Rudolph A Rosen (10)
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Part 3 Conducting the Fundraising

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The year our local area was in the grip of a disastrous downturn in the economy, our largest employer, the state government, cut salaries an effective 20% through Friday furloughs. Statewide, public works spending of $17 billion had been suspended indefinitely. These and other cuts had collapsed the local economy like a house of cards. My office staff hosted an auction event every year where we usually had about 120 attendees, with year-to-year differences of only about 10% to 15%. So it was with some concern that staff set about to plan an event in these troubled times.

Just a few weeks before the event date advance ticket sales began to indicate attendance was not going to be low. It appeared we might have solid attendance. Within a week of the event, estimates started indicating we would have an extraordinarily high attendance. A day or two before the event attendance was projected at 250. This was based on advance ticket sales and the fact we always had quite a few walk-ins who bought tickets at the door.

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2. Why Hold an Event?

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I had just completed a strategic planning process involving board members and staff, and the president had finished studying the strategic plan. He was not one to read a lot or put up with much process. He usually knew what he wanted and was known for getting things done, regardless of what might stand in the way. The plan included a series of goals, objectives, and actions to turn the organization around. Turnaround was among reasons I was hired. Problems left unsolved, lack of professional management of personnel, legal action against the organization, underperforming fundraising, bickering among staff and volunteers, and worse plagued the organization. The plan dealt with these problems.

So I asked the president, “Where do you want to start?”

He replied, “We need to do them all.”

I agreed and added, “We can’t do them all at once, there is too much to do, and some things need to be done before we can start others.”

He was insistent. “All are important; we need to do them all and do them all now.”

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Nonprofit Resources for Nonprofits

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The following nonprofit organizations, media, and agencies provide support and offer resources such as books and training to support nonprofit organizations’ fundraising and other essential functions, for example, board support, membership, administration, and general management.

Alliance for Nonprofit Management, San Francisco, CA
http://www.allianceonline.org

American Society of Association Executives, Washington, DC
http://www.asaecenter.org

Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Indianapolis, IN
http://www.arnova.org

Association of Fundraising Professionals, Arlington, VA
http://www.afpnet.org/

The Center on Philanthropy & Public Policy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA
http://cppp.usc.edu

Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN
http://www.philanthropy.iupui.edu

The Chronicle of Philanthropy, Washington, DC
http://philanthropy.com

Council on Foundations, Arlington, VA
http://www.cof.org

Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy, Grand Valley State University, Allendale, MI
http://www.gvsu.edu/jcp/home-45.htm

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3. The Secret to Successful Event Fundraising in Good Times and Bad

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The economy cycles from good to bad and so does fundraising success for organizations that fail to discover the secret to successful event fundraising in good times and bad. One such organization helped pioneer effective auction-event fundraising techniques and, in so doing, built one of the largest nonprofit wildlife habitat conservation organizations in the nation. But when the economy faltered, their fundraising did, too. This organization failed to use more recession-proof techniques in auction-event fundraising discovered by other organizations with similar missions. Top-level staff responsible for event fundraising in this organization aggressively prevented anyone from bringing in ideas from outside their ranks. The only ideas for recovery had to be theirs and theirs alone.

Although their auctions always carried some “recession-proof” items, staff analyzing fundraising success just didn’t seem to understand the difference between fundraising in good times and bad. The organization’s auctions were loaded with items people didn’t really need, and probably didn’t want. These items produced decent revenue during good economic times, and even in the worst of times the items sold. I ascribe that to the dedication of the organization’s supporters and volunteers who, in their desire to shore up the organization, felt they had no option but to bid on items they really didn’t need or want. But there are only so many people willing to do that and for only so long, even in good economic times. So attendance, dollar spent per attendee, and revenue started a long downward slide that accelerated as the economy declined.

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Part 4 Applying the Rules and Covering All the Angles

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A complaint was registered with the state’s attorney general that our organization was engaging in unlicensed gambling during its annual fundraising convention. The complaint was passed on to the agency having jurisdiction. Shortly after an inquiry, we received a cease-and-desist order. We learned of this a few weeks before the day the convention was to begin. The date and location of the convention had been set for at least three years.

The subject of the order was a series of raffles we ran at the event. Raffles had been run for years in the state with no problem. We had retained the services of counsel and thought we had been diligent in complying with all laws. No one suspected problems, but there it was: an order to halt all raffles until we applied for and received a proper permit.

We quickly learned it was a simple matter to receive a permit, which was required by the locality in which the event was being held. All we had to do was submit a proper application and pay a required fee, but given the length of time it would take to process the application, we had no choice but to cancel all raffles planned for the event.

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Relations Journal Of School Public (75)
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Guidelines for a Changing World

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JO NELL WOOD

KAREN BRACK

ABSTRACT: This article investigates the issues surrounding teachers’ use of social networking media and their First Amendment rights. It focuses on the need to develop a school district policy outlining specific guidelines for the use of technology and social networking. It also focuses on the changing world of technology and social networking as well as the legal consideration for teachers. The article reviews some cases in which teachers have been dismissed, and it outlines the method by which to determine whether the postings are protected speech. Finally, it provides questions that should be considered and guidelines for constructing a quality social networking policy.

As the worst winter storm of the decade raced across the United States at the beginning of February 2011, people rapidly began to access the Internet and their social networks to check what was happening across the area, to see where friends and family were, and to share their current weather issues. During the following days, when travel was not easy, it became evident that a majority of adults, as well as teenagers, were communicating via social networks, as news broadcasters discussed the information they were receiving on Facebook and Twitter. While communicating about weather and road conditions does not fall under concerns of legal rights, it is not just the weather that a majority of Americans now blog or post on Facebook. Social networks have become the communication mode of choice.

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The Forgotten Aspect of Communication: Principals’ Listening Skills

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JERRY WOODS
ALAN R. SHOHO

ABSTRACT: This study investigated principals’ self-perceptions and teachers’ perceptions of principals’ listening skills. An instrument measuring perception of listening skills was developed on the basis of four listening factors: attending, empathy, response, and trustworthiness. Factor analysis confirmed the structure of the new listening instrument, and reliability analysis produced acceptable Cronbach alphas. The results of the study supported the hypothesis that principals’ self-perceptions of their listening skills were higher than teachers’ perceptions of their principals’ listening skills.

Reading, writing, speaking, and listening are the four basic types of communication. But consider this: you spent years learning how to read, write, and speak, but what about listening? What type of training have you had that enables you to listen so that you really, deeply understand another human being from that individual’s own frame of reference?

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Informing Parents of Today’s College Curriculum: The Yellow Brick Road to Graduation

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KAREN A. MYERS

ABSTRACT : Higher education curriculum is as varied as the institutions themselves. Familiarizing parents with college curriculum may assist them in their college students’ selection and academic success. This article provides school administrators, teachers, counselors, public relations personnel, and college professors with examples of learning modes and types of curriculum, both inside and outside the college classroom, and offers suggestions for presenting this vital information to parents.

As key players in their students’ academic success, parents should be informed on how to navigate the college landscape. School counselors, public relations (PR) personnel, teachers, administrators, and college professors in educational leadership preparation programs all are key components for assisting parents in understanding the college issues that their children will face. College student success and entrance into employment may affect a school district’s accreditation; therefore, assisting counselors in providing parent seminars centered on changes in college curriculum and providing PR officers with college curriculum information for their districts’ websites could enhance the accreditation component.

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An Investigation of District Leaders’ Perceptions of Forces That Complicate Efforts to Succeed

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GEORGE J. PETERSEN
VICTORIA L. KELLY
CATHERINE N. REIMER
DANIEL MOSUNICH
DEBRA THOMPSON

ABSTRACT: This study explored the perspectives of 350 California superintendents from various-sized school districts in relation to their ability to support student learning while addressing the numerous and complex personnel, social, and economic challenges faced by schools. Specifically, this study investigated the attitudes and opinions of district leaders regarding the numerous professional challenges with which they are confronted—declining enrollment, increases in English-learner populations, collective bargaining, reduced revenues, school board activism, high expectations of accountability and academic achievement—and the resulting influence of these factors on the professional work, attention, and leadership of district leaders. Results suggest that district leaders attribute state and federal mandates and budgetary instability as the most serious challenges to their efforts of focusing adequate attention and resources on student achievement and the professional development of faculty and administrators. Interpersonal relations were revealed as the prominent factor in the superintendent’s ability to effectively address his or her role and duties as district leader. Participants recognized the importance of interpersonal behavior and its effect on organizational development and systemic thinking.

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Alternatives to Advisory Boards: Designing Parent Groups for Participation

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CAROLYN L. WANAT

ABSTRACT: This article proposes Hackman and Oldham’s (1980) model of work group design to structure parent groups for involvement in school activities and decision making. Parent interviews from three studies of parental involvement provide examples to support this proposal. Participants in these studies described experiences working in groups. Parents’ comments about satisfying experiences met the model’s criteria for effectiveness; frustrating experiences met criteria for ineffectiveness. This article describes characteristics of parent work groups according to the model’s key design features. Structuring parent groups using this model would establish positive relationships in the school community while increasing benefits of parental involvement in schools. Principals may play a key role in creating and maintaining parent groups.

Education professionals seek strategies to increase parents’ participation in school activities and governance. Working with parent groups is a promising alternative to increase the benefits of parental involvement in schools. Parent groups have the potential to enhance the public’s perceptions of and relationships with schools. Active engagement of parent groups in school activities and decision making provides communication channels to inform the public of current school policies and practices. Parent groups may support school leaders when they have to make difficult decisions. If school leaders do not earn parent groups’ support, their members may feel disenfranchised, publicly criticize school decisions, and demand more community input. I propose that principals use a specific model to structure parent groups to work together and, in turn, provide support for schools within the broader community.

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R Scott Harnsberger (15)
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Chapter 7 • Capital Punishment and Death Row

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Appellate Courts

•409 Annual Statistical Report for the Texas Judiciary. Austin: Office of Court

Administration [2005–date].

Presents data for the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals on direct appeals

(death penalty and DNA appeals–death sentence); applications for writ of habeas corpus (death penalty); and motions for stay of execution. Also includes a county-level summary of death sentences and life sentences imposed in criminal cases in state district courts.

Research Note: Data is reported by fiscal year. Reports are available online back to 1996.

Previously published under the titles Texas Judicial Council Annual Report (1974–1978), Texas

Judicial System Annual Report of Statistical and Other Data for Calendar Year [year] (1979–

1983), and Texas Judicial System Annual Report Fiscal Year [year] (1984–2004).

410 Fagan, Jeffrey, and James Liebman. Processing and Outcome of Death

Penalty Appeals after Furman v. Georgia, 1973–1995: [United States]. Ann

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Chapter 2 • Crime, Criminals, and Juvenile Delinquency

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Acquaintance Rape

011 Negrusz, Adam, Matthew Juhascik, and R. E. Gaensslen. Estimate of the

Incidence of Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault in the U.S. [Final Report]. Chicago: Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 2005. NCJ 212000

Presents the results of toxicological analyses performed at four regional clinical facilities on subjects who alleged that they were victims of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). Two definitions of DFSA were used—one only included presumed surreptitious drugging, while the second included subjects whose voluntary drug use may been a contributing factor in the assault. The estimated prevalence of DFSA was then assessed. Demographic profiles, questionnaire responses, and laboratory results are reported for 144 subjects, including thirty-one at the Texas site (Scott & White Memorial Hospital, Temple).

Alcohol-Related Crimes

012 Annual Report of Nonfinancial Data for Fiscal Year [year]. Austin: Texas

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Title Index

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Numbers refer to Entry Numbers

2000 Texas Survey of Substance Use Among Adults, 562

2004 Survey of State Adult Protective Services, 441–442

2005 Texas Survey of Substance Use Among College Students, 548

2008 Salary Survey Fact Sheet, 231

2008 Study of Criminal Records, 109

2008 Turnover Survey Fact Sheet, 232

-AActive License/Certified Instructor Counts, 127

Active Police Licenses By County/Region, 166

Active U.S. Hate Groups, 046

Adult and Juvenile Correctional Population Projections, 339, 368

After Prison, 331

Agency Legislative Appropriations Requests, 573

Agency Strategic Plan [Texas Department of Criminal Justice], 340

Agency Strategic Plan [Texas Youth Commission], 395

Agency Strategic Plan [Texas Department of Public Safety], 177

Alcohol and Crime: Data from 2002 to 2008, 012A

Alcohol-Impaired Drivers Involved in Fatal Crashes, by Gender and State,

465

Alcohol-Impaired Driving, 466

Alcohol-Related Fatalities and Alcohol Involvement Among Drivers and

Motorcycle Operators in 2005, 467

American Indians and Crime, 420

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Subject Index

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Numbers refer to Entry Numbers

-AAccess to legal information, 350

Accident investigation, 511

Acquaintance rape, 011

Adult felony system, 183

Adult Protective Services, 443

Aggravated assault, 001–003, 020, 072–075, 097

Agricultural crime, 019, 095

AIDS, 003, 264, 266–267A, 269, 271, 544–545, 549

Aircraft, 096, 136–137

Alcohol abuse, 003, 073, 542–543, 546–553, 556–563

Alcohol detoxification, 228, 566–571

Alcohol–related crimes, 001–003, 012–012A, 097, 465–488, 584

Alcoholism treatment programs, 566–571

Aliens, 003, 067–071, 184–184A, 225A–227, 279, 310, 572

American Indians, 057, 192, 223, 283, 306–307, 418, 566, 607, 609, 617

Annual Parole Survey, 302

Annual Probation Survey, 321

Annual Survey of Government Employment, 155, 158, 188–189, 233–234,

566, 588

Annual Survey of Government Finances, 158, 189, 234, 237, 565–566,

587–588

Annual Survey of Jails, 279–280, 283

Annual Survey of State and Local Government Finances, 565, 587

Antisemistism, 047

Appellate courts, 186–187, 191, 220, 225, 409–412

Appropriations, 573–586

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Chapter 10 • Substance Abuse and Treatment

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Drug-related Fatalities

•535 “Deaths: Final Data for [year].” National Vital Statistics Reports. Hyattsville, Md.: National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [annual,

1997–date].

One report is published annually under this title (authors and cover dates vary). It presents state-level data for number of deaths, death rates, and ageadjusted death rates for major causes of death utilizing the International Classification of Diseases—Tenth Revision (ICD-10). Major causes of death listed include alcohol-induced causes and drug-induced causes.

Research Note: This series supersedes Monthly Vital Statistics Reports (MVSR).

•536 Drug Abuse Warning Network, [year]: Area Profiles of Drug-Related

Mortality [DAWN Series]. Rockville, Md.: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, U.S. Department of

Health and Human Services [2003–date].

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Pinkham Steve (10)
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North Country

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Eagle Lake on the Allagash River

Maine’s North Country includes all of Aroostook County and the region north of Moosehead Lake and Schoodic Lake, excepting those mountains in Baxter State Park, which were covered in the previous chapter. West and north of Baxter, the mountains are all low and solitary, only forming a few scattered ranges north of Katahdin. This region includes the low ridges along some of Maine’s famous canoe routes—the West Branch of the Penobscot, and the Allagash, St. John, and Aroostook rivers.

East of Baxter is a small range paralleling the East Branch of the Penobscot, including Daisy and Lunksoos mountains. Farther northeast are the hills around Mount Chase and the cluster of mountains in the region of Oakfield. In Aroostook County, the mountains are more sporadic and include Mars Hill, which at one point, according to the Canadians, marked the boundary between Canada and the United States.

Known for lumbering, fishing, hunting, and agriculture, northern Maine has for many years belonged to the lumber barons. It is rich in the history of river drives, lumber camps, dam building, and daring feats, all to get the wood down to the hungry mills at Old Town and Bangor. Based on one interpretation of ambiguous wording in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, Canada at one point claimed almost half of what is now northern Maine. Because of the vast stands of valuable timber, these were lands worth fighting for. Maine and New Brunswick both sent militias to the disputed territory, but fortunately no shots were fired. The Webster-Ashburton Treaty finally settled the matter in Maine’s favor in 1842.

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Rangeley Lakes and Mount Blue Region

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Kennebago River and West Kennebago Mountain

The Rangeley Lakes have been called by their current name since about the 1870s; before then, they were known as the Androscoggin Lakes. This region, extending from the New Hampshire border east to Saddleback Mountain, is famed for hunting and, especially, fishing.

The small village of Oquossuc in the township of Rangeley lies between Rangeley Lake and Mooselookmeguntic Lake and has been a destination for fishermen for a hundred and fifty years. The Wabanakis called Rangeley Lake Oquossuc, meaning “slender blue trout,” a reference to the blueback trout, a species that apparently only existed here and a few other places in Maine.

The famed Parmachene Belle trout-fishing fly was designed by Henry P. Wells in the late nineteenth century when he was fishing on Parmachenee Lake, which lies north of Aziscohos Lake, near the New Hampshire border. This small water body is considered one of Maine’s most beautiful lakes, and it has offered great fishing for many years. It is not clear exactly how the name came about. Captain Fred Barker, in Lake and Forest as I Have Known Them, stated that the Indian Metalluk (Metallak), with his sons Olumbo and Parmaginnie, frequented these lakes and that “possibly the lake derived its name from Parmaginnie.” Years later, writer Eunice Nelson Palmer said it means “crossways of the mountain lake.” Other local legends say that Parmachenee was Metallack’s daughter, and that the name means “across the usual path.” Fair Parmachenee either married and lived in New Hampshire or died young and tragically, depending on which story you read.

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Southern Coast and Lowlands

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Colcord Pond from Devil’s Den Mountain

The southern coast of Maine, from the border of New Hampshire to the Kennebec River, can be divided in two—the beaches that stretch from Kittery to Portland and a coastline from Portland to Bath that’s rocky. This part of the coast has only a few small “mountains” located anywhere near the coast, most notably Mount Agamenticus in the southwestern section. Like the hills of Mount Desert Island, several small hills and knobs along this stretch of coast were given the title of “mountain” to aggrandize their size and importance, with such names as Mount Ararat, in Topsham, Morse Mountain, and Bradbury Mountain. However, these small hills did serve a very important function by being lookouts for ships returning home and for enemy ships during wartime.

The southern coast also includes the lowlands, which stretch inland as much as fifty to seventy miles. It includes the mountains in the counties of York, Cumberland, Sagadahoc, and Androscoggin, and the land lying west of the Kennebec River in Kennebec County. Bordered on the north and west by the Oxford Hills, it is bordered further east by the foothills of the upper Kennebec Region. In this coastal area, the hills and mountains are pretty well isolated; nowhere do they form distinct ranges, with the possible exception of the mountain clusters around the Belgrade Region.

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Acadia: Mount Desert Island and Isle au Haut

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Mount Desert is the largest of Maine’s many islands. Its tallest mountain, Cadillac, is the highest point of land on the Atlantic seaboard until one reaches Mount Sugarloaf, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The Wabanakis, who came here each summer to feast on clams and fish, called it Pemetic Island.

On September 5, 1604, Samuel Champlain sailed by this beautiful island and wrote of it in his journal: “The same day we passed also near an Island about four or five leagues long…. It is very high, notched in places, so as to appear from the sea like a range of seven or eight mountains close together. The summits of most of them are bare of trees for they are nothing but rock…. I named it the Island of the Desert Mountains.” The name, which has remained for almost four hundred years, did not refer to the island as a barren desert, but rather to its being “deserted,” or uninhabited. Today there are three towns on the island, and it is home to beautiful Acadia National Park.

Beginning in the 1850s, artists and explorers, “rusticators” as they came to be called, discovered the island and began summering here. Many fascinating trails were built over the rocky terrain and around the ponds. In addition, magnificent summer “cottages” were built on the eastern portion of the island, making Bar Harbor a rival to Newport, Rhode Island.

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Katahdin and Baxter State Park

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Top of the Cathedrals, looking down into the Great Basin

Katahdin is Maine’s highest mountain and easily the most honored and beloved mountain in the state. It lies in the southern part of Baxter State Park and has numerous spectacular features—the Great Basin, the Northwest Basin, the Chimney, the Knife Edge, the Tableland, and the Klondike. The mountain is rich in legends of Pamola, a spirit being who, according to Penobscot Indian legend, inhabited and protected the mountain.

Katahdin’s history is filled with accounts of early surveys and exploration, trail building, and lumbering operations. It was first climbed by Charles Turner and others in 1804, and a parade of other well-known individuals followed: Charles Jackson, Edward Everett Hale, Henry David Thoreau, Elizabeth Oakes Smith, Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Percival Baxter.

In the late 1860s, two entrepreneurs named Lang and Jones operated a stagecoach between Mattawamkeag to Patten. Hoping to cash in on the increase of sportsmen and adventurers to the region, they opened a tote road from the Wassataquoik Stream at Daicy Dam to Katahdin Lake, where they built the first sporting camps on the lake. However, the expected business never appeared and their business failed within the decade. The road was maintained as the Lang and Jones Trail until other approaches to Katahdin gained popularity and constant lumbering operations had obliterated portions of the road, causing it to be abandoned.

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Mary E Barkworth (10)
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7. DANTHONIOIDEAE N.P. Barker & H.P. Linder

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2. BAMBUSOIDEAE Luerss.

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The Bambusoideae includes two tribes, the woody Bambuseae and the herbaceous Olyreae. Their range includes tropical and temperate regions of Asia, Australia, and the Americas, primarily Central and South America. Three species of Bambuseae are native to the Manual region; there are no native species of Olyreae.

Members of the Bambusoideae grow in temperate and tropical forests, high montane grasslands, along riverbanks, and sometimes in savannahs. They are mainly forest understory or margin plants with a limited ability to reproduce, disperse, or survive outside their forest environment. Many have relatively small geographic ranges, and there is a high degree of endemism. The conservation status of most bamboos is not known; all are intrinsically vulnerable because of their breeding behavior and reliance upon a benign forest habitat. Only the C3 photosynthetic pathway is found in the subfamily.

1. Culms woody, usually taller than 1 m, developing complex vegetative branching from the upper nodes; abaxial ligules present on the foliage leaves, rarely present on the culm leaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Bambuseae

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3. EHRHARTOIDEAE Link

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The Ehrhartoideae encompasses three tribes, one of which, the Oryzeae, is native to the Manual region; the Ehrharteae is represented by introduced species. The third tribe, Phyllorachideae C.E. Hubb., is native to Africa and Madagascar. There are approximately 120 species in the Ehrhartoideae. They grow in forests, open hillsides, and aquatic habitats.

Molecular data provide strong support for the close relationship of the Oryzeae and Ehrharteae. Morphologically, they are characterized by spikelets that have a distal unisexual or bisexual floret with up to two proximal sterile florets and, frequently, six stamens in the staminate or bisexual florets.

1. Spikelets with 2 sterile florets below the functional floret, both well-developed, at least the upper sterile floret as long as or longer than the functional floret; glumes from ½ as long as the spikelets to exceeding the florets; culms not aerenchymatous; plants of dry to damp habitats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Ehrharteae

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6. CHLORIDOIDEAE Kunth ex Beilschm.

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The subfamily Chloridoideae is most abundant in dry, tropical and subtropical regions. In the Manual region, it reaches its greatest diversity in the southwestern United States. Almost all its members, and all those in the Manual region, have C4 photosynthesis.

There is considerable disagreement concerning the tribal treatment within the Chloridoideae, the number of tribes recognized varying from two to eight. The treatment presented here is conservative in recognizing the Orcuttieae and Pappophoreae as distinct tribes. It departs from most other treatments in merging all other North American taxa into a single tribe, the Cynodonteae.

1. Leaves with little or no distinction between the sheath and blade; ligules not present; plants annual, viscid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. Orcuttieae

1. Leaves clearly differentiated into sheath and blade; ligules present; plants annual or perennial, not viscid.

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10. PANICOIDEAE Link

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