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Medium 9780253016881

The Bottle

Edited by Michael Martone and Bryan Furu Break Away Book Club Edition ePub

The Bottle

Something’s curled up in the bottle. I don’t want to look right at it.

Something makes the bottle knock.

It’s Tuesday afternoon and the weather’s asleep with its belly and long tail wrapped around the town. The curtains are hot with it.

I’m writing this yesterday.

I was going to write this from a distance, like I was God studying the classified ads of this town, old God scowling through his magnifying glass, God with long breaks for the bathroom, God sweating it out in polyester pants with the doors and windows locked against tweakers and Mexicans. God before he comes back in the second half as a long-haired teenager.

When we moved into this house the door was hanging from one hinge but the other side was heavy with bolts and chains just brushing the floor uselessly and the frame was busted. Someone had tried but couldn’t lock someone out. We stayed at my grandma’s till June, then moved after school ended. School’s important to Ma. But that means we showed up here with nowhere to go, all day not knowing anybody. Ma works the half day at Target and half as a checker at Martin’s and most nights she brings something home from the half-price barrel: hot dog buns, marshmallow fluff, Miracle Whip a day or two off. And you have to wait a long time for Miracle Whip to go off.

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Medium 9781780646862

3: Soil and Water

Finley, S. CABI PDF

3

Soil and Water

More than anything else, the key to enhancing resilience and promoting water availability for crop growth lies in the proper care of farm soils. In fertile regions, the native soil underlying forests, brush or grasslands tends to be naturally ‘healthy’, that is, rich in nutrients with good structure and organic matter content. When land is cleared for farming, soil can quickly lose its ‘healthy’ qualities, especially if farming practices employed do not encourage its regeneration. Without proper management, agricultural soils can become completely depleted in as little as a few decades or even a few years after clearing, depending on the nature of the land and its use.1

Some negative effects that agriculture can have on the soil include:

nutrient mining (continual removal of nutrients without renewal); breakdown of organic matter; loss of water holding capacity; compaction; erosion; surface sealing (crusting); and deterioration of natural habitat for soil organisms (microorganisms, insects, and worms).

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Medium 9781780646862

4: Plants and Water

Finley, S. CABI PDF

4

Plants and Water

Water availability is a principal limiting factor to plant development and crop yield. In laboratory studies, the total dry matter production of crop plants has been shown to have a linear relationship to water uptake: the more water used, the more yield produced, up to the point where the full plant water requirement is met.1

Water plays several roles in plant development and crop production:

1. Water is the principal transport mechanism for moving essential nutrients, minerals and dissolved carbohydrates through plant tissues. Water moves from regions of low to high potential, pulling it from the soil into roots, upward through plant tissues, and out through the leaf surface into the atmosphere in a continuous sequence driven by transpiration. As it moves through the plant, water delivers essential elements from roots to shoots and leaves where they are used in plant metabolic processes.

2. Water is a critical reactant in chemical reactions occurring in plant cells.

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Medium 9781780646862

2: Goals of Agricultural Water Management

Finley, S. CABI PDF

2

Goals of Agricultural Water

Management

Water is a vital component of every agricultural project. In addition to supporting plant growth, water is critical to maintaining soil health and promoting the overall ecological well-being of the land, which are essential in ensuring the long-term viability of the farm. In this book, the term soil and water management practices is used to designate the range of farming practices that influence the way in which water flows through the farm environment and is transformed into crop yields. This category includes methods of water application, but also cropping systems, soil management practices, and land use patterns. The purpose of this publication is to define and explain sound practices for managing water in the cultivation of field crops. While the management of soil and water resources is equally important in other agricultural categories such as livestock rearing, aquaculture and forestry, these remain outside of the scope of this book.

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Medium 9781786391445

17 Implication of Nanotechnology for the Treatment of Water and Air Pollution

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

17

Implication of Nanotechnology for the Treatment of Water and Air Pollution

R.K. Chaturvedi*

Center for Integrative Conservation, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical

Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan, China

17.1 Introduction

Due to the revolution in the development of science and technology at the nanoscale, there has been an increase in the ability to fabricate and manipulate the nanosized materials; by which we mean particles smaller than 100 nm. Interest in these nanomaterials has increased tremendously because they produce many opportunities to improve the performance of material. Metal-based nanoparticles, consisting of Cu, Au, Ag, etc., have been generally used as industrial electrode, magnetic materials, chemicals, catalysts and optical media. In agriculture, the use of nanoparticles has just started, but is increasing its dimensions. With the help of nanosciences, plant growth has been enhanced by using a wide range of applications of nanotechnology (Nair et al., 2010).

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