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15: Plant Growth-promoting Rhizobacteria as Biocontrol Agents of Phytonematodes

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF

15 

Plant Growth-promoting

Rhizobacteria as Biocontrol

Agents of Phytonematodes

Abdul Hamid Wani*

Department of Botany, University of Kashmir,

Jammu and Kashmir, India

15.1  Introduction

Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) or phytonematodes are invertebrate obligate parasite of a large number of plants. There are about 197 genera containing 4300 species of phytonematodes. The important genera of PPN include: Meloidogyne, root-knot nematodes; Pratylenchus, lesion nematode; Heterodera and Globodera, cyst nematodes;

Tylenchulus, citrus nematode; Xiphinema, dagger nematode; Radopholus, burrowing nematode;

­Rotylenchulus, reniform nematode; Helicotylenchus, spiral nematode; and Belonolaimus, sting nematode. Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. have been found all over the world and are known to cause huge losses to crops of economic importance (Taylor and Sasser, 1978). About

90 species of root-knot nematode have been reported, but four of them, Meloidogyne incognita,

Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne arenaria and

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6: Nematophagous Fungi: Formulation, Mass Production and Application Technology

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6 

Nematophagous Fungi: Formulation,

Mass Production and Application

Technology

Paulo Roberto Pala Martinelli,1* Pedro Luiz Martins Soares,1

Jaime Maia dos Santos1 and Arlete Jose da Silveira2

1

Department of Plant Protection, UNESP Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil;

2

Department of Agrarian and Environmental Sciences, State University of Santa Cruz, Ilheus-Bahia, Brazil

6.1  Introduction

A successful plant-parasitic nematode (PPN) management requires a combination of management tactics, such as exclusion measures, crop rotation, use of antagonistic plants, resistant varieties and chemical and biological methods. Among these, the biological method of nematode management by using nematophagous fungi has drawn considerable attention by researchers all over the world (Barron,

1977; Fattah, 1988; Maia et al., 2001; Bernardo,

2002; Corbani, 2002; Martinelli et al., 2012a,b).

These carnivorous fungi are the most studied organisms for the management of nematodes.

The first report of fungi parasitizing nematodes was reported by Zopf (1888), and the first attempt of using these microorganisms in nematode control was taken by Cobb in

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11 Nematophagous Bacteria: Survival Biology

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11 

Nematophagous Bacteria:

Survival Biology

Fabio Ramos Alves1* and Ricardo Moreira de Souza2

Department of Vegetable Production, Federal University of Espirito Santo,

Alegre, Brazil; 2Laboratory of Entomology and Phytopathology,

Centre for Agricultural Sciences and Technology, State University of

North Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

1

11.1  Introduction

Plant-parasitic nematodes play an important role among the pathogens that cause serious damage directly to the plants and indirectly to the growers. Their destructive action on the root system or aerial part affects the absorption and translocation of nutrients to the plant, altering its physiology and predisposing it to other complex diseases and environmental stresses (Paula et al., 2011). The great majority of plant-parasitic nematodes pass at least part of their life cycle in the soil, and their activity is influenced by the variation of physical (temperature, humidity and aeration), chemical (defensives and fertilizers) and physiological (Alves and Campos, 2003; Ferraz et al.,

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14: Mites as Biocontrol Agents of Phytonematodes

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14 

Mites as Biocontrol Agents of

Phytonematodes

Uri Gerson*

Department of Entomology, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture,

Food and Environment, Rehovot, Israel

14.1  Introduction

Reductions in the extent of nematode damage to plants, which may occur without human intervention, are usually attributed to certain biota that decrease nematode numbers in what are termed suppressive soils. These have been reported from all over the world and include some of the best documented cases of natural, effective biological control of nematodes (Kerry,

1997; Sánchez-Moreno and Ferris, 2007). The biological control (BC) of plant nematodes

(phytonematodes) has been defined (Sayre and

Walter, 1991; Stirling, 1991) as reductions in nematode populations and/or their damage through the activities of organisms other than nematode-resistant host plants. Stirling (2011) later proposed a broader, more ecologicallyminded definition, that BC is the action of soil organisms in maintaining nematode population densities at lower average levels than would occur in their absence. Biological control is usually understood to be a scientific as well as a practical approach (and a management tool) in reducing pest numbers and/or their economic, medical and/or veterinary damage, through the activities of other organisms. When it is applied to arthropod pests, BC consists of three strategies, or modes, namely introductions

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10: Nematophagous Bacteria: Virulence Mechanisms

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10 

Nematophagous Bacteria: Virulence

Mechanisms

Fernando da Silva Rocha1* and Jorge Teodoro de Souza2

Laboratory of Phytopathology, Federal University of Minas Gerais,

Montes Claros, Brazil; 2Department of Phytopathology, Lavras Federal

University, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil

1

10.1  Introduction

Bacteria may affect nematode populations by a series of direct mechanisms, including para­ sitism and antibiosis and indirectly by inter­ fering with the recognition of host plants, inducing systemic resistance and improving plant health (Tian et al., 2007). Bacteria may be classified as antagonists, parasites and sym­ bionts, according to their ecological associ­ ation with nematodes. Antagonistic bacteria are saprophytes that may use nematodes as a source of nutrients under certain conditions, but are not dependent on them for survival.

These bacteria kill nematodes through the production of toxins, enzymes, volatile com­ pounds and antibiotics. On the other hand, obligate parasitic bacteria and symbionts depend on the nematode host for survival and have evolved a biotrophic lifestyle with little or no production of enzymes and toxic compounds.

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Ball B C (9)
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8: Soil Structure under Adverse Weather/Climate Conditions

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8 

Soil Structure under Adverse

Weather/Climate Conditions

Rachel M.L. Guimarães,1* Owen Fenton,2

Brian W. Murphy3 and Cássio A. Tormena4

1

Department of Agronomy, Federal University of Technology – Paraná,

Brazil; 2Teagasc, Environmental Research Centre, Johnstown Castle,

Co. Wexford, Ireland; 3Honorary Scientific Fellow with the New South Wales

Office of Environment and Heritage, Cowra, Australia; 4Department of Agronomy, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Paraná, Brazil

8.1  Introduction

The use of the Earth’s natural resources in a sustainable manner has increased in importance over the past few decades. This is particularly true for soil, with soil degradation likely to continue being a serious problem throughout the

21st century, due to its impact on food security and environment quality (Eswaran et al., 2001).

Soil degrades by losing its actual or potential productivity or its function as a result of natural or anthropogenic factors (Lal, 1997). Soil degradative processes include physical, chemical and biological processes. The most important of the physical processes is the deterioration of soil structure leading to crusting, compaction, erosion, anaerobism, salinization, acidification, decrease in cation exchange capability, leaching, volatilization, nutrient imbalance, reduction in soil biodiversity and a decrease in soil organic carbon. The main degradative processes are

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9: The Expanding Discipline and Role of Visual Soil Evaluation

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9 

1

The Expanding Discipline and Role of Visual Soil Evaluation

Bruce C. Ball1* and Lars J. Munkholm2

SRUC, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK; 2Aarhus University, Tjele, Denmark

9.1  Introduction

Drawing on the conclusions of previous chapters, our objective here is to show that methods of visual soil evaluation (VSE) are key aids to the management of soils. They can identify and quantify soil degradation, particularly compaction. These methods can be used to monitor soil quality and thus to maintain its cropping potential. We also identify the future roles of VSE in soils and the environment and suggest improvements in the methods to support these roles.

The prominence of the role of soils for food security and environmental sustainability is likely to increase as the area of land available shrinks and the quality of what is left decreases. Soil is basically a non-renewable resource and, with limited scope to bring new land into cultivation, degradation needs to be decreased or negated by conservation and by restoration of prior degraded land (Lal, 2013). New technologies such as genetic modification are restricted in their ability to increase crop yields by limitations in soil water and/or nitrogen supply (Sinclair and Rufty, 2012) and the constraints of photosynthetic efficiency.

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5: Choosing and Evaluating Soil Improvements by Subsoiling and Compaction Control

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5 

Choosing and Evaluating Soil

Improvements by Subsoiling and Compaction Control

Richard J. Godwin1* and Gordon Spoor2

Harper Adams University, Newport, UK; 2Model Farm, Maulden, UK

1

5.1  Introduction

Soil compaction can seriously affect crop

­production, soil quality and biological activity, and considerable time and energy are often expended in attempts to alleviate it. Problems arise through increased mechanical impedance restricting water availability, root development and air and water movement, increasing the risk of anoxic conditions. Figure 5.1 illustrates how alleviating the compaction layer or pan in a sandy loam soil has transformed the root development of sugarbeet.

The influence of compaction on crop production depends on the thickness, location, macroporosity and moisture status of the compact layer, together with the prevailing weather conditions and soil management techniques.

Compaction can also significantly influence soil infiltration rates and the efficiency of sub-surface drainage. These are important locally at farm level, but also at catchment level through their influence on soil erosion and surface flooding, concerns likely to increase in these times of increasing extremes of weather. Visual soil assessment (VSA) has an important part to play in identifying all such potential problems (Ball et al.,

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1:Describing Soil Structures, Rooting and Biological Activity and Recognizing Tillage Effects, Damage and Recovery in Clayey and Sandy Soils

Ball, B.C. CABI PDF

1  Describing Soil Structures, Rooting

and Biological Activity and Recognizing

Tillage Effects, Damage and Recovery in Clayey and Sandy Soils

Anne Weill1* and Lars J. Munkholm2

Center of Expertise and Technology Transfer in Organic Agriculture and

Local Food Systems (Centre d’expertise et de transfert en agriculture biologique et de proximité – CETAB+), Cégep de Victoriaville, Québec,

Canada; 2Department of Agroecology – Soil Physics and Hydropedology,

Aarhus University, Tjele, Denmark

1

Soil compaction and erosion have emerged as major threats to global agriculture as they negatively affect plant production and have detrimental impacts on the environment. Soil compaction is responsible for decreased crop yield and quality, emissions of greenhouse gases and increased water runoff (Hamza and Anderson, 2005; Ball et al., 2008). Unless severe, it is often unrecognized because plant growth can appear normal, especially when mineral fertilizers are used liberally. The major cropping factors affecting soil compaction are the weight of machinery, poor timing of field operations with respect to soil water content and intensification of crop production. Soil erosion is responsible for losses of soil particles, nutrients and agrochemicals resulting in decreased soil fertility as well as eutrophication of rivers and lakes (Rasouli et al., 2014). Site characteristics (rainfall quantity and intensity, slope and soil texture) have strong effects on soil erosion; in addition, important cropping factors related to soil erosion are crop rotation, percentage soil cover and management practices affecting soil structure and compaction (Pimentel

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3: Reduction of Yield Gaps and Improvement of Ecological Function through Local-to-Global Applications of Visual Soil Assessment

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3 

Reduction of Yield Gaps and

Improvement of Ecological Function through Local-to-Global Applications of Visual Soil Assessment

David C. McKenzie,1* Mansonia A. Pulido Moncada2 and Bruce C. Ball3

1

Soil Management Designs, Orange, Australia; 2Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay, Venezuela; 3Scotland’s Rural College, Edinburgh, UK

3.1  Introduction

Although global hunger was reduced in the decade up to 2014, about one in every nine people in the world still had insufficient food for an active and healthy life (FAO et al., 2014). An estimated

25% increase in 2015 population to approximately 9.1 billion people in 2050 will aggravate the shortages of food. This means that the world’s farmers will be expected to boost their outputs, possibly by as much as 60% by 2050

(Fischer et al., 2014), and maintain those improvements indefinitely into the future in our pursuit of ‘food security’.

Food security is defined by the Food and

Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

(FAO et al., 2014) as: ‘A situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life’. Based on this definition, four food security dimensions can be identified: food availability, economic and physical access to food, food utilization and stability over time.

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Banwart S A Noellemeyer E Milne E (31)
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17 Modelling Soil Carbon

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17 

Modelling Soil Carbon

Eleanor Milne* and Jo Smith

Abstract

Models that describe the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) can be useful tools when estimating the impacts of land cover, land management and climate change on ecosystems. The development of

SOC models started with single-compartment models that assumed a constant decomposition rate. As understanding of SOC dynamics improved, these were replaced by models with different compartments with varying decomposition rate constants. Models that deal with the decomposition of SOC as a continuum have been developed, but they require complex mathematics and are therefore less popular. Compartmentalized soil carbon models are at the core of complex models such as CENTURY and

DNDC, which describe nutrient turnover in the entire ecosystem both above and below ground. The majority of such models have been developed using data from temperate ecosystems as studies on SOC stock change in temperate areas outnumber those from tropical areas. Application to tropical and subtropical areas therefore requires substantial parameterization and testing, and the availability of appropriate data sets remains a challenge.

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28 Assessment of Organic Carbon Status in Indian Soils

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF

28 

Assessment of Organic Carbon

Status in Indian Soils

Tapas Bhattacharyya*

Abstract

Soil organic carbon (SOC) content in Indian soils has been reported as low, which is in tune with the fact that nearly 60% of the area in India represents the typical tropical climate, which does not permit

SOC accumulation. Recent evaluation with the help of more soil and site data, model approaches and long-term fertilizer experiments (LTFEs) show an increasing trend of SOC, as detailed in this chapter through different case studies in two important food growing zones of India, namely the Indo-­Gangetic

Plains (IGP) and the black soil region (BSR). The study shows the evaluation of Century, RothC and

InfoCrop models in LTFEs with contrasting bioclimate in the IGP and the BSR. The Century model experience necessitates the modification of crop information to suit the tropical conditions found in

India. The RothC output has been found to be useful to arrive at the threshold limit of the mean annual rainfall as an indicator of organic carbon storage in soil. The InfoCrop cotton model in the BSR indicated that the interaction of increased temperature and CO2 concentration had a compensatory effect on crop yield. A methane emission study on Indian agricultural soils has been computed as

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30 National Implementation Case Study: China

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30 

National Implementation

Case Study: China

Yongcun Zhao*

Abstract

As a developing country with limited arable land and a large population, governance of soil carbon in

China has to face a dual challenge, where both maintaining a steady ­increase in crop production for ensuring ­adequate food supplies and addressing environmental problems raised by rapid industrialization and agronomic development must be satisfied simultaneously. In this chapter, the possible approaches for soil carbon governance in China such as land management, agricultural management practice, forestry activity and pasture management and recovery of degraded land are reviewed, and the implementation of a soil testing and fertilizer recommendation project, a fertile soil project, conservation tillage and crop residue returning, as well as an ecological construction project for sequestrating carbon in the soils of China is explored. Moreover, funding and technology limitation, notion and knowledge gap and policy challenge are also discussed in the chapter.

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2 Soil Carbon: a Critical Natural Resource – Wide-scale Goals, Urgent Actions

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2 

Soil Carbon: a Critical Natural

Resource – Wide-scale Goals,

Urgent Actions

Generose Nziguheba*, Rodrigo Vargas, Andre Bationo,

Helaina Black, Daniel Buschiazzo, Delphine de Brogniez,

Hans Joosten, Jerry Melillo, Dan Richter and Mette Termansen

Abstract

Across the world, soil organic carbon (SOC) is decreasing due to changes in land use such as the conversion of natural systems to food or bioenergy production systems. The losses of SOC have impacted crop productivity and other ecosystem services adversely. One of the grand challenges for society is to manage soil carbon stocks to optimize the mix of five essential services – provisioning of food, water and energy; maintaining biodiversity; and regulating climate. Scientific research has helped develop an understanding of the general SOC dynamics and characteristics; the influence of soil management on SOC; and management practices that can restore SOC and reduce or stop carbon losses from terrestrial ecosystems.

As the uptake of these practices has been very limited, it is necessary to identify and overcome barriers to the adoption of practices that enhance SOC. Actions should focus on multiple ecosystem services to optimize efforts and the benefits of SOC. Given that depleting SOC degrades most soil services, we suggest that in the coming decades increases in SOC will concurrently benefit all five of the essential services.

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19 Current Soil Carbon Loss and Land Degradation Globally: Where are the Hotspots and Why There?

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF

19 

Current Soil Carbon Loss and

Land Degradation Globally: Where are the Hotspots and Why There?

Hans Joosten*

Abstract

Global soils store in their first metre three times more carbon than all forest biomass of the world

­combined, and double the CO2 content of the atmosphere. The natural soil carbon density is controlled by climate, soil properties and vegetation. Land-use intensity, drainage conditions and soil type

(­organic versus mineral soils) play an important role in controlling soil carbon losses or gains.

Because of its superficial setting, small bulk density and organic constitution, soil organic carbon

(SOC) is highly susceptible to water and wind erosion and chemical and physical degradation. The major drivers of SOC loss include demand for fuel, overgrazing, arable agriculture and other overexploitation of vegetation. The resulting depletion of the global SOC pool is estimated at 40–100 Pg.

Three global hotspots can be distinguished where environmental and socio-economic conditions currently lead to large soil carbon losses:

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Bedford M R Choct M O Neill H M (8)
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6 Designing, Conducting and Reporting Swine and Poultry Nutrition Research

Bedford, M.R.; Choct, M.; O'Neill, H.M. CABI PDF

6

Designing, Conducting and

Reporting Swine and Poultry

Nutrition Research

J.F. PATIENCE*

Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA

6.1 Introduction

To be successful, an experiment needs to be properly designed with a clear objective in mind, executed with efficiency and appropriate attention to detail, correctly analysed and interpreted and then presented with clarity and comprehensiveness (Festing and Altman, 2002). This chapter will address all of these aspects, but the primary objective is to assist the reader to produce reports from studies that are complete and detailed. For reasons explained below, it is becoming increasingly important to be able to compare different experiments that have been conducted on the same or similar topics. This can only be done when the individual experiments are completed correctly and when the reports of the experiments contain sufficient detail as to allow such comparison.

The pig and poultry industries have evolved at a very rapid rate. While some of the changes are structural in nature, many of them are the consequences of developments in production technologies driven by a strong global research and development sector. In other words, these industries have a strong interest in science and utilize research as an important basis for management decisions. When new technology presents itself, assuming that it makes sense practically and financially, it will be rapidly adopted.

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3 Practical Relevance of Test Diets

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3

Practical Relevance of Test

Diets

M. CHOCT*

University of New England, Armidale, Australia

3.1 Introduction

Most animal nutrition research belongs to applied science and as such its outcomes should be relevant to industry. This means the selection of ingredients, the nutrient specifications used for formulating the diet, the types of feed additives commonly used, the physical quality and the form of the diet should be appropriate for the age and class of the animal to which it is to be fed. Ignoring any of these factors may render the study results irrelevant to practice. However, despite the best efforts of the researcher, it is sometimes difficult to meet these criteria. When this happens, the most important parts, such as the nutrient balance of the diet, should be considered and areas that cannot be accommodated should be clearly stated and justified.

Preceding chapters detail all the basics for conducting proper nutritional experiments for monogastric animals. This chapter will focus on the production aspects of nutrition experiments, discussing how a practical diet can be formulated that will support animal performance relevant to commercial targets.

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4 Characterization of the Experimental Diets

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4

Characterization of the

Experimental Diets

H.V. MASEY O’NEILL*

AB Agri Ltd, Peterborough, UK

4.1 Introduction

One of the key tenets of the scientific method is the ability for experiments to be reproduced (Blow, 2014). To allow for reproduction, experimental methods, published or presented, must be described in such a way that every stage can be carried out by an independent laboratory (see Chapter 8). The intricate detail of an experimental diet is no exception, as this is likely to impact the outcome greatly and will form the basis of any experimental treatment in a feeding experiment. Clarity is important, not only for scientific rigour in the community, but also to enable the reader to interpret the results and fully understand the experiment. It also follows that the justification for the choice of diet or ingredients should be clear. A literature review is usually performed at the conception of an idea for an experimental study (Johnson and Besselsen, 2002). In order to maximize the likelihood of a successful outcome, scientists need to be able to interpret the literature that went before.

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2 Most Common Designs and Understanding Their Limits

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2

Most Common Designs and

Understanding Their Limits

G.M. PESTI*, R.A. ALHOTAN, M.J. DA COSTA AND L. BILLARD

University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA

2.1 Introduction

Animal and poultry sciences are applied sciences whose practitioners’ questions ultimately involve economic applications. In their simplest forms the questions researchers ask are most often, ‘How much of something needs be administered to maximize performance (and profits)?’ or ‘How much of something can be administered without inhibiting performance (and profits)?’ Monogastric animal research then often involves administering or feeding a series of different levels of something and observing how it affects performance. The independent factors may be things like nutrients or environmental temperatures and the response (output) variables may be things like growth and egg production, feed intake and efficiency, carcass composition, egg size and composition, behaviours, bone quality, etc.

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5 Measurements of Nutrients and Nutritive Value

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5

Measurements of Nutrients and Nutritive Value

M. CHOCT*

University of New England, Armidale, Australia

5.1 Introduction

With an ever increasing volume of information to digest, it is essential that you present your research findings in a concise and meaningful manner. In scientific writing, brevity is preferred over long-windedness and strict adherence to technical terms is preferred over elegant variation. Being concise and meaningful is not just about writing; it has its base in the design of an experiment and the testing of the hypothesis. Which measurements are required should be dictated by the hypothesis. A very common oversight with some researchers is to measure what their laboratory is equipped for, or what others in the same field usually measure. One researcher once said to me that such research was like ‘a blind person throwing a rock into the ocean and hoping to hit a fish’. Such an approach bulks up manuscripts with irrelevant measurements without an overarching hypothesis, which in turn leads to irrelevant discussion and misleading conclusions. It is imperative to consider what your hypothesis is and then find the tools to test it. The tools in this case refer to the methods and equipment required to carry out the measurements.

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Biddle A J (8)
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4 AGRONOMY OF PEAS AND BEANS

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4

AGRONOMY OF PEAS AND BEANS

Peas and beans have specific requirements for successful crop establishment, growth and yield of high-quality produce. Whilst there are many similarities in agronomy, particularly between peas and Vicia faba, the requirements for

Phaseolus beans are not too dissimilar. The successful management of crops is dependent on a number of factors, including the use of high-quality seed, providing a suitable location and soil conditions for sowing and the supply of adequate nutrients and moisture to maintain growth. In addition, crops must be protected from weed competition and pests and diseases; these subjects are discussed in Chapters 5 and 6.

CROP ROTATION

There are a number of traditional reasons put forward for the necessity of crop rotation when including peas or beans. Weed control may be improved by the use of spring-sown crops and there is the value of residual nitrogen (see Chapter 2) to improve fertility of the soil for the following crop. Large-seeded legumes fit in well with a rotation with cereals and they can generally be grown using the same machinery and stored with existing equipment. The vegetable crops are more demanding on machinery, labour and harvesting equipment but nevertheless their value as a break crop and general soil improver is still the same.

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1 INTRODUCTION TO PEAS AND BEANS

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1

INTRODUCTION TO PEAS AND BEANS

Amongst the world’s most important non-cereal food crops, peas and beans are probably the most versatile. They provide a source of protein, are easily stored for long periods and can be consumed as processed or whole food by both humans and livestock. Commonly known as pulse crops or grain legumes, they are widely grown in temperate, subtropical and arid climates all over the world. They can be consumed as fresh vegetables or frozen, canned or dehydrated and also can be harvested as dry seed or pulses, which can be milled for use as a flour, or rehydrated and cooked whole. It seems likely that the adoption of legumes as agricultural crops in part reflects the nutritional balance between legumes and cereal seeds as well as the ability of legumes to break cereal rotations. Because of their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen through their symbiotic relationship with soil-borne bacteria providing them with sufficient nitrogen for growth, the residue enriches the soil nitrogen supply for the following crop. The diversity of locations where peas and beans have been developed in agriculture is reflected in the diversity of species and varieties currently grown. They are found in agricultural systems throughout the world and have been domesticated in South and Central America, the Middle East, China, India and Africa. More recently they have been introduced to Europe and North

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7 HARVESTING, NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND USES

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7

HARVESTING, NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND USES

As described in Chapter 1, peas and beans are used in a wide variety of ways, either fresh, where the immature pods or seeds are harvested and used as a vegetable, or processed, either by freezing or by canning, and as dried pulses as food ingredients or flour, or rehydrated and cooked. Cooked pulses may also be canned on their own or in mixtures, or processed in some other form. Dried pulses are also used in animal feed manufacture, either milled or heat processed with or without the seed coat, and fed to most types of livestock and in aquaculture. In all instances, the requirements for high-quality produce is important from a human health aspect but also economically in the processing: produce that is of poor quality is either unusable or will require cleaning and this will invoke payment penalties to the producer.

Each crop has its own particular set of operations to ensure an acceptable product, whether the product is consumed or marketed in a fresh state or processed at home or at a factory. In the case of dried pulses, the product must be harvested and stored in a safe environment before marketing.

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3 PEA AND BEAN BREEDING

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3

PEA AND BEAN BREEDING

BACKGROUND TO THE CURRENT TYPES

There is a significant number of similarities in the genetic, physiological and adaptational characteristics of leguminous food crop species that allows them to be considered together as well as genus by genus. The most significant historical work on peas (Pisum sativum) was carried out by Mendel (1866).

Although his work was overlooked by most applied botanists until its rediscovery at about the same time by Correns (1900), de Vries and Tshermack in

Germany and William Bateson in Cambridge (Bateson, 1901; Druery and

Bateson, 1901), it remains fundamental to genetic understanding of all studied plant species and animals. Peas are a largely self-pollinated and hence inbreeding species, as is the common bean species Phaseolus vulgaris (but notably not Phaseolus multiflorus syn. P. coccineus). Wild landraces (now regarded as locally adapted ecotypes) of such largely inbreeding species comprise mixtures mainly of homozygous plants and of heterozygotes from crosses that have occurred naturally as a result of insect pollination, which is facilitated by the form of the flowers and availability of nectar. Dry beans were studied by W.L.

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5 MANAGEMENT OF WEEDS

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5

MANAGEMENT OF WEEDS

Large-seeded legumes such as peas and beans, compared with many other agricultural crops, do not offer very great competition to weeds and consequently infestations can cause yield depression. Weed control has become more efficient in recent years, with the introduction of new pesticides, but this situation is becoming more difficult with the increasing emphasis on reducing pesticide usage and reducing the number of active ingredients believed to be detrimental to the environment (Grundy et al., 2011).

In many countries where the crops are grown on a small scale, access to pesticides is very limited because of availability or economics, therefore reliance on the use of such materials may not be possible or indeed sustainable.

There are a number of cultural aids to weed control that can be utilized, increasingly so in large-scale commercial production, which can eliminate the need for chemical weed control or at least reduce its frequency of use. Weeds have a long-term effect on crop rotation, such as the return of seeds of the grass weeds Avena fatua and Alopecurus myosuroides and the spread of perennial weeds in succeeding crops. Weed flora is dependent on climate, soil type, crop rotation and time of sowing and no weeds are specific to food legumes, with the exception of the parasite Orobanche spp. (especially O. crenata).

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