132 Chapters
Medium 9781780645254

2 Biology and Ecology

Adkins, S.; Shabbir, A.; Dhileepan, K. CABI PDF

2

Biology and Ecology

Steve W. Adkins,1* Alec McClay2 and

Ali Ahsan Bajwa1

1The

University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland, Australia;

Ecoscience, Alberta, Canada

2McClay

2.1  Introduction

Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus

L.) is now recognized as a major invasive weed worldwide. Yet back in the 1950s, when it first came to the attention of land managers in Australia, it was a virtually unknown plant. International focus wasn’t drawn to its weed potential until the mid1970s, after reports of dense infestations forming in central India associated with increasing health problems, and its rapid spread in Australia. Understanding the biology and ecology of this unique weed is essential for determining its impact in the natural and agricultural environment, and also in helping design new and improved, cost-­effective management strategies. This chapter provides details of the biology,

­ecology and origins of this weed and a discussion of why this plant has become such a successful invader of many new landscapes in over 40 countries around the world.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780645254

11 History and Management – Australia and Pacific

Adkins, S.; Shabbir, A.; Dhileepan, K. CABI PDF

11

History and Management –

Australia and Pacific

Rachel McFadyen,1* Kunjithapatham Dhileepan2 and Michael Day2

1PO

Box 88, Mt Ommaney, Queensland, Australia; 2Biosecurity

Queensland, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Brisbane,

Queensland, Australia

11.1  Introduction

11.2  History

Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus

L.) is now recognized as a major invasive weed worldwide. Yet in the 1950s, when it was first discovered in Australia, it was an almost unknown plant. International research on parthenium weed did not start until the 1970s, after reports of increasing health problems caused by the dense infestations in central India (Chandras and

­Vartak, 1970). Australian policy makers in

1973−1975 were therefore working in an

­information vacuum when trying to manage this new weed, which was rapidly spreading south from the northern cattle zone.

Their response was to establish one of the largest long-­ term and well-­ funded weed management programmes ever seen against a single weed, and the outcome has been startlingly successful, with parthenium weed ceasing to be one of the top ten weeds of both cropping and grazing lands in the affected zone. This chapter outlines the history and background of parthenium in Australia and the management tools used to produce this success.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780645254

14 History and Management – Southern Africa and Western Indian Ocean Islands

Adkins, S.; Shabbir, A.; Dhileepan, K. CABI PDF

14

History and Management –

Southern Africa and Western

Indian Ocean Islands

Lorraine W. Strathie1* and Andrew J.

McConnachie2

1Agricultural

Research Council – Plant Health and Protection,

Hilton, South Africa; 2Department of Primary Industries,

Biosecurity and Food Safety, Orange, New South Wales, Australia

14.1  Introduction

along many of the national road networks that link South Africa, Swaziland and

In Africa, parthenium weed (Parthenium hys- Mozambique, as well as at or near country terophorus L.) is present in Egypt in North border posts, increasing the risk of dispersal

Africa and in the East African countries of to new countries. The probability of invasion

Somalia, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, increases with time as infestations continue

Eritrea and Ethiopia (McConnachie and to expand.

Dense parthenium weed infestations

Witt, Chapter 15, this volume). In Southern

Africa, parthenium weed has invaded South occur in subsistence (Fig. 14.1A) and comAfrica, Swaziland, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, mercial (Fig. 14.1B) agricultural production

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780645254

15 History and Management – East and North Africa, and the Middle East

Adkins, S.; Shabbir, A.; Dhileepan, K. CABI PDF

15

History and Management – East and North Africa, and the Middle

East

Andrew McConnachie1* and Arne Witt2

1Department

of Primary Industries, Biosecurity and Food Safety,

Orange, New South Wales, Australia; 2CABI Africa, Nairobi,

Kenya

15.1  Introduction

Richardson, 2006; Catford et  al., 2009).

According to Catford et al. (2009), invasion

While attention was being drawn to the is essentially a function of propagule presexplosion of parthenium weed (Parthenium sure from the invading species, the abiotic hysterophorus L.) in India and Australia dur- characteristics of the invaded ecosystem and ing the 1970s, East and North Africa and the the characteristics of the recipient commuMiddle East were in the early stages of being nity. Parthenium weed possesses many of exposed to this weed. Affecting areas where the traits associated with successful invadcommunities were largely dependent on ers, but its distribution is limited by the subsistence farming and pastoralism, and characteristics of the invaded ecosystem. containing important conservation areas, Parthenium weed achieves optimal growth, parthenium weed was set to become a major reproduction and spread within a defined set issue throughout the region, affecting liveli- of eco-­climatic requirements (­McConnachie hoods and biodiversity. Forty-­five years later et  al., 2011; Kriticos et  al., 2015; Mainali and parthenium weed is now a well-­ et  al., 2015; Shabbir et  al., Chapter 3, this established invader in many parts of East volume), with soil moisture and type being

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780645254

9 Coordination of Management

Adkins, S.; Shabbir, A.; Dhileepan, K. CABI PDF

9

Coordination of Management

Asad Shabbir,1* Sushilkumar,2 Ian A. W. Macdonald3 and Colette Terblanche4

1University

of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan; current affiliation Plant

Breeding Institute, the University of Sydney, Narrabri, New South

Wales, Australia; 2ICAR, Directorate of Weed Research Adhartal,

Jabalpur, India; 3International Environmental Consultant, KwaZuluNatal, South Africa; 4Colterra Environmental Consultants, KwaZuluNatal, South Africa

9.1  Introduction

Throughout the world, except in a very few extreme environments, the challenge posed by invasive alien organisms far exceeds the capacity to manage them. Unfortunately, all the indications are that the problem is increasing and is likely to continue to do so for the foreseeable future, given current trends. Under such a scenario it is crucially important that the effectiveness of management is maximized. In this chapter, the important role that coordination can play in managing one of the world’s most invasive and harmful alien plant species, parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), is addressed.

See All Chapters

See All Chapters