1473 Chapters
Medium 9781523096206

CHAPTER 4 Work Inputs: The Cause of Everything

Southworth, Dixon Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

In the Work Performance Framework (WPF), work inputs are the cause of everything. Phrasing it that way is only a slight exaggeration, for in the cause-effect relationships of the work environment, all causes that can be attributed to people can be described as inputs.

This chapter first discusses the three types of work inputs within the WPF: competencies, effort, and power. Then it presents a selected literature review on the topics of causation and data analysis to explain how inputs meet the conditions required for attributing causation. The chapter next discusses HR programs that build performance by building work inputs and examines key performance measures for these programs. The chapter concludes with some thoughts on opportunities for future research.

In classical use of general systems theory, inputs are presented as resources that include raw materials, people, financial resources, and capital. These resources go into a black box described as processes and come out of the black box as outputs. This mental image is easy to imagine when we think of the ingredients in a cake going through a process that involves assembling the ingredients and placing them in the oven. In a short time the ingredients, or inputs, come out as a cake, the output.

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Medium 9781855751675

1. The development of Freud's theory

Karnac Books ePub

The history of psychoanalysis has been discussed by Freud (1914d, 1925d [1924]), by his main biographer, Jones (1953-57), and by a variety of authors from one point of view or another (e.g. Ellenberger, 1970; Gay, 1988; Sulloway, 1979; Zilboorg, 1941). There are also brief accounts of the history of psychoanalysis written for relatively specific purposes, and many authors have considered particular psychoanalytic concepts. Rapaport (1959), in discussing what has come to be known as psychoanalytic “ego psychology”,1 divides its development into a number of phases, and we have found it useful to adapt his phases to the consideration of Freud’s theory.

In this chapter we present a short and selective historical account in order to provide a background to what follows. In it we place emphasis on the interaction between observed clinical data and treatment methods on the one hand, and the theoretical constructs devised to account for them on the other. Clinical experience certainly shaped the theories that Freud and his followers put forward, and the theoretical formulations, especially in the early years, were affected by prevailing modes of conceptualization and notions modelled on concepts from other fields (e.g. the physical sciences and the neurology of the time); and, of course, the socio-cultural context of fin de siecle Vienna played its part. In turn, each theoretical formulation influenced the perception, evaluation, and understanding of the clinical data, until a point was reached at which the theoretical strain was such that a (somewhat radical) change in theory had to be made in order to encompass the new observations. It is quite striking how the development of psychoanalytic theory parallels in its form the changes that have been observed and described in other fields (see Kuhn, 1962) .2

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Medium 9781912567423

4. (1905) Freud's Theory of Sexuality

Meltzer, Donald Harris Meltzer Trust ePub


Freud's theory of sexuality

We must now try to investigate a subject that runs through all Freud's work, and is at the very heart of the psychoanalytic method and the psychoanalytic understanding of the mind: namely, the problem of sexuality. In approaching this, as in approaching other aspects of Freud's work, I want to try to differentiate between the method with its associated data, and the theories which are often strongly influenced by preconceptions; and to remind you that I have spoken of the way in which Freud was transformed from the determinist neurophysiologist into a phenomenological psychologist over the period of the forty years of his psychoanalytic work. Freud is probably best known for his revolutionary views on sexuality; but I think when we study them in practice we will be less inclined to consider them as revolutionary views and more inclined to see them as real discoveries. In order to make this differentiation it is necessary to read the Three Essays as laid out in the standard edition with great care, because it has been presented with a certain disingenuousness. Its format runs counter to the general format of the edition, which is chronological with cross-referencing. The editors for some reason have followed a different policy with the Three Essays. I wish to remind you, to begin with, of the way in which one must read it if one is to get a chronological idea in one's mind of Freud's development.

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Medium 9781855750326

4. Four Phases of Psychodynamic Theory (1963)

Guntrip, Harry Karnac Books ePub

AT the Sixth International Congress of Psychotherapy in 1964, Foulkes made this statement:

Psychoanalysis is a biological theory which has only very reluctantly been pushed into being a social theory by the pressure of psychotherapy. Group therapy is not psychoanalysis.

This raises critical problems for theoretical thinking. The first sentence is undoubtedly right. Psychotherapy is a social, in the sense of a personal, relationship problem, and this is really as true of individual therapy as of group therapy. Is the second sentence correct? It means that psychoanalysis ceases to be psychoanalysis if it changes from its original biological orientation to meet the problems of psychotherapy. This is hardly a tenable position. Psychoanalytic theory arose out of the attempt Freud was making, as a practising physician, to find a therapy for the psychoneuroses. His first attempt was frankly neurological and he abandoned it because it had nothing to say to the psychological problems he was faced with. His second attempt was psychobiological and gave more scope for psychological thinking. But if psychoanalysis is to be theoretically fixed at that point for all time, it would be an unheard-of situation in science. Moreover Freud himself found this psycho-biological theory inadequate as time went on, and moved into the more purely psychological problem of ego theory.

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Medium 9781912567188

1. Freud's Theory of Art and Creativity

Glover, Nicky Harris Meltzer Trust ePub


Freud's theory of art and creativity

This chapter explores the general direction of Freud's writings on art and its relationship to his metapsychology. I hope to show that Freud's contribution to aesthetics, although criticized for being ambivalent and incomplete, is significant largely because it made subsequent developments possible within the British School of Psychoanalysis.

First, I explore Freud's interest in “pathography”—the viewing of art as a privileged form of neurosis where the analyst–critic explores the artwork in order to understand and unearth the creator's psychological motivations. We will see the limitations of focusing solely on the content of the artwork and the inner world of the artist. This view is enriched and expanded, however, by Freud's later (1905c) theory of the joke mechanism and its relationship to his account of the primary and secondary processes. Although Freud did not fully pursue his investigation into the relationship between the joke mechanism and aesthetic experience, we will see that this aspect of Freud's theory seems better equipped than the pathographic approach to address the formal structure of art and the nature of aesthetic experience. Rather than just an object to be investigated on the analytic dissecting table, the artwork can be viewed as the outcome of a process.

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