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Chapter 2: Interpretation of the Cultivation of the Concept of κίνησις: as a Radical Grasping of the Interpretedness of Being-There

Martin Heidegger Indiana University Press ePub

The interpretedness that itself prevails in being-there, where the latter is determined by προαίρεσις, stands under the possibility of being grasped, in the sense that the world is genuinely considered in its being-there, and being-inthe-world can be examined with respect to what it is. In relation to the interpretedness of being-there itself, there is a ἕξις of ἀληθεύειν, a possibility of existing truthfully, implicit in which truthfulness is the interpretedness and transparency of being-there itself. The interpretedness of being-there is conveyed by λóγος: idle chatter, the “way in which one speaks about things,” is authoritative for the world-conception itself. We have attempted to understand why speaking is characterized as διανοεῖσθαι, διαλέγεσθαι: since being-there is determined by ἡδονή, everything is apprehended as this or that, as “conducive to . . . ,” συμφέρον—apprehended in a primary way, not theoretically. The average way of speaking and apprehending is διανοεῖσθαι. Only in contrast to this average speaking (λέγειν τι κατά τινος), can the ἕξις as ἀληθεύειν assert itself. The λóγος καθ’ αὑτó addresses beings “in themselves.” It posits the beings that are there, not in some alien respect, but rather derives from itself the respects in which the beings that are there are to be considered. This λóγος that addresses from itself the beings in their being is the ὁρισμóς. According to the basic determinations of being as being-produced and look, it has the following structure: beings are addressed in themselves with respect to that from which they have descended, γένος, and within their descent, they are addressed with respect to what they are, εἶδος. The entire being-context of the γένος and εἶδος is the τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι: τί ἦν = γένος, τὸ εἶναι = εἶδος. Insofar as beings are posited in the respects from which they are determined, research is thereby bound to set forth this from-out-of-which. This from-out-of-which is the ἀρχαί. The ἀρχαί are the basic respects in which concrete being-there is seen in itself and made explicit. Insofar as the ἕξις of ἀληθεύειν is put into effect, this means that λóγος becomes such that it advances to the ἀρχαί. The concrete fulfillment of the ἕξις is ἐπιστήμη, and the “science” that has to do with the ἀρχαί is πρώτη φιλοσοφία, or more concisely: σοφία. A distinctive research that does not scrutinize beings as to their concrete determinations but rather sets forth the basic respects, is guided by the question: τί τὸ ὄν? “What are beings as beings? What is being?”

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Chapter One - Introduction: The Quest for Earthly Immortality

Marcus, Paul Karnac Books ePub

“The best argument I know for an immortal life is the existence of a man who deserves one.”

William James (Esar, 1995, p. 413)

Known for his unrestrained optimism, Ralph Waldo Emerson said that if he were banished to hell, he would “make a heaven there” (Nichols, 2006, p. 29). Indeed, we all know people, enviably so, who, despite the sham, drudgery, and broken dreams of everyday life manage to find and create situations that are a fertile psychological breeding ground for joyful self-assertion and personal transcendence. It is these transformational and deeply satisfying moments that reflect what psychoanalyst Margaret Mahler described as a typical experience for the well-looked-after toddler, that “love affair with the world” (Mahler, Pine, & Bergman, 1985, p. 74) that constitutes what I metaphorically refer to as making a choice of “heaven” on earth. Robert Jay Lifton has described this process as striving for “symbolic immortality”, an “experiential transcendence”, that intense feeling when “time and death disappear”. Such experiences of being enamoured with existence centrally involve “losing oneself” and can occur in a number of enthralling contexts: in religious and secular forms of mysticism, and “in song, dance, battle, sexual love, childbirth, athletic effort, mechanical flight, or in contemplating works of artistic or intellectual creation” (Lifton, 1976, pp. 33–34).

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1960

Raphael, Frederic Carcanet Press Ltd. PDF



‘“Spend the winter in sunny Spain,” that’s what the advertisements said and I thought to myself, why not?’ This was Miss A., a retired headmistress and president of her local Conservative Association.

She was a not ill-preserved lady, pink and blonde. She had taken a flat in Fuengirola and wore espadrilles and a big straw hat and smoked Celtas. She had a brigadier and his wife for downstairs neighbours and they were ‘Darlings’.

She was an embracing sort of lady. She embraced my Spanish grammar and had to be prised free of it. She came to Larry’s party in the Calle Toston and thereafter always referred to him as Mister

Larry Potter. She was determined not to be shocked, but had never expected to enjoy Bohemian company as much as she did.

Towards the end of the winter, she went on a trip to Cordoba where she met a bullfighter who escorted her to the top of the

Mezquíta tower, after hours. He there kissed her passionately and declared his love. He took her out and, she said, was bitterly hurt when, ‘regretfully’, she rejected his final gallant advances. Asked what the local Conservatives would think of her behaviour, she said,

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Necessary Transformation? The Reformation and Modernity in Controversy over Freedom

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Necessary Transformation? The Reformation and Modernity in Controversy over Freedom

Oswald Bayer (Translated by Piotr J. Malysz)

1. Posing the Question1

The Lutheran Church understands itself as the “Church of Freedom.” It does so, at any rate, according to the 2006 “Discussion Paper of the Council of the Evangelical Church of Germany,” which bears the subtitle “Perspectives for the Lutheran Church in the 21st Century.”2 The concept of freedom plays a decisive role in the self-understanding of Protestantism. Even if it is not the decisive role, the concept, like no other, seems to safeguard the identity and historical continuity of Protestant churches and their theology, and in particular to overcome the fracture between the old and new Protestantism. In his 1520 treatise, Luther made freedom into the foundation of “the whole of Christian life,”3 while Melanchthon, in his 1521 Loci, captured the reformational self-understanding in the pointed thesis that lets itself be heard as a clarion call: “libertas est christianismus [Christianity is freedom].”4 For many this call seems to harmonize well with the modern call to freedom, such as the one issued, for example, by the French Revolution (“Liberty!” together with “Equality!” and “Fraternity!”). According to Hegel, the political understanding of freedom in his own day was but an outcome of the religious understanding of freedom in the Reformation. In view of that, as the story goes,5 he would raise a glass twice a year in order to drink to freedom: on 31 October, and on 14 July, the day of the capturing of the Bastille. For Hegel, there exists no conflict between the reformational and modern understanding of freedom; there is rather complete harmony.6

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9. The Catholic Church, Radio Maryja, and the Question of Antisemitism in Poland \ Anna Sommer Schneider

Alvin H Rosenfeld Indiana University Press ePub

Anna Sommer Schneider

As bishop of Rome and successor of the Apostle Peter, I assure the Jewish people that the Catholic Church, motivated by the Gospel law of truth and love, and by no political considerations, is deeply saddened by the hatred, acts of persecution and displays of antisemitism directed against the Jews by Christians at any time and in any place.

—JOHN PAUL II, MARCH 23, 2000, JERUSALEM

The question of antisemitism has never been thoroughly researched in Poland with regard to ideological, political, and social developments. It is not clear whether antisemitism, in all its forms, is a “by-product” of the growth of antisemitic propaganda in Western Europe or a Polish phenomenon. Apart from some sociological studies, antisemitism has been virtually ignored by Polish scholars. The subject has been considered cumbersome and even taboo.1 For some, research into this issue is irrelevant since they believe that the problem of antisemitism doesn’t exist in Poland. For others who might be inclined to carry out such a study, available survey data is rather fragmentary and inconsistent and does not provide scholars and others with the necessary empirical information.

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