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1. Schools in Crisis

Charis Boutieri Indiana University Press ePub

1

Schools in Crisis

As we walked toward a bookshop in Kenitra, a medium-sized city on the Atlantic coast, Lahiane, a high school student in his senior year, and I passed a gathering of several hundred unemployed demonstrators. This buzzing crowd made up of both sexes and a variety of ages, anger and boredom imprinted on their faces, had gathered outside the town’s city hall to organize yet another rally demanding more jobs that were both secure and more highly paid (see Figure 1.1). Lahiane, his somber gaze fixed on the crowd, smiled bitterly and asked me, “What do you say? Shall I join them?” He had not yet graduated high school.

The pessimism Lahiane voiced has informed the actions of large numbers of unemployed school and university graduates, known by the term diplomés chômeurs. Approximately 27 percent of all educated young Moroccans are unemployed, and more work on an irregular basis or have insecure jobs (African Development Bank 2013, 12). For the last two decades, many of these graduates have spent their days frequenting the offices of labor unions syndicates and demonstrating outside government buildings. Seeking access to white-collar jobs in the new service sector that has superseded Morocco’s mainly agricultural and small industrial economy, these lower-middle and middle class youth have seen their job prospects systematically dwindle. As a consequence, these youth move between advocating forcefully for a chance at social integration and economic prosperity based on the meritocratic evaluation of their educational skills and expressing deep cynicism about the material and ideological value of these skills. It is hardly surprising then that both students and graduates took to the streets during the tumultuous Arab Uprisings (2011–2012). They protested not only the current set-up of political institutions and their own economic marginalization but also that the failure of educational experiences to give them the possibility of pursuing a “decent life.” They staged sit-ins, confronted the security forces, and engaged in highly symbolic acts of self-immolation across the kingdom.1

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Medium 9781591202004

Chapter 21. Emerging Environmental Hazards

Klatz M.D. D.O., Ronald Basic Health Publications ePub

Humankind is at the most important crossroads between environmental influences and health that it has ever faced. History is replete with examples where health hazards demonstrating an association with an external, controllable exposure have been raised based on what seemed, at the time to be unconvincing and inadequate scientific study. Years later, such hazards become well-recognized triggers for disease, robbing thousands of people of their lives or compromising the quality of the lives of those exposed.

Asbestos and lung cancer; lead paint and stunted intellect and behavior in children; contaminated beef and mad cow disease; smoking and lung cancer and heart diseaseall of these associations received dubious skepticism and rejection initially, only to be proven true in the final analysis. This chapter is designed to give you a better understanding of many everyday exposures that can put the length and quality of our lives at risk.

THE BIG BAD WORLD

The majority of us have an immune system that enables us to ward off many of the more common pathogens that are out to make us sick. Many of the microbes you encounter every day are relatively harmless. In fact, they are useful because they force your immune system to react, thereby keeping it healthy and robust. This reaction is called antigenic stimulation.

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6 Using Strategies That Appear in All Types of Lessons

Robert J. Marzano Solution Tree Press ePub

CHAPTER 6

Using Strategies That Appear in All Types of Lessons

There are a number of strategies that commonly appear in all three types of lessons: (1) direct instruction lessons, (2) practicing and deepening lessons, and (3) knowledge application lessons.

The desired mental states and processes common to these ubiquitous strategies are:

Students continually integrate new knowledge with old knowledge and revise their understanding accordingly.

The elements that focus on this design area help students continually loop through content they are learning so that they might integrate new knowledge with old. The notion that students must cycle through and make changes in their existing knowledge base is certainly not new. For example, Jean Piaget (1971) distinguishes between the learning processes of assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation refers to the initial linking of new content to old content. New content is assimilated into existing knowledge structures. Accommodation occurs more gradually as existing knowledge becomes redesigned as a result of assimilation with new information. David E. Rumelhart and Donald A. Norman (1978) describe three types of knowledge change: (1) accretion, (2) tuning, and (3) restructuring. Accretion and tuning refer to additions to knowledge over time. Accretion happens relatively quickly. Tuning is more gradual and involves the expression of knowledge in more parsimonious forms. Restructuring is like Piaget’s accommodation in that pre-existing knowledge structures are permanently redesigned as a function of the learning process. For example, a student might have a pre-existing knowledge structure for the relationship between the moon and tides, which involves only the distance between the Earth and the moon. However, after a set of particularly clear direct instruction lessons by the teacher, the student redesigns her knowledge structure adding variables like the tilt of the Earth and the gravitational pull of the sun. She also completely revamps the number and type of causal relationships among variables in her knowledge structure.

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Eleven: End of this Trail

Paul N. Spellman University of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER 11

End of This Trail

Not only have yourself and your men received the universal commendation of the citizenship of this county, but the entire Ranger service has been greatly raised in the estimation and good will of the public here by the examples furnished by the deportment of yourself and men.

District Judge James Perkins to Captain Rogers, Center, Texas, September 1, 1908 1

But it had not been easy. Company C found that it could hardly get out of east Texas for the trouble that continued to start up there, more and more of it racially motivated. Just a few weeks after the incident in Nacogdoches, Rogers reported that he and members of his company had tracked three men “who were hunting Negroes” after an incident near San Augustine in which a White man had been gunned down. The Rangers captured the three assailants and put them on trial, but a biased jury of their peers and several perjured witnesses ended the proceedings with a hung jury. The men were released.2

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Part VI: Sense, Myth, and Passion

Giuseppe Civitarese Karnac Books ePub

PART VI

SENSE, MYTH, AND PASSION

Editors’ introduction

Readers of Bion have often found his writing style enigmatic and elusive. This may have resulted from the fact that while he was very deliberate about the specificity and exact meaning of what he hoped to convey, he was equally, if not more so, eager to challenge and stimulate the minds of his readers, so that they could come to their own understanding and use of whatever he had chosen to say to them. Thus, his style of writing illustrated a basic principle that informed his attitude towards his work with patients and a belief in the essential importance of learning from one's own experience.

One of his more famous and oft quoted statements appears in Elements of Psychoanalysis, (Bion, 1963), where he states that “psychoanalytic elements and the objects derived from them have…extension in the domain[s] of sense [myth and passion]” (p. 11). We have chosen this remark as a starting point for reflections and “imaginative conjectures” that explore, interrogate, and expound upon this assertion. Thus, we offer readers the responses of three authors, each of whom feels that their ways of working with and thinking about patients are deeply influenced by and engaged with thoughts and ideas derived from Bion.

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