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen through their symbiotic relationship with soil-borne bacteria providing them with sufficient nitrogen for growth, the residue enriches the soil nitrogen supply for the following crop. The diversity of locations where peas and beans have been developed in agriculture is reflected in the diversity of species and varieties currently grown. They are found in agricultural systems throughout the world and have been domesticated in South and Central America, the Middle East, China, India and Africa. More recently they have been introduced to Europe and North

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8 THE FUTURE FOR PEAS AND BEANS

Biddle, A.J. CABI PDF

8

THE FUTURE FOR PEAS AND BEANS

INTRODUCTION

In the earlier chapters, aspects of current development in pea and bean breeding and production have been discussed, albeit mainly concentrating on largescale developed commercial agriculture in the developed countries of the world. However, on a general note, it has been established that of all the largeseeded legume crops, peas and beans are the most versatile and are able to grow in a wide variety of geographical areas and soil types. Some species are more adaptable to conditions than others but within species there are many commercial varieties and types that perform well in most situations. These facts alone make the future of these crops much more certain.

As a food source, peas and beans are well accepted for animal nutrition and for human food with relatively little processing of the raw ingredient necessary in a wide variety of cases. In human nutrition, pulses have been shown to have an important role in preventing illnesses such as cancer, heart disease and diabetes (Pulse Canada, 2008). The dry edible seeds of large-seeded legumes, known as pulses, contain a higher level of protein than cereals and high levels of both soluble and non-soluble fibre with a low glycaemic index. In developing countries, pulses are an important source of vegetable proteins and constitute the main source of protein for most populations.

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