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Chapter 7

Glass, Kathy Tuchman; Marzano, Robert J. Solution Tree Press PDF

CHAPTER 7

Using Engagement Strategies

CONTEXT

As stated in the introduction, context—the third of the overarching three categories—refers to students’ mental readiness during the teaching-learning process. For students to be ready, their needs relative to engagement, order, a sense of belonging, and high expectations must be met.

Many people use the term engagement; however, it is a term that does not always have a clear definition.

In fact, educators ascribe a wide variety of meanings to the term. For example, some educators might use the term to mean the simple behavior of paying attention to what the teacher is doing in class, while others might use it to mean students being intrinsically motivated by what occurs in class. The New Art and Science of Teaching (Marzano, 2017) addresses engagement from four perspectives. One is the traditional notion of attention. That is, some of the elements are designed to ensure that students attend to what occurs in the classroom. Another perspective is energy level. Some elements involve strategies designed to increase students’ energy levels, particularly when those levels are getting low. A third perspective is intrigue. Some of the elements address techniques that help stimulate high levels of student interest in such a way that students seek further information about the content on their own. The fourth perspective is motivation and inspiration.

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II. The Stalinist Thirties

James Von Geldern Indiana University Press ePub

THE FIRST TALE, A CHARMING BLEND OF CLASS ANALYSIS AND FOLKLORE, WAS RECORDED IN 1918 BY LIDIA SEIFULLINA FROM A WOMAN IN AN ISOLATED VILLAGE OF THE STEPPE. IT REPRISES A PREREVOLUTIONARY LEGEND FEATURING IVAN THE TERRIBLE. THE SECOND TALE, A SIMILAR EXAMPLE OF “SOVIET FOLKLORERECONCILING OLD NOTIONS AND THE NEW POLITICS, WAS COLLECTED IN A VILLAGE OF VYATKA PROVINCE. TOLD NO EARLIER THAN 1925, IT ECHOES A MOTIF COMMON LONG BEFORE THE REVOLUTION, IN WHICH THE TSAR WANDERED SECRETLY AMONG THE PEOPLE. NOTE THE PEASANTISMS AND RUSTIC SPELLINGS IN BOTH (RENDERED ROUGHLY HERE IN TRANSLATION).

HOW LENIN AND THE TSAR DIVIDED UP THE PEOPLE

AN ORENBURG FAIRY TALE

Once Tsar Mikolashka1 was approached by his most important general. “Once upon a time, your Royal Highness, in a faraway kingdom, there appeared a man who knew everything about all things. His rank was unknown, he had no papers, and he was called Lenin. And this very same man threatened: ‘I will go against Tsar Mikolai, make all his soldiers mine with one word, and all the generals, all the directors, all the noble officers, and you yourself, Tsar Mikolai, I will grind into dust and throw to the winds. I have a word that can do all that.’ ”

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III. Russia at War

James Von Geldern Indiana University Press ePub

 

MUSIC BY MATVEI BLANTER, ONE OF THE MOST PROLIFIC MASSSONG COMPOSERS OF THE 1930S AND 1940S. IN 1939, SOVIET FORCES WERE ENGAGED IN THE CONQUEST OF EASTERN POLAND, IN CONJUNCTION WITH HITLER; AND THEN IN THE WINTER WAR WITH FINLAND IN 1939–40. THE THEME OF A GIRL BACK HOME STANDING AT THE GATE WITH A KERCHIEF IS A MODERN ADAPTATION OF RECRUITMENT LAMENTS.

MY BELOVED

I marched off on the long campaign,

Into a distant land.

You waved your kerchief from the gate,

My beloved girl.

The Second Rifles brave platoon

Is now my family.

It salutes you with a bow,

My beloved girl.

To help my days pass quickly by,

In battles and at march,

Smile to me from far away,

My beloved girl.

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Chapter 1 - Unfolding the Question: An Excentric History

Dennis J. Schmidt Indiana University Press ePub

As soon as one begins to speak about an image, one is entangled in complications. This is the case no matter how one approaches the image: critically, theoretically, appraisingly, admiringly, confusedly—it does not matter, since the problem is rooted in the difference between words and images. Philosophy is no exception and does not escape these complications. Quite the contrary, philosophy seems to have a special difficulty in confronting the image, since philosophy lives in and is oriented to and by the logos, by words, and since it tends to take the legitimacy of this orientation as self-evident. The authority of the logos defines the very idea of philosophy and, since it is invariably assumed that the logos cannot be grasped by an image, the superiority of the logos over the image also belongs to this definition of philosophy. The logos is understood, but never seen. Even if there is a sort of “seeing” involved in philosophy, this “look” to what we call the “idea” is not the same as the look to the image. Consequently, if one is self-conscious, if one is honest, then one must hesitate before this difference between the image and the word so that once one raises the question of the image from the perspective of philosophy, the peculiar presuppositions that govern and define the project of philosophy themselves come into question. The question of the image recoils back upon philosophy and its own presumptions. Once this happens, one learns that one needs to be careful about presuming that words and images translate into one another so that one can indeed speak of images and still do justice to them such that the nature of the image shines through the words. Despite this need for hesitation and self-reflection that should emerge right from the outset of any philosophical engagement with the question of the image, what is striking is just how easily the differences between words and images are effaced, how readily we are persuaded of the gifts of language and the power of language to articulate something true in what is said. This means that the first task of any effort to speak of images is to turn language back upon itself such that its own character begins to become a question. In order to begin, it is necessary to understand that the question of the image is not simply a question for philosophy but rather a question that goes straight to the heart of the very possibility and idea of philosophy. And yet, the “blindness” of language before itself remains its first and foremost trait: language is always poorest at speaking and articulating itself. This “blindness” of language, this poverty of its own nature, is what the encounter with the image can bring to light.

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Chapter 2

Peery, Angela B. Solution Tree Press PDF

Supportive Strategies and Technology Tools

T

hroughout the minilessons that the following chapters describe, I note instructional strategies that teachers may wish to use during steps A and P in specific minilessons. This chapter describes each instructional strategy in detail to benefit you as you dive deeper into the lessons in this book. You may also draw from these strategies for support in identifying ways to customize the lessons to best serve your and your students’ needs. Throughout the minilessons, I also mention a number of technological tools, including websites, applications, and games. This chapter includes explanations of these tools, as well. Recommendations for good online videos to illustrate a strategy or tool—when they exist—appear throughout this chapter.

Please note that web addresses often change, but all videos were current and functioning as this book went to press.

Choral Response

Choral response is a method of classroom discussion in which students call out responses in unison. Choral response is effective for providing repeated opportunities to deepen declarative knowledge. For example, if you ask a question that requires a short answer, such as one about a definition or a step in a process, you can use choral response instead of calling on volunteers to answer. All students would be asked to say the answer on your cue. Teachers often use a hand signal or count to three before students respond.

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