3598 Chapters
Medium 9780253002174

3 Enslaved Lives, Enslaving Labels: A New Approach to the Colonial Indian Labor Diaspora | Crispin Bates and Marina Carter

Sukanya Banerjee Indiana University Press ePub


India has seen some of the largest labor migrations in the modern world, with the annual emigration of Indians overseas fluctuating between 240,000 to 660,000 in the period from 1870 to 1930, and totaling some 2,483,000 between 1911 and 1915 alone. This chapter highlights what are termed “subaltern networks” in the Indian labor diaspora, with particular reference to the Indian Ocean region, and argues both that an analysis of the migration and settlement patterns of groups variously categorized as coolies, servants, or sepoys is crucial to an understanding of the dynamics of overseas labor flows and that rather than occupying discrete categories rooted in South Asia, they may be viewed as a composite itinerant class that may be better understood from a global perspective.

Consequently, it is argued that while the subaltern networks functioned ostensibly as a vehicle for the subordination of labor, they were, over time and with varying degrees of success, appropriated by the subordinated, becoming both a means of sociocultural reassertion and an economic strategy, linking together forest, field, factory, and plantation. The evolving stereotypes about the servant classes in India and their migratory counterparts are revealing of these broader changes but inadequate to provide an understanding of the realities of the diaspora experience. Closer study of the appraisals, projects, and strategies helps to deconstruct the labels that essentialize the status of the coolie, the domestic worker, the convict, and the sepoy, and reveals how such individuals survived and even flourished within the interstices of the colonial system.

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Medium 9780861966820

From Film to Television and the Start of TVC

Marie Beardmore John Libbey Publishing ePub


TVC and George Dunning

TV Cartoons had a better start than most new companies because it could piggyback off the old UPA (United Productions of America), the Disney breakaway group that made numerous programmes, including the famous myopic, Mr Magoo. The London studio had been set up to take advantage of the new commercial TV, but closed probably due to financial problems of its American parent. Nonetheless the English studio was successful and had all the key elements already in situ to continue, plus the energy and determination of its former studio director George Dunning to carry on. George was a Canadian so he didn’t need a work permit, and was happy to have found a business manager to keep the new venture afloat. Another Canadian, Richard Williams (Roger Rabbit) was also in house.

The company found the backers needed to continue mainly as before, but now with John Coates. A live action commercial company, TV Advertising, TVA, bought 30 per cent, with 70 per cent held by three private individuals, one being a partner in the insurance company, Sedgewick Collins. The other was a city gent, and the third was John’s former Rediffusion colleague, Eric Major.

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Medium 9781780643373

23: Tree and Forest Pests and Diseases: Learning from the Past to Prepare for the Future

Kirby, K.J.; Watkins, C. CABI PDF


Tree and Forest Pests and Diseases:

Learning from the Past to

Prepare for the Future

Clive Potter*

Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, UK

23.1  Introduction

Invasive pests and diseases, many of them unknown to science a decade or two ago, pose a significant threat to Europe’s woods and forests. The spread of Chalara fraxinea

(ash dieback, now properly identified and renamed as Hymenoscyphus fraxineus) throughout north-western Europe, and its arrival in the UK in 2012, is just the latest in a series of pest and disease outbreaks that have swept through

Europe’s forests over the last 10 years (Boyd et al., 2013). Well-documented epidemics include those caused by the oak processionary moth (Thaumetopoea processionea), an insect pest now widespread throughout Belgium, the

Netherlands and Germany, chestnut blight

(Cryphonectria parasitica), a fungal pathogen that was first recorded in Italy in 1938 but which has been spreading steadily since that date, and the pine tree lappet moth (Dendrolimus pini), a native of continental Europe, Russia and

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Medium 9780253010452

Introduction: The Creation of a Colonial Culture in France, from the Colonial Era to the “Memory Wars”

NoContributor Indiana University Press ePub

The Creation of a Colonial Culture in France, from the Colonial Era to the “Memory Wars”

Pascal Blanchard, Sandrine Lemaire,
Nicolas Bancel, and Dominic Thomas

The present collection is the fruit of an inquiry that began in the early 1990s and that sought to better elucidate certain aspects of France’s contemporary history. The weight of colonial imaginary, discernible in the production of a colonial iconicity, in colonial cinema, and in the intertextual articulations of images/ discourse, called for improved contextualization, as did those mechanisms associated with the construction of different paradigms with respect to the Other in the context of a burgeoning imperialism.1 Initial research was conducted on the subject of “human zoos,” and then shortly thereafter we began evaluating the importance of colonial expositions and world fairs that were held in France and abroad.2 We also sought to better understand the relationship between immigration to the metropole from the “global South” and the colonial phenomenon itself over a longer historical period that included both the colonial and postcolonial periods. In turn, we found ourselves compelled to investigate even more complex, yet related, processes, such as French Republican identity.

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Medium 9781780641409

5: The Tortuous Road Towards Forest Sustainability in the Tropical Rainforest: Cases From Which to Learn

Bruenig, E.F. CABI PDF


The Tortuous Road Towards Forest

Sustainability in the Tropical Rainforest:

Cases From Which to Learn

5.1  Example: The State of Sarawak

5.1.1  The history from forest usufruct to a concept of sustainable forestry

The understanding of the goals, targets,

­contents, relevance and crucial role of sustainability for livelihood and survival varies between ethnic groups and changes with circumstances. Sarawak is a textbook case which shows the development of the culture of forest sustainability from the earliest stages in the cultures of the forest-dependent hunter-­ gatherer groups, beginning at least 40,000 years ago and still vibrant (if threatened with extinction), to the multiracial, multi-­ethnic and multicultural, heterogeneous and conflict-­ rich but dynamic mixture of today. This sets the almost unsolvable problem of adjusting goals and targets for sustainable ­natural resource use, development and maintenance so that they are compatible with customs and aspirations of different ethnic groups, social classes and interest groups, and fit regional differences of conditions. Such contextual sustainability will have to be able to adapt to change without losing doctrinal power and meaning. Sustainability can only be approached and approximated, but never finally achieved and secured in a static condition. The old Greek saying, “the only constant is change”, applies. Generally,

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