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Chapter Two: Freud's Papers Concerning Child Psychoanalysis

Markman Reubins, Beatriz Karnac Books ePub

Freud, through his many publications related to child analysis, was an early influence in the development of child analytic thinking. He was able to be in close contact with symptomatic children and applied his theory to them, keenly aware of the importance of having direct observation of the child to corroborate what he was discovering in his adult patients.

The following papers represent Freud's thoughts on the children he observed. Among them is “Little Hans”, the five-year-old son of one of his close friends, and another is about the eighteen-month-old boy who was the son of one of his daughters.

“Symptomatic and Chance Actions” (1901)

In his 1901 book The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, Freud dedicated a section to the explanation of “symptomatic and chance actions”. These apparently insignificant occurrences, with no clear explanation, both play a part in symptoms and give expression to something that the person has otherwise not suspected.

Freud observed that such symptomatic and chance actions can either occur habitually, regularly under certain conditions, or occur only sporadically or rarely. He added that symbolism plays a greater role in the childhood of normal people than he had thought earlier. Furthermore, Freud said that the symptomatic acts that can be observed in healthy and sick people are important to take into account in the analytic process. After describing numerous clinical examples, Freud concluded that such symptomatic acts often offer the best understanding of peoples’ intimate mental lives.

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Chapter Seven: Margaret Mahler

Markman Reubins, Beatriz Karnac Books ePub

Biography

Margaret Mahler (1897–1985) was born in Sopron, Hungary, she emigrated to New York in 1938, where she spend the rest of her of life. She died in New York City at eighty-eight years old.

Her father was a general practitioner, her mother was nineteen years old when she married Margaret's father. Margaret was the first-born child of an unhappy marriage. Her mother resented having a child at such a young age, so it was mainly her father who was her caretaker. She grew increasingly more distant from her mother. The definitive moment of rejection was when she overheard her mother telling her sister, four years her junior, that she was her favourite and that she loved and adored her more than anything.

Margaret's situation was a sad example of emotional devastation caused by parental favouritism. She compensated her loveless home atmosphere with an extraordinary success in school, where she excelled in mathematics and science. Margaret Mahler believed that the reason she became interested in paediatrics and psychoanalysis was because of her mother's rejection. She grew up unhappy, with low self-esteem, and deeply jealous of her sister. Her father was very supportive and encouraged her to excel in her intellectual growth. She was the second woman in Sopron to receive higher education, at sixteen years old she went to Budapest and lived with an unkind aunt.

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CAPÍTULO I - Sigmund Freud

Markman Reubins, Beatriz Ediciones Karnac ePub

Muchos volúmenes se han escrito acerca de la vida y del trabajo de Sigmund Freud. En este capítulo, nos limitamos a la descripción de su familia, de sus padres, de sus hermanos, de sus hijos y nietos, y a la historia de la Sociedad Psicoanalítica de Viena, formada por su círculo de amigos, así como a los pioneros que formaron la Sociedad Psicoanalítica Internacional.

Freud y sus hermanos

Sigmund Freud nació el 6 de mayo de 1856, en un pueblo de Moravia, Freinberg (conocido actualmente como Pribor, en la República de Checoslovaquia), durante la era del Imperio Austríaco. Sus padres eran de origen judío galitziano.

Su padre, Jacob Freud (1815–1896), nació en Tysmenitz, Galitzia, parte del Imperio austrohúngaro. En 1886, a la edad de cuarenta y un años, Jacob se casó por segunda vez (aunque posiblemente fuera su tercer matrimonio) con la que sería la madre de Sigmund Freud, Amalia Malka Nathansohn, veintiún años menor que Jacob. Sigmund fue el primer hijo de la pareja.

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Chapter Four: Melanie Klein

Markman Reubins, Beatriz Karnac Books ePub

Biography

Melanie Reizes Klein was born in Vienna, Austria, on 30 March 1882, and died in London on 22 September 1960 at the age of seventy-eight. Her father, Moriz Reizes, was a Jewish doctor of Polish origin who came from a traditional Jewish religious background. Born in Lember, Galitzia (now Lvov, Ukraine), Dr Reizes had an early first marriage which ended in divorce. When he was forty-four, he met Libussa Deutsch, who was then twenty-five. At the time Dr Reizes married Libussa, who was from Warkotz, Slovakia, he was forty-seven.

After the marriage, the couple settled in Deutschkreutz, Hungary (now Bergenland, Austria), but in 1882 they decided to move to Vienna, where Melanie Klein was born. The couple had four children, of whom Melanie was the youngest:

Dr Reizes was in his fifties at the time of Melanie's birth. Melanie's mother, Libussa, was young and energetic. This may explain why Melanie felt closer to her mother and more distant from her father; nevertheless, Melanie remembered that her family life was surrounded by love and togetherness, although with three tragic moments: the death of her father, her sister, and her brother Emmanuel. Emmanuel was the “genius” of the family, Emily was her father's favourite, and Sidonie was the best-looking of the children and her mother's favourite.

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CONCLUSIONES

Markman Reubins, Beatriz Ediciones Karnac ePub

Nuestro entendimiento de la dinámica mental de los pacientes, niños y adultos, se amplía a través de la revisión de diversas teorías. A través de ellas tenemos más herramientas para organizar nuestras ideas, para brindar interpretaciones y para entender mejor el proceso de desarrollo de la terapia que nos permita ayudar a nuestros pacientes, y también a nuestros hijos, en sus conflictos y ansiedades.

Aún hoy, después de más de cien años de investigación, estudio y desarrollo en el campo del psicoanálisis de niños, encontramos padres que se ausentan ocasionalmente durante largos períodos de tiempo, dejando a sus bebés con personas extrañas, sin pensar en los efectos psíquicos importantes que le puede producir al bebé.

Los famosos pensadores que incluimos en este libro, junto con muchos investigadores y mentes creativas, tienen diferentes ideas al respecto, y han conceptualizado sus observaciones e investigaciones utilizando diferentes terminologías. Algunos enfatizan el aspecto biológico, otros se centran más en el medio ambiente, mientras que otros enfatizan la relación de objeto. Sin embargo, todas las teorías tienen un importante denominador común.

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