Askary T H Editor (19)
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19 Limitations, Research Needs and Future Prospects in the Biological Control of Phytonematodes

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF

19 

Limitations, Research Needs and Future Prospects in the Biological

Control of Phytonematodes

Tarique Hassan Askary*

Division of Entomology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural

Sciences and Technology, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

19.1  Introduction

Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) constitute one of the major limiting factors in crop production. They cause extensive losses in yield of the crop, which in monetary term has been estimated up to US$358 billion annually on a worldwide basis (see Abd-Elgawad and Askary,

Chapter 1, this volume). Besides quantity, quality of the crop is also severely affected.

Use of pesticides is a quick and effective method of nematode management but reports in the last two decades revealed that nematodes have developed resistance against most of the known pesticides, which led to the search for a new option that would be environmentally safe and economically viable

(Fernandez et al., 2001). A well known chemical, methyl bromide, which was widely used against nematodes, has now been withdrawn from the market due to its adverse effects on the ozone layer (UNEP, 2001). Under this situation, use of biocontrol agents (BCAs) seems the best alternative. BCAs are those natural living enemies that are utilized deliberately as an ecofriendly pest management strategy to reduce the target pest population. Several BCAs such as predaceous and

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3: Nematophagous Fungi as Biocontrol Agents of Phytonematodes

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3 

Nematophagous Fungi as Biocontrol

Agents of Phytonematodes

Tarique Hassan Askary*

Division of Entomology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural

Sciences and Technology, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

3.1  Introduction

Plant parasitic nematodes are recognized a serious threat to crop production throughout the world. They cause significant damage to field crops (Luc et al., 2005), fruit and horticultural trees (Askary et al., 2000; Askary and

Haider, 2010). All crop plants are susceptible to at least one nematode species and it is considered that the damage potential of nematodes exists in all climates on any crop (Bridge and

Starr, 2007). Globally, agricultural losses due to plant parasitic nematodes have been estimated at US$358 billion annually (see Abd-Elgawad and Askary, Chapter 1, this volume). Plants infected with nematodes are often overlooked and mis-­diagnosed as the symptoms shown by the plants are not clear and are very much similar to fungal diseases or nutritional disorders. In some cases crop yield suppression occurs prior to the expression of explicit disease symptoms. The extent of damage caused to plants by these tiny creatures varies with the genera and species (Askary et al., 2012).

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13: Novel Bacteria Species in Nematode Biocontrol

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13 

Novel Bacteria Species in Nematode

Biocontrol

Ioannis K. Vagelas*

Technological Education Institute of Larissa,

Department of Plant Production, Larissa, Greece

13.1  Introduction

Plant parasitic nematodes (PPN), especially the root-knot nematodes (RKN), are considered a limiting factor in crop production, causing considerable annual losses among a wide variety of crops grown in the world

(Sasser and Freckman, 1987). Among the different PPNs, Meloidogyne spp. are of much significance. Multiple invasions of plant roots by Meloidogyne spp. cause poor development of root system, interfering primarily with water and nutrient absorption. It is clear that

Meloidogyne spp. can reduce yields substantially, particularly where susceptible crops are grown intensively without fallow periods

(Sasser, 1980; Sasser and Freckman, 1987).

Among the different methods used to control PPNs, the main three are: (i) the cultural method (e.g. fallow, crop rotation, sanitation, manuring, water management, trap and resistant crops); (ii) the chemical method (soil fumigants and non-fumigants); and (iii) the biological method. The cultural method, which implies crop rotation with non-host plants, can be an effective method to reduce nematode population densities but non-host crops

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18: Factors Affecting Commercial Success of Biocontrol Agents of Phytonematodes

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF

18 

Factors Affecting Commercial

Success of Biocontrol Agents of

Phytonematodes

1

Mohammad Reza Moosavi1* and Rasoul Zare2

Department of Plant Pathology, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University,

Marvdasht, Iran; 2Department of Botany, Iranian Research Institute of Plant

Protection, Tehran, Iran

18.1  Introduction

Phytonematodes represent a global threat to agricultural production either as causing yield loss or quality loss, both included in the concept of crop loss. To date, approximately

4100 species of phytonematodes have been described that can cause various plant diseases (Decraemer and Hunt, 2006). They are of considerable importance and their deleterious impacts on crops have great economic and social effects. Total annual losses caused by phytonematodes in developing and developed countries are estimated to be about

14.6 and 8.8%, respectively (Nicol et  al.,

2011), that is approximately equal to US$157 billion (Abad et al., 2008; Escudero and

Lopez-Llorca, 2012).

Management of phytonematodes is

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1: Impact of Phytonematodes on Agriculture Economy

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF

1 

Impact of Phytonematodes on

Agriculture Economy

Mahfouz M.M. Abd-Elgawad1* and Tarique Hassan Askary2

Phytopathology Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt;

2

Division of Entomology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

1

1.1  Introduction

­ roduction potential in the agricultural sector. p

Moreover, individuals and groups of mankind

It is well known that the 2008 global financial cannot save huge financial resources to continue crisis, considered by many economists to be the policy of securing reasonable development the worst financial crisis since the Great De- for other reasons widely known all over the pression of the 1930s, has played a key role in world – economic losses due to war damage hindering many small and large businesses, effected globally, new diseases which demand and causing a decline in consumer wealth ample costs to overcome, and non-optimal utiland downturn in economic activity creating ization of available resources. All these in one high unemployment, unfavourable condi- way or another minimize such resources which tions for new businesses, increase in prices of could be directed to fill in the gap of agriculgoods and services and low income per cap- tural produce. In addition, a continuous challenge ita. In this context, agriculture, as a far-reaching is to face an ever-increasing world population activity in terms of both economy and soci- with more and better food. Now, experts at ology throughout world civilization in the almost all levels in developing and more dehistory of mankind, has been adversely affected. veloped countries recognize the seriousness

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Ball B C (9)
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2: Assessing Structural Quality for Crop Performance and for Agronomy (VESS, VSA, SOILpak, Profil Cultural, SubVESS)

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2 

Assessing Structural Quality for Crop

Performance and for Agronomy (VESS,

VSA, SOILpak, Profil Cultural, SubVESS)

Tom Batey,1 Rachel M.L. Guimarães,2* Joséphine Peigné3 and Hubert Boizard4

1

Plant and Soil Science, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK;

2

­Agronomy Department, Federal University of Technology – Paraná, Brazil;

3

ISARA Lyon, Lyon, France; 4INRA, UPR1158 AgroImpact, Péronne, France

2.1  Introduction

The physical properties of a soil are a key factor in evaluating land quality whether for agronomy or for other purposes. Soil structure is an important component of the physical properties.

Its qualities are transient and may be altered by both anthropic and natural events. For example, cultivation, the passage of harvester and trailer wheels, grazing when the soil is wet and intense rainfall can all alter soil structure. Methods to assess the quality of soil structure are therefore important tools in the management of soils.

Such methods should be cost-effective, widely available and the results easily interpreted.

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7: Evaluating Land Quality for Carbon Storage, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Nutrient Leaching

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7 

Evaluating Land Quality for Carbon

Storage, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Nutrient Leaching

Joanna M. Cloy,1* Bruce C. Ball1 and T. Graham Shepherd2

1

SRUC, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK; 2BioAgriNomics Ltd,

Palmerston North, New Zealand

7.1  Introduction

Recently the importance of good soil structure in mitigating climate change and environmental contamination has been recognized because soil structure influences the storage of carbon (C) sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and cycling of nutrients, which are key soil system processes. This is because the maintenance of soil structure by aggregation, particle transport and formation of soil habitats operates across many spatial scales to regulate water drainage, water retention, air transfer to roots for favourable gas exchange and mineralization of nutrients for release to crop roots (Kibblewhite et al.,

2008; Ball et al., 2013a). For the functions being considered, the most important aspect of soil structure is the soil pore network, which determines the movement of gases, liquids and associated solutes, as well as particulates and organisms, through the soil matrix (Haygarth and Ritz, 2009;

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9: The Expanding Discipline and Role of Visual Soil Evaluation

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9 

1

The Expanding Discipline and Role of Visual Soil Evaluation

Bruce C. Ball1* and Lars J. Munkholm2

SRUC, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK; 2Aarhus University, Tjele, Denmark

9.1  Introduction

Drawing on the conclusions of previous chapters, our objective here is to show that methods of visual soil evaluation (VSE) are key aids to the management of soils. They can identify and quantify soil degradation, particularly compaction. These methods can be used to monitor soil quality and thus to maintain its cropping potential. We also identify the future roles of VSE in soils and the environment and suggest improvements in the methods to support these roles.

The prominence of the role of soils for food security and environmental sustainability is likely to increase as the area of land available shrinks and the quality of what is left decreases. Soil is basically a non-renewable resource and, with limited scope to bring new land into cultivation, degradation needs to be decreased or negated by conservation and by restoration of prior degraded land (Lal, 2013). New technologies such as genetic modification are restricted in their ability to increase crop yields by limitations in soil water and/or nitrogen supply (Sinclair and Rufty, 2012) and the constraints of photosynthetic efficiency.

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3: Reduction of Yield Gaps and Improvement of Ecological Function through Local-to-Global Applications of Visual Soil Assessment

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3 

Reduction of Yield Gaps and

Improvement of Ecological Function through Local-to-Global Applications of Visual Soil Assessment

David C. McKenzie,1* Mansonia A. Pulido Moncada2 and Bruce C. Ball3

1

Soil Management Designs, Orange, Australia; 2Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay, Venezuela; 3Scotland’s Rural College, Edinburgh, UK

3.1  Introduction

Although global hunger was reduced in the decade up to 2014, about one in every nine people in the world still had insufficient food for an active and healthy life (FAO et al., 2014). An estimated

25% increase in 2015 population to approximately 9.1 billion people in 2050 will aggravate the shortages of food. This means that the world’s farmers will be expected to boost their outputs, possibly by as much as 60% by 2050

(Fischer et al., 2014), and maintain those improvements indefinitely into the future in our pursuit of ‘food security’.

Food security is defined by the Food and

Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

(FAO et al., 2014) as: ‘A situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life’. Based on this definition, four food security dimensions can be identified: food availability, economic and physical access to food, food utilization and stability over time.

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4: Visual Evaluation of Grassland and Arable Management Impacts on Soil Quality

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4 

Visual Evaluation of Grassland and Arable Management Impacts on Soil Quality

Lars J. Munkholm1* and Nicholas M. Holden2

Aarhus University, Tjele, Denmark; 2University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

1

4.1  Introduction

Soil management has a profound influence on soil quality1 through land use, crop rotation, manure spreading, fertilization, irrigation, liming, tillage and traffic. Management effects on soil quality are in many cases complex interactions, and therefore extensive research has been carried out to describe, quantify and understand these effects. Visual soil evaluation (VSE) is one of the tools developed over the last century to specifically evaluate management impact on soil quality.

During the early days of modern farming there was a focus on soil nutrients and mineral fertilizer; however by the mid-20th century

Görbing realized that factors like soil compaction, crusting or drainage also caused poor growth.

Görbing and others recognized that there was a need to supplement assessment of chemical properties with visual assessment of soil structure, root growth and biological activity. His visual assessment spade method (Görbing, 1947) has since been refined by Preuschen (1983), Beste (1999),

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Banwart S A Noellemeyer E Milne E (31)
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13 Wind Erosion of Agricultural Soils and the Carbon Cycle

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF

13 

Wind Erosion of Agricultural Soils and the Carbon Cycle

Daniel E. Buschiazzo* and Roger Funk

Abstract

Wind erosion is an important process of both progressive and regressive pedogenesis in arid and semi-arid environments around the world. In semi-arid regions, which are influenced by carbon-poor dust depositions from deserts, the properties as a sink area should be maintained to enable C enrichment by continued soil formation. On agricultural land, wind erosion is a soil-degrading process, resulting mainly from the very effective sorting processes. Coarse particles remain in the field, whereas the finest and most valuable parts of the soil get lost, like particles of the silt and clay fractions and soil organic matter. The latter is not regarded in most carbon balances, although this particulate loss can reach considerable amounts. The processes of wind erosion are subject to a great spatial and temporal variability, making its quantification difficult. In this chapter, we expose wind erosion in the context of its influence on soil organic carbon and prove considerable losses by first measurements.

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17 Modelling Soil Carbon

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17 

Modelling Soil Carbon

Eleanor Milne* and Jo Smith

Abstract

Models that describe the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) can be useful tools when estimating the impacts of land cover, land management and climate change on ecosystems. The development of

SOC models started with single-compartment models that assumed a constant decomposition rate. As understanding of SOC dynamics improved, these were replaced by models with different compartments with varying decomposition rate constants. Models that deal with the decomposition of SOC as a continuum have been developed, but they require complex mathematics and are therefore less popular. Compartmentalized soil carbon models are at the core of complex models such as CENTURY and

DNDC, which describe nutrient turnover in the entire ecosystem both above and below ground. The majority of such models have been developed using data from temperate ecosystems as studies on SOC stock change in temperate areas outnumber those from tropical areas. Application to tropical and subtropical areas therefore requires substantial parameterization and testing, and the availability of appropriate data sets remains a challenge.

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4 From Potential to Implementation: An Innovation Framework to Realize the Benefits of Soil Carbon

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF

4 

From Potential to Implementation:

An Innovation Framework to Realize the Benefits of Soil Carbon

Roger Funk*, Unai Pascual, Hans Joosten, Christopher Duffy,

Genxing Pan, Newton la Scala, Pia Gottschalk, Steven A. Banwart,

Niels Batjes, Zucong Cai, Johan Six and Elke Noellemeyer

Abstract

This chapter addresses the mismatch between existing knowledge, techniques and management methods for improved soil carbon management and deficits in its implementation. The paper gives a short overview of the evolution of the concept of soil carbon, which illustrates the interactions ­between scientific, industrial, technical, societal and economic change. It then goes on to show that sufficient techniques are available for the large-scale implementation of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration.

A subsequent analysis of the bottlenecks that prevent implementation identifies where issues need to be addressed in order to enable robust, integrated and sustainable SOC management strategies.

Introduction

In this chapter, we address the need for the wide-scale implementation of a strategy for improved soil organic carbon (SOC) management. Such a strategy can be denoted generally as innovation, but would also include new methods of governance. In this paper, we define innovation as the improved use of novel but readily available methods or technologies. In addition, it includes a change of the current behaviour by managing SOC in a different way. A broad range of SOC management methods and techniques has been proposed and tested. Many have already demonstrated their applicability and advantages, including implementation strategies

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29 Policy Frameworks

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29 

Policy Frameworks

Luca Montanarella*, Francesca Bampa and Delphine de Brogniez

Abstract

Policy frameworks concerning soil carbon are rapidly evolving, both in Europe and at the global level. Within Europe, the Roadmap to Resource-Efficient Europe (RRE) (COM (2011) 571 final; EC,

2011a), as well as the implementation of the Soil Thematic Strategy (COM (2012) 46 final; EC,

2012c), highlight the relevance of soil organic carbon (SOC) and the need to reverse its decline in many parts of the European Union (EU). Integration of this concern into several related policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) or the Climate Change Policy in relation to the

LULUCF (land use, land-use change and forestry) negotiation process, shows a potential for reverting the current negative trends. The recognition that SOC played a crucial role in the current

Multilateral Environmental Agreements negotiated in Rio de Janeiro (United Nations Framework

Convention on Climate Change – UNFCCC; United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity –

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8 Soil Hydrology and Reactive Transport of Carbon and Nitrogen in a Multi-scale Landscape

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF

8 

Soil Hydrology and Reactive Transport of Carbon and Nitrogen in a Multi-scale

Landscape

Christopher Duffy* and Nikolaos Nikolaidis

Abstract

This chapter examines the role of soil in water filtration, its impact on carbon and nitrogen in

­biogeochemical transformations and its relation to the larger landscape, where soil functions are key to clean water, essential to human sustenance. Soil composition and chemical weathering are essential factors in soil structure and formation, which affect the hydrologic properties of soil and chemical transport significantly. The role of clays on aggregation, carbon (C) sequestration, pH, etc., carbon/­ nitrogen/phosphorus (C/N/P) cycles and plant growth (plant exudates) on reactive transport are examined. Examples of water filtration and solute transformation of a functioning soil (producing clean water) and of failure to transform (producing toxicity and contamination) are presented. Special focus is given on the parameterization of hydrologic and reactive transport models that cover a range of scales from soil profile, to hill slopes and the catchment. A variety of modelling strategies presently exist for biogeochemical modelling, and typically each focuses on a particular scale, with scale-­ appropriate processes, mechanisms and states. They range from bottom-up approaches, where plotscale studies use intensive monitoring and detailed local modelling of process-level biogeochemical cycles for C and N, to regional- and continental-scale approaches to simulating the C–N dynamics in atmospheric models that, by necessity, may neglect the details of the processes understanding obtained in the plot-scale research. Ecosystem approaches extend the plot-scale models for C–N and water to landscape scales maintaining systematic processes, but may not include detailed geospatial structure and coupled hydrodynamic processes of the larger catchment and river basin. A strategy for merging scales and concepts intrinsic to plot-, landscape- and catchment-scale carbon-based biogeochemical research is proposed. The approach will describe existing process models for each scale of research, including hydrologic impacts. We propose a strategy for an integrated hydrodynamic approach to numerical modelling that can resolve the geospatial characteristics of water, carbon and nitrogen cycles over entire catchments, including first- and second-order streams, which link plot and hill-slope studies within this framework. The approach integrates plot-to-catchment scales for mesoscale model application for scales that range from 100 m to 105 km2. The approach has important implications for ongoing soils research at Critical Zone Observatories, which are advanced field research facilities, to scale up their science understanding to larger domains and will improve the prospect of carbon–nitrogen management greatly.

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Bedford M R Choct M O Neill H M (8)
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6 Designing, Conducting and Reporting Swine and Poultry Nutrition Research

Bedford, M.R.; Choct, M.; O'Neill, H.M. CABI PDF

6

Designing, Conducting and

Reporting Swine and Poultry

Nutrition Research

J.F. PATIENCE*

Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA

6.1 Introduction

To be successful, an experiment needs to be properly designed with a clear objective in mind, executed with efficiency and appropriate attention to detail, correctly analysed and interpreted and then presented with clarity and comprehensiveness (Festing and Altman, 2002). This chapter will address all of these aspects, but the primary objective is to assist the reader to produce reports from studies that are complete and detailed. For reasons explained below, it is becoming increasingly important to be able to compare different experiments that have been conducted on the same or similar topics. This can only be done when the individual experiments are completed correctly and when the reports of the experiments contain sufficient detail as to allow such comparison.

The pig and poultry industries have evolved at a very rapid rate. While some of the changes are structural in nature, many of them are the consequences of developments in production technologies driven by a strong global research and development sector. In other words, these industries have a strong interest in science and utilize research as an important basis for management decisions. When new technology presents itself, assuming that it makes sense practically and financially, it will be rapidly adopted.

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7 Extending the Value of the Literature: Data Requirements for Holo-analysis and Interpretation of the Outputs

Bedford, M.R.; Choct, M.; O'Neill, H.M. CABI PDF

7

Extending the Value of the

Literature: Data Requirements for Holo-analysis and

Interpretation of the Outputs

M.R. BEDFORD1,* AND H.V. MASEY O’NEILL2

1AB

Vista Feed Ingredients Ltd, Marlborough, UK; 2AB Agri Ltd,

Peterborough, UK

7.1 Introduction

Individual scientific papers address specific topics and deliver information relevant to the hypothesis being tested. The scope of most papers is necessarily narrow, as the goal is to control all sources of variation so that the variation attributed to the variables/treatments of interest can be isolated and detected. Ideally, each new paper yields information that is incremental to the current knowledge base, with some papers (the exceptions) providing quantum leaps.

In many cases, the response to a set of treatments within any given trial is subject to influence from a multitude of conditions, some of which are known and some unknown. Those conditions that are known to influence the response should be controlled or at least measured, and those that are unknown simply contribute to the variation in the data in the literature.

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5 Measurements of Nutrients and Nutritive Value

Bedford, M.R.; Choct, M.; O'Neill, H.M. CABI PDF

5

Measurements of Nutrients and Nutritive Value

M. CHOCT*

University of New England, Armidale, Australia

5.1 Introduction

With an ever increasing volume of information to digest, it is essential that you present your research findings in a concise and meaningful manner. In scientific writing, brevity is preferred over long-windedness and strict adherence to technical terms is preferred over elegant variation. Being concise and meaningful is not just about writing; it has its base in the design of an experiment and the testing of the hypothesis. Which measurements are required should be dictated by the hypothesis. A very common oversight with some researchers is to measure what their laboratory is equipped for, or what others in the same field usually measure. One researcher once said to me that such research was like ‘a blind person throwing a rock into the ocean and hoping to hit a fish’. Such an approach bulks up manuscripts with irrelevant measurements without an overarching hypothesis, which in turn leads to irrelevant discussion and misleading conclusions. It is imperative to consider what your hypothesis is and then find the tools to test it. The tools in this case refer to the methods and equipment required to carry out the measurements.

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3 Practical Relevance of Test Diets

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3

Practical Relevance of Test

Diets

M. CHOCT*

University of New England, Armidale, Australia

3.1 Introduction

Most animal nutrition research belongs to applied science and as such its outcomes should be relevant to industry. This means the selection of ingredients, the nutrient specifications used for formulating the diet, the types of feed additives commonly used, the physical quality and the form of the diet should be appropriate for the age and class of the animal to which it is to be fed. Ignoring any of these factors may render the study results irrelevant to practice. However, despite the best efforts of the researcher, it is sometimes difficult to meet these criteria. When this happens, the most important parts, such as the nutrient balance of the diet, should be considered and areas that cannot be accommodated should be clearly stated and justified.

Preceding chapters detail all the basics for conducting proper nutritional experiments for monogastric animals. This chapter will focus on the production aspects of nutrition experiments, discussing how a practical diet can be formulated that will support animal performance relevant to commercial targets.

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2 Most Common Designs and Understanding Their Limits

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2

Most Common Designs and

Understanding Their Limits

G.M. PESTI*, R.A. ALHOTAN, M.J. DA COSTA AND L. BILLARD

University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA

2.1 Introduction

Animal and poultry sciences are applied sciences whose practitioners’ questions ultimately involve economic applications. In their simplest forms the questions researchers ask are most often, ‘How much of something needs be administered to maximize performance (and profits)?’ or ‘How much of something can be administered without inhibiting performance (and profits)?’ Monogastric animal research then often involves administering or feeding a series of different levels of something and observing how it affects performance. The independent factors may be things like nutrients or environmental temperatures and the response (output) variables may be things like growth and egg production, feed intake and efficiency, carcass composition, egg size and composition, behaviours, bone quality, etc.

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Biddle A J (8)
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7 HARVESTING, NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND USES

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7

HARVESTING, NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND USES

As described in Chapter 1, peas and beans are used in a wide variety of ways, either fresh, where the immature pods or seeds are harvested and used as a vegetable, or processed, either by freezing or by canning, and as dried pulses as food ingredients or flour, or rehydrated and cooked. Cooked pulses may also be canned on their own or in mixtures, or processed in some other form. Dried pulses are also used in animal feed manufacture, either milled or heat processed with or without the seed coat, and fed to most types of livestock and in aquaculture. In all instances, the requirements for high-quality produce is important from a human health aspect but also economically in the processing: produce that is of poor quality is either unusable or will require cleaning and this will invoke payment penalties to the producer.

Each crop has its own particular set of operations to ensure an acceptable product, whether the product is consumed or marketed in a fresh state or processed at home or at a factory. In the case of dried pulses, the product must be harvested and stored in a safe environment before marketing.

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5 MANAGEMENT OF WEEDS

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5

MANAGEMENT OF WEEDS

Large-seeded legumes such as peas and beans, compared with many other agricultural crops, do not offer very great competition to weeds and consequently infestations can cause yield depression. Weed control has become more efficient in recent years, with the introduction of new pesticides, but this situation is becoming more difficult with the increasing emphasis on reducing pesticide usage and reducing the number of active ingredients believed to be detrimental to the environment (Grundy et al., 2011).

In many countries where the crops are grown on a small scale, access to pesticides is very limited because of availability or economics, therefore reliance on the use of such materials may not be possible or indeed sustainable.

There are a number of cultural aids to weed control that can be utilized, increasingly so in large-scale commercial production, which can eliminate the need for chemical weed control or at least reduce its frequency of use. Weeds have a long-term effect on crop rotation, such as the return of seeds of the grass weeds Avena fatua and Alopecurus myosuroides and the spread of perennial weeds in succeeding crops. Weed flora is dependent on climate, soil type, crop rotation and time of sowing and no weeds are specific to food legumes, with the exception of the parasite Orobanche spp. (especially O. crenata).

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3 PEA AND BEAN BREEDING

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3

PEA AND BEAN BREEDING

BACKGROUND TO THE CURRENT TYPES

There is a significant number of similarities in the genetic, physiological and adaptational characteristics of leguminous food crop species that allows them to be considered together as well as genus by genus. The most significant historical work on peas (Pisum sativum) was carried out by Mendel (1866).

Although his work was overlooked by most applied botanists until its rediscovery at about the same time by Correns (1900), de Vries and Tshermack in

Germany and William Bateson in Cambridge (Bateson, 1901; Druery and

Bateson, 1901), it remains fundamental to genetic understanding of all studied plant species and animals. Peas are a largely self-pollinated and hence inbreeding species, as is the common bean species Phaseolus vulgaris (but notably not Phaseolus multiflorus syn. P. coccineus). Wild landraces (now regarded as locally adapted ecotypes) of such largely inbreeding species comprise mixtures mainly of homozygous plants and of heterozygotes from crosses that have occurred naturally as a result of insect pollination, which is facilitated by the form of the flowers and availability of nectar. Dry beans were studied by W.L.

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4 AGRONOMY OF PEAS AND BEANS

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4

AGRONOMY OF PEAS AND BEANS

Peas and beans have specific requirements for successful crop establishment, growth and yield of high-quality produce. Whilst there are many similarities in agronomy, particularly between peas and Vicia faba, the requirements for

Phaseolus beans are not too dissimilar. The successful management of crops is dependent on a number of factors, including the use of high-quality seed, providing a suitable location and soil conditions for sowing and the supply of adequate nutrients and moisture to maintain growth. In addition, crops must be protected from weed competition and pests and diseases; these subjects are discussed in Chapters 5 and 6.

CROP ROTATION

There are a number of traditional reasons put forward for the necessity of crop rotation when including peas or beans. Weed control may be improved by the use of spring-sown crops and there is the value of residual nitrogen (see Chapter 2) to improve fertility of the soil for the following crop. Large-seeded legumes fit in well with a rotation with cereals and they can generally be grown using the same machinery and stored with existing equipment. The vegetable crops are more demanding on machinery, labour and harvesting equipment but nevertheless their value as a break crop and general soil improver is still the same.

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1 INTRODUCTION TO PEAS AND BEANS

Biddle, A.J. CABI PDF

1

INTRODUCTION TO PEAS AND BEANS

Amongst the world’s most important non-cereal food crops, peas and beans are probably the most versatile. They provide a source of protein, are easily stored for long periods and can be consumed as processed or whole food by both humans and livestock. Commonly known as pulse crops or grain legumes, they are widely grown in temperate, subtropical and arid climates all over the world. They can be consumed as fresh vegetables or frozen, canned or dehydrated and also can be harvested as dry seed or pulses, which can be milled for use as a flour, or rehydrated and cooked whole. It seems likely that the adoption of legumes as agricultural crops in part reflects the nutritional balance between legumes and cereal seeds as well as the ability of legumes to break cereal rotations. Because of their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen through their symbiotic relationship with soil-borne bacteria providing them with sufficient nitrogen for growth, the residue enriches the soil nitrogen supply for the following crop. The diversity of locations where peas and beans have been developed in agriculture is reflected in the diversity of species and varieties currently grown. They are found in agricultural systems throughout the world and have been domesticated in South and Central America, the Middle East, China, India and Africa. More recently they have been introduced to Europe and North

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