Rudolph A Rosen (10)
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3. The Secret to Successful Event Fundraising in Good Times and Bad


The economy cycles from good to bad and so does fundraising success for organizations that fail to discover the secret to successful event fundraising in good times and bad. One such organization helped pioneer effective auction-event fundraising techniques and, in so doing, built one of the largest nonprofit wildlife habitat conservation organizations in the nation. But when the economy faltered, their fundraising did, too. This organization failed to use more recession-proof techniques in auction-event fundraising discovered by other organizations with similar missions. Top-level staff responsible for event fundraising in this organization aggressively prevented anyone from bringing in ideas from outside their ranks. The only ideas for recovery had to be theirs and theirs alone.

Although their auctions always carried some “recession-proof” items, staff analyzing fundraising success just didn’t seem to understand the difference between fundraising in good times and bad. The organization’s auctions were loaded with items people didn’t really need, and probably didn’t want. These items produced decent revenue during good economic times, and even in the worst of times the items sold. I ascribe that to the dedication of the organization’s supporters and volunteers who, in their desire to shore up the organization, felt they had no option but to bid on items they really didn’t need or want. But there are only so many people willing to do that and for only so long, even in good economic times. So attendance, dollar spent per attendee, and revenue started a long downward slide that accelerated as the economy declined.

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Part 4 Applying the Rules and Covering All the Angles


A complaint was registered with the state’s attorney general that our organization was engaging in unlicensed gambling during its annual fundraising convention. The complaint was passed on to the agency having jurisdiction. Shortly after an inquiry, we received a cease-and-desist order. We learned of this a few weeks before the day the convention was to begin. The date and location of the convention had been set for at least three years.

The subject of the order was a series of raffles we ran at the event. Raffles had been run for years in the state with no problem. We had retained the services of counsel and thought we had been diligent in complying with all laws. No one suspected problems, but there it was: an order to halt all raffles until we applied for and received a proper permit.

We quickly learned it was a simple matter to receive a permit, which was required by the locality in which the event was being held. All we had to do was submit a proper application and pay a required fee, but given the length of time it would take to process the application, we had no choice but to cancel all raffles planned for the event.

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Nonprofit Resources for Nonprofits


The following nonprofit organizations, media, and agencies provide support and offer resources such as books and training to support nonprofit organizations’ fundraising and other essential functions, for example, board support, membership, administration, and general management.

Alliance for Nonprofit Management, San Francisco, CA

American Society of Association Executives, Washington, DC

Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Indianapolis, IN

Association of Fundraising Professionals, Arlington, VA

The Center on Philanthropy & Public Policy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA

Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN

The Chronicle of Philanthropy, Washington, DC

Council on Foundations, Arlington, VA

Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy, Grand Valley State University, Allendale, MI

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1. Introduction


Standing near the former president of the United States was a tall, handsome African dressed in a blaze of traditional Maasai red. Barely 20 years old, the young man was the son of a chief and in time would become a chief in his African homeland. But he was not with the former president because of politics or tribal status. He was a student whose education was being funded at a leading university in South Africa by members of the audience. He was among the “motivational elements” assembled at this international nonprofit organization’s premier fundraising event where more than 15,000 members had assembled for four days of fun and fundraising.

At one of the event’s several formal dinners, to be followed by a major auction, members heard the young African speak of his dedication to the cause of wildlife conservation. They listened intently as he told of his commitment to take what he had learned from members of the organization during his visit and go back to his country to use his new knowledge as a leader. The members were enthusiastic and renewed their commitment to fund education of young Africans at African universities.

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Part 3 Conducting the Fundraising


The year our local area was in the grip of a disastrous downturn in the economy, our largest employer, the state government, cut salaries an effective 20% through Friday furloughs. Statewide, public works spending of $17 billion had been suspended indefinitely. These and other cuts had collapsed the local economy like a house of cards. My office staff hosted an auction event every year where we usually had about 120 attendees, with year-to-year differences of only about 10% to 15%. So it was with some concern that staff set about to plan an event in these troubled times.

Just a few weeks before the event date advance ticket sales began to indicate attendance was not going to be low. It appeared we might have solid attendance. Within a week of the event, estimates started indicating we would have an extraordinarily high attendance. A day or two before the event attendance was projected at 250. This was based on advance ticket sales and the fact we always had quite a few walk-ins who bought tickets at the door.

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Relations Journal Of School Public (71)
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High Touch in a High-Tech World



ABSTRACT: In a world of high tech and low touch, it is easy for public relations programs to stray from tried-and-true interpersonal strategies long associated with solid communication planning. New technologies allow communications professionals to quickly send e-mails and telephone calls to selected groups. Social media sites provide users immediate information, including video and photos from an endless variety of sources. The list of technology options grows and grows. However, even with so many technology tools available to communicators, formal plans must include strategies using important person-to-person research and targeted communications. For the Ritenour School District, such plans, incorporating high technologies and high touch, resulted in significant improvements.

When a majority of voters throughout the country celebrated the 2008 presidential election of Barack Obama, voters in the Ritenour School District in suburban St. Louis, Missouri, overwhelmingly passed a $50 million bond issue that had been defeated just a few months earlier in April 2007. Ritenour’s most recent bond issue victory was the latest in a succession of victories starting in 1990 when the district began an aggressive renovation program of all its facilities—six elementary schools, two middle schools, one high school, and an administrative center. The November 2008 bond issue, the seventh bond election in 18 years, secured the funding for a new state-of-the-art 750-seat auditorium and music classrooms at the high school, a new 13-classroom school for early-childhood education, and several other smaller projects, including a wireless network throughout the district and new instructional technology for classrooms. But the bond issue victory brought success to another area—the district’s communications plans. These plans focused on strategies based on important demographic research, and they targeted communications that used a variety of technology tools, such as e-mail newsletters, rapid-notification telephone calls, and social media websites. The centerpiece of the plans was research-based, strategic personal communication opportunities. The mix of both quantitative and qualitative research, plus the use of electronic and person-to-person communications, resulted in not only a solid Election Day victory but several district improvements before the election. Personal communication with students and families months before the November election resulted in their making several recommendations, which were also incorporated into the new bond issue package.

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Campaign Strategies and Voter Approval of School Referenda: A Mixed Methods Analysis



ABSTRACT: Drawing from state administrative data and surveys of superintendents in Ohio, this mixed methods study examined factors associated with voters’ approval of local school levies. Utilizing binomial logistic regression, this study found that new levies and poverty rates were significantly associated with a decrease in the likelihood of passage. Implementing more campaign strategies and higher levels of commercial/industrial property increased the likelihood of levy passage. Specific campaign tactics were identified as predictors of levy passage (e.g., 6-week campaign, targeting yes voters). Qualitative analysis suggests that “levy fatigue” and the uncertain state of the economy were factors in the election.

The troubled and often-litigated history of Ohio’s school finance program is well documented (Alexander & Alexander, 2009; Hunter, 2000; Maxwell & Sweetland, 2002). Like other states, Ohio funds its schools through a combination of local property taxes and state aid. What is unusual, however, is the frequency of its referenda. Fleeter (2007) states that “Ohio relies on voter approval of tax levies to support public education to a greater extent than any other state in the nation” (p. 1), noting that from 1994 to 2006, Ohio had 3,433 local school tax issues on ballots. This proliferation of levies based on local property taxes stems in part from a 1976 amendment to the Ohio constitution, originally known as House Bill 920, which prohibits property taxes from increasing as property values rise, thereby forcing districts to continually return to the ballot to keep up with inflationary costs. Indeed, Maxwell and Sweetland (2002) note that Ohio’s school districts “are sometimes faced with the dilemma of explaining that the schools are receiving no additional funds from voted in taxes. . . . This leaves school officials with an ‘uphill task’ in convincing voters that additional revenues are necessary” (p. 55). Johnson (2008) recently contended that “there are two types of school districts in Ohio: those that are on the ballot and those that will be” (p. 45). This scenario has created an untenable situation wherein many school district staff and community volunteers are forced to spend an inordinate amount of time, energy, and money conducting school referenda campaigns.

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Aristotle Reclaimed



ABSTRACT: Given that social media dominates informal and often formal communication routes, we argue that schools must reshape their attention to a fourth rhetorical dimension: the media through which they communicate. Specifically, schools must find ways to embrace social media as a mechanism to reach their broad audiences. This article identifies clear obstacles to integrating social media platforms into the communication strands utilized by schools, the rhetorical necessities for doing so, and clear methodologies for making the transition from the “letter home” to the tweet and Facebook post work in a developing digital society.

Communicating well with an audience depends on being able to answer two questions: What does my audience want to know? and How do they want to know it? Personnel in many school districts are struggling to elevate community support because they failed to adequately answer the first question and were unable (or unwilling) to attend to the requirements of the second question. The failure of communication is evident in the midst of the continuing national public education crisis. As school systems and schools struggle to escape the paper-and-pencil age and engage the digital spaces and devices that define and drive current conditions, they wrestle with deciding how to communicate with a broad range of stakeholders. The purposes of this article are threefold: first, to acknowledge what we see as major barriers to substantial and authentic communication with the contemporary public audiences; second, to reframe the complex issues for how school personnel can better com-municate with their wide audiences, within classical and modern understandings of Aristotle’s rhetorical triangle and triangulating on the medium of the message; third, to provide, by way of narrative example, successful experiences of other enterprises bridging the barriers and the rhetoric.

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School and Community Relations: An Interview With Robert Taft—Distinguished Research Associate at the University of Dayton and Former Governor of Ohio



ABSTRACT: In the past, school and college administrators relied heavily on advice from colleagues, largely because they had an internal orientation toward their work. As the social, political, and economic influence of external forces became more apparent, they learned to value input from a range of stakeholders. Robert Taft, former governor of Ohio, is a person who offers unique perspectives on education and politics; he has an impressive background in both areas. In this interview, Governor Taft shares his convictions about school and community relationships and the importance of those associations to school improvement.

McGuffey: Please begin by briefly sharing your professional background, including a description of your current position.

Taft: Currently, I am the distinguished research associate at the University of Dayton. My academic background includes a BA from Yale University, a MPA from Princeton University, and a JD from the University of Cincinnati. I was a Peace Corps teacher, program officer with USAID in South Vietnam, assistant director of the Illinois Bureau of the Budget, an Ohio state legislator [state representative], a Hamilton County [Ohio] commissioner, and secretary of state and then governor of Ohio.

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Building Social, Human, and Cultural Capital Through Parental Involvement






ABSTRACT: This article examines the relationship between schools and society in the United States and uses human, social, and cultural capital theories to reframe the discussion of the role of schools in nurturing parent engagement. We argue that the ramifications of parent engagement in schools transcend functionalist ideas of complying with state and school district regulations, stimulating higher levels of academic achievement, and cultivating better classroom behavior. Rather, we posit that when parents have voice and agency in educating their children, these experiences shape expectations for interactions within the broad community and, indeed, society.

An emerging international conversation about school– parent relations provides insight into the relationship between schools and society and heightens a shared and deep sense of responsibility for the education of children. Recent examinations of international reform movements suggest that these efforts are accompanied by devolution of authority to parents and their representatives, often through school- and community-based governing bodies. It is not surprising that the over the past decade, literature on parent–school relations focused on issues relating to governance (e.g., enabling legislation, organizational structures, decision-making processes), which underscores the difficulty of matching political rhetoric with the reality of practice. Significant by their absence are discussions of how parent voice and agency may contribute to deep structural changes in society. In this regard, it is important to examine how parents’ participation in schools may alter the way that they perceive themselves as being instrumental in the lives of their children, influential members of their communities, and contributors to society. Although substantive parent involvement in school-based decision-making processes may be an elusive goal, it is related in very fundamental ways to building long-term social and human capital. We frame this discussion by examining the relationships between schools and society in the United States, linkages between parent involvement and student learning outcomes, and tenets of social and human capital.

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R Scott Harnsberger (15)
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Chapter 6 • Juvenile Corrections, Parole, and Probation


Family Intervention Programs

364 Annual Report and Data Book. Austin: Texas Department of Family and

Protective Services [annual, 2004–date].

The Prevention and Early Intervention chapter contains statistics for the most recent five fiscal years on the number of youth served through the Services to At-Risk Youth (STAR) program (see entry 365).

Research Note: Editions are available online back to 1997. The Annual Report and the Data

Book were combined into a single publication beginning with the 2009 edition. Previous editions were published under the title Legislative Data Book (1992–1999). The agency was called the Texas Department of Protective and Regulatory Services prior to 2004.

365 Services to At-Risk Youth (STAR) Program Evaluation. Austin: Criminal

Justice Policy Council, 2003.


The Services to At-Risk Youth (STAR) program is administered by the

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Chapter 11 • Appropriations, Revenues, Expenditures, and Federal Aid


Appropriations and Revenues

573 Agency Legislative Appropriations Requests. Austin: Legislative Budget

Board [biennial].


Provides the legislative appropriations requests of all State agencies for the forthcoming biennium as submitted to the Governor’s Office of Budget,

Planning and Policy and the Legislative Budget Board. These contain data extracted from the Automated Budget and Evaluation System of Texas (ABEST) and include, depending on the individual agency, the following: summary of request, strategy request (by agency goal), rider revisions and additions request, rider appropriations and unexpended balances request, sub-strategy request, sub-strategy summary, exceptional item request schedule, exceptional item strategy allocation schedule, exceptional item strategy request, capital budget, supporting schedules, and administrative and support costs (direct and indirect).

574 Biennial Revenue Estimate. Austin: Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts [1969–date].

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Chapter 12 • Polls and Rankings



•629 Texas Crime Poll. Huntsville: Survey Research Program, College of

Criminal Justice, Sam Houston State University [1977–2007].

These annual polls of Texas residents cover selected topics relating to crime, criminals, juvenile delinquency, victims, law enforcement, courts, legislation, corrections, parole, community supervision, and capital punishment.

Research Note: The Survey Research Program disbanded in August 2010.


•630 Crime State Rankings: Crime Across America, edited by Kathleen

O’Leary Morgan and Scott Morgan [CQ Press’s State Fact Finder Series].

Washington, D.C.: CQ Press [annual, 2008–date].

Provides state rankings based on governmental and private statistical sources

(including unpublished FBI data) in the following categories: arrests, corrections, drugs and alcohol, finance, juveniles, law enforcement, and offenses.

Research Note: Previously published under the title Crime State Rankings: Crime in the 50

United States (Lawrence, Kan.: Morgan Quitno Corp., 1994–2007). Researchers are advised to review “Variables Affecting Crime,” the FBI’s caution against ranking that accompanies each edition of Crime in the United States: Uniform Crime Reports (see entry 002).

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Subject Index


Numbers refer to Entry Numbers

-AAccess to legal information, 350

Accident investigation, 511

Acquaintance rape, 011

Adult felony system, 183

Adult Protective Services, 443

Aggravated assault, 001–003, 020, 072–075, 097

Agricultural crime, 019, 095

AIDS, 003, 264, 266–267A, 269, 271, 544–545, 549

Aircraft, 096, 136–137

Alcohol abuse, 003, 073, 542–543, 546–553, 556–563

Alcohol detoxification, 228, 566–571

Alcohol–related crimes, 001–003, 012–012A, 097, 465–488, 584

Alcoholism treatment programs, 566–571

Aliens, 003, 067–071, 184–184A, 225A–227, 279, 310, 572

American Indians, 057, 192, 223, 283, 306–307, 418, 566, 607, 609, 617

Annual Parole Survey, 302

Annual Probation Survey, 321

Annual Survey of Government Employment, 155, 158, 188–189, 233–234,

566, 588

Annual Survey of Government Finances, 158, 189, 234, 237, 565–566,


Annual Survey of Jails, 279–280, 283

Annual Survey of State and Local Government Finances, 565, 587

Antisemistism, 047

Appellate courts, 186–187, 191, 220, 225, 409–412

Appropriations, 573–586

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Chapter 10 • Substance Abuse and Treatment


Drug-related Fatalities

•535 “Deaths: Final Data for [year].” National Vital Statistics Reports. Hyattsville, Md.: National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [annual,


One report is published annually under this title (authors and cover dates vary). It presents state-level data for number of deaths, death rates, and ageadjusted death rates for major causes of death utilizing the International Classification of Diseases—Tenth Revision (ICD-10). Major causes of death listed include alcohol-induced causes and drug-induced causes.

Research Note: This series supersedes Monthly Vital Statistics Reports (MVSR).

•536 Drug Abuse Warning Network, [year]: Area Profiles of Drug-Related

Mortality [DAWN Series]. Rockville, Md.: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, U.S. Department of

Health and Human Services [2003–date].

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Pinkham Steve (10)
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Acadia: Mount Desert Island and Isle au Haut


Mount Desert is the largest of Maine’s many islands. Its tallest mountain, Cadillac, is the highest point of land on the Atlantic seaboard until one reaches Mount Sugarloaf, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The Wabanakis, who came here each summer to feast on clams and fish, called it Pemetic Island.

On September 5, 1604, Samuel Champlain sailed by this beautiful island and wrote of it in his journal: “The same day we passed also near an Island about four or five leagues long…. It is very high, notched in places, so as to appear from the sea like a range of seven or eight mountains close together. The summits of most of them are bare of trees for they are nothing but rock…. I named it the Island of the Desert Mountains.” The name, which has remained for almost four hundred years, did not refer to the island as a barren desert, but rather to its being “deserted,” or uninhabited. Today there are three towns on the island, and it is home to beautiful Acadia National Park.

Beginning in the 1850s, artists and explorers, “rusticators” as they came to be called, discovered the island and began summering here. Many fascinating trails were built over the rocky terrain and around the ponds. In addition, magnificent summer “cottages” were built on the eastern portion of the island, making Bar Harbor a rival to Newport, Rhode Island.

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Rangeley Lakes and Mount Blue Region


Kennebago River and West Kennebago Mountain

The Rangeley Lakes have been called by their current name since about the 1870s; before then, they were known as the Androscoggin Lakes. This region, extending from the New Hampshire border east to Saddleback Mountain, is famed for hunting and, especially, fishing.

The small village of Oquossuc in the township of Rangeley lies between Rangeley Lake and Mooselookmeguntic Lake and has been a destination for fishermen for a hundred and fifty years. The Wabanakis called Rangeley Lake Oquossuc, meaning “slender blue trout,” a reference to the blueback trout, a species that apparently only existed here and a few other places in Maine.

The famed Parmachene Belle trout-fishing fly was designed by Henry P. Wells in the late nineteenth century when he was fishing on Parmachenee Lake, which lies north of Aziscohos Lake, near the New Hampshire border. This small water body is considered one of Maine’s most beautiful lakes, and it has offered great fishing for many years. It is not clear exactly how the name came about. Captain Fred Barker, in Lake and Forest as I Have Known Them, stated that the Indian Metalluk (Metallak), with his sons Olumbo and Parmaginnie, frequented these lakes and that “possibly the lake derived its name from Parmaginnie.” Years later, writer Eunice Nelson Palmer said it means “crossways of the mountain lake.” Other local legends say that Parmachenee was Metallack’s daughter, and that the name means “across the usual path.” Fair Parmachenee either married and lived in New Hampshire or died young and tragically, depending on which story you read.

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The Mahoosuc Range


Mahoosuc, in the Wabanaki language, connotes a place where wild animals reside and originally referred to the range of mountains running from Mount Carlo, on the New Hampshire border, east to Andover, including Carlo, Goose Eye, Fulling Mill, Mahoosuc, Old Speck, Baldpate, and Surplus mountains. Later, the range included the mountains east of Andover to Route 17, including Wyman, Sawyer, Moody, Old Blue, Elephant, and Bemis mountains. It also includes all the side ranges and peaks situated north of the Androscoggin River—the Sunday River region, and Sunday River Whitecap, Puzzle, and Long mountains.

The Appalachian Trail traverses the entire length of the Mahoosuc Range, crossing most of the major mountains within this range. Originally, the trail took many easier routes, but was later rerouted and now crosses Bemis and Old Blue in the eastern section; Sawyer, Moody, Wyman, Surplus, and Baldpate in the middle section; and all the major peaks of the western section.

Mahoosuc Notch, a remote and high notch located between Fulling Mill Mountain and Mahoosuc Mountain, is a jumble of rocks and boulders, some the size of small houses. This single mile, where the trail winds its way up, over, under, and around the many boulders and rocks, is considered by many to be the single most difficult mile on the entire Appalachian Trail. At the upper end of Sunday River valley, where the Bull Branch comes tumbling out of the notch, lies a beautiful and popular swimming hole known as Frenchman’s Hole, after a French Canadian logger who cut pulp on the side of the mountain in the 1870s and built an access road near the waterfall. Here the brook drops through a series of cataracts, then comes to a ledge where it splits and drops in two eight-foot plunges to the large, horseshoe-shaped pool below.

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Upper Kennebec Valley and Dead River Regions


Bald Mountain from Heald Pond Camps

The Kennebec River watershed spans a large part of central Maine, and the headwaters of this mighty river have two beginnings, both near the Canadian border. Moose River, originating east of Jackman, flows in an easterly direction, eventually feeding into Moosehead Lake. Moosehead Lake in turn has two outlets, and in a few miles they join to form the Kennebec River. After passing through Indian Pond, the river flows through an incredible and wild gorge and is soon joined by the Dead River, sometimes known as the Western Branch of the Kennebec. In addition to the Dead River, the Kennebec’s major tributaries are the Carrabassett, Sandy, Sebasticook, and Androscoggin.

Historical novelist Kenneth Roberts relates how the Native Americans who lived along the Kennebec River prayed to the great Manitou Kinnibec, a mythical rattlesnake. They subsequently called the river by that name due to its serpentine route through the forests of Maine. In 1609, when the river began showing up on maps, it was called Kinnibecki, Conebague, Kinnibequi, Quinebequay, and other variant forms. The English settlers settled on the simpler version, Kennebec.

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Piscataquis Mountains


Mountain Brook Pond and Baker Mountain

The Piscataquis region includes all the mountains surrounding Moosehead Lake and the ranges running from Monson northeast to White Cap. The mountains lying between Moosehead Lake and the West Branch of the Penobscot are known as the Piscataquis Mountains, named for the county in which they lie. The Wabanaki name means “at the river branch,” referring to the place where the Piscataquis River meets the Penobscot River. This region also includes a number of singular mountains between these ranges and the West Branch of the Penobscot, such as the Spencers, Nesuntabunt, Rainbow, and Ebeemee mountains.

The Piscataquis River has two branches, both beginning near the southern end of Moosehead Lake. The two branches come together in Blanchard, and from there the main river flows more easterly, picking up much water from two tributaries, the Sebec River and the Pleasant River, before it flows into the mighty Penobscot River.

Forty-mile-long Moosehead Lake lies in this region. It is Maine’s largest, and is also the largest totally freshwater lake in the United States that is entirely within one state. It was long a seasonal home to the Wabanaki tribes and is the setting for many legends. According to author Mary Calvert, they knew this lake as Sebomcook or Sebaycook, and the Penobscot tribe called it Xsebem or Kzebem, which is often phonetically changed to Sebem. The common root of all these names means “big water with high land,” referring to the extensive size of the lake and Mount Kineo seeming to rise up out of the middle of the lake.

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Mary E Barkworth (10)
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The subfamily Aristidoideae includes one tribe, the Aristideae.

Pl ann or per; usu csp. Clm ann, erect, solid or hollow, usu unbrchd. Lvs distichous; shth usu open; aur absent; abx lig absent or of hairs; adx lig memb and ciliate or of hairs; bld without psdpet; mesophyll cells radiate or non-radiate; adx palisade layer absent; fusoid cells absent; arm cells absent; Kranz anatomy absent or present, when present, with 1 or 2 parenchyma shth; midribs simple; adx bulliform cells present; stomatal subsidiary cells dome-shaped or triangular; bicellular microhairs present, with long, slender, thin-walled tml cells. Infl tml, not lfy, usu pan, smt spikes or rcm. Spklt bisx, with 1 flt; rchl extension absent; dis above the glm. Glm 2, usu longer than the flt, usu acute or acuminate; flt terete or lat compressed, with well-developed cal; lm 1- or 3-veined, more or less coriaceous, with a germination flap, lm mrg overlapping at maturity and concealing the pal, apc evidently 3-awned; awn bases often forming a column, lat awns occ rdcd or absent; pal less than ½ as long as the lm; lod usu present, 2, free, memb, glab, heavily vascularized; anth 1–3; ov glab; haustorial synergids absent; sty 2, free to the base but close. Car usu fusiform, falling with the lm and pal attached; hila short or long, linear; endosperm hard, without lipid; stch g compound; emb small or large relative to the car; epiblasts absent; scutellar cleft present or absent; mesocotyl intnd elongated; embryonic lf mrg meeting.

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1. PHAROIDEAE L.G. Clark & Judz.


The Pharoideae has one tribe, the Phareae, three genera, and twelve species. It is pantropical. In the Americas, it is represented by one genus, Pharus, that extends from Florida to Uruguay and Argentina. The Pharoideae is a basal lineage of the Poaceae, and the first subfamily in which an adaxial ligule and true spikelets are found.

Pl per; rhz, smt csp or stln; monoecious. Clm ann, 10–300 cm, erect to decumbent; intnd usu solid. Lig scarious, smt ciliolate; psdpet present, twisted, placing the abx surface of the bld upmost; bld linear to oblong, not folding or drooping at night, lat veins diverging obliquely from the midveins, cross venation evident. Infl pan, usu espatheate; ult br with 1–2 pist spklt and 1 tml, stmt spklt; dis beneath the pist flt and in the pan br. Spklt unisx, heteromorphic, usu in stmt-pist pairs on brlets, with 1 flt; rchl not prolonged beyond the flt. Stam spklt pedlt, smaller than the pist spklt, lanceolate to ovate, caducous; glm unequal; lo glm absent or much shorter than the up glm; up glm somewhat shorter than the flt; lod minute or absent; anth 6. Pist spklt sessile or shortly pedlt, terete, smt inflated; glm unequal to subequal, shorter than the flt, scarious, entire, smt persistent; lm chartaceous, becoming coriaceous, veins 5 or more, mrg involute or utriculate, partly or wholly covered with uncinate hairs, not terminating in a brchd awn; pal 2-veined; lod absent; stl 1, 3-brchd. Car oblong to linear; hila as long as the car.

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4. POÖIDEAE Benth.


The subfamily Poöideae includes approximately 3300 species, making it the largest subfamily in the Poaceae. It reaches its greatest diversity in cool temperate and boreal regions, extending across the tropics only in high mountains.

1. Inflorescences 1-sided spikes, the spikelets radial to and partially embedded in the rachises; spikelets with 1 floret each . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. Nardeae

1. Inflorescences panicles, racemes, or 2-sided spikes with spikelets radial or tangential to the rachises, sometimes embedded in the axes, never both radial and embedded; spikelets with 1–30 florets.

2. Cauline leaf sheaths closed for at least ¾ their length; lemmas longer than (4.5)6.5 mm or awned or with prominent, parallel veins.

3. Ovary apices glabrous; styles fused at the base, divergent, naked on the lower portion, plumose distally; lemmas often with a purplish band in the distal ½, usually unawned; distal 1–3 florets often reduced to lemmas, the lower 1–2 lemmas often enclosing the terminal lemmas; lodicules about 0.2–0.5 mm long, truncate, fleshy, without a distal membranous portion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. Meliceae

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The Ehrhartoideae encompasses three tribes, one of which, the Oryzeae, is native to the Manual region; the Ehrharteae is represented by introduced species. The third tribe, Phyllorachideae C.E. Hubb., is native to Africa and Madagascar. There are approximately 120 species in the Ehrhartoideae. They grow in forests, open hillsides, and aquatic habitats.

Molecular data provide strong support for the close relationship of the Oryzeae and Ehrharteae. Morphologically, they are characterized by spikelets that have a distal unisexual or bisexual floret with up to two proximal sterile florets and, frequently, six stamens in the staminate or bisexual florets.

1. Spikelets with 2 sterile florets below the functional floret, both well-developed, at least the upper sterile floret as long as or longer than the functional floret; glumes from ½ as long as the spikelets to exceeding the florets; culms not aerenchymatous; plants of dry to damp habitats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Ehrharteae

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