146 Chapters
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16 Biosafety and Regulatory Aspects of Nanotechnology in Agriculture and Food

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

16

Biosafety and Regulatory

Aspects of Nanotechnology in Agriculture and Food

Akansha Jain,1* Harikesh B. Singh2 and Sampa Das1

Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute Centenary Campus, Kolkata,

India; 2Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Banaras Hindu

University, Varanasi, India

1

16.1 Introduction

Nanotechnologies have opened the door of innovation and promises for the development of new products in almost all industrial, agricultural and food-based sectors. They have increased the efficacy of agrochemicals, enhanced nutrient availability, created efficient machinery for drug delivery, improvised food processing and product storage. They have unique properties due to their high surface-to-mass ratio, which results in a higher reactivity for interactions, ion delivery or contact. However, due to such small dimensions, characteristics such as shape, composition, charge and solubility can change their physicochemical behaviour in an unpredictable way. Therefore, they may pose a risk to human health and the environment due to widespread and irrational use, either directly, or via exposure to animals or residues in soil by the virtue of their enhanced delivery potential (Amenta et al., 2015; Mishra et al., 2017).

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15 Current Trends and Future Priorities of Nanofertilizers

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

15

Current Trends and Future

Priorities of Nanofertilizers

Carolina Castro Bueno*

Department of Environmental Engineering, São Paulo

State University, Sorocaba, Brazil

15.1 Introduction

The current view of environments and how to fertilize them is based on ­reductionist models, where each part of the environment is studied separately. In other words, the soil is seen as a separate entity; the amount of fertilizer required is another block; the root systems of the crop are another; and so on. A good way to understand this scenario is to visualize how phosphorus is used today and what its fate is.

Being a macroelement indispensable to agriculture, phosphorus has no substitute in food production (Cordell et al., 2011) and is a chemical element that is also essential to life, since it is a key component in cellular communication, cell membranes, ATP, DNA and so on. Currently, agriculture is based on the use of chemical fertilizers, which are applied indiscriminately and at large volumes.

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12 Nanotechnology Application and Emergence in Agriculture

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

12

Nanotechnology Application and Emergence in Agriculture

Semih Otles1* and Buket Yalcin Sahyar1,2

1

Ege University, Izmir, Turkey; 2Indesit Company, Manisa, Turkey

12.1 Introduction

Nanotechnology basically can be defined as the science of manufacturing

­materials that have at least one dimension below 100 nanometer (nm) in size, while it can also be described as the study of physical matter and organized structures at the 1–100 nm physical range and also incorporation of these nanostructures into applications (Fig. 12.1). There are lots of differentiations between physical, chemical and biological properties when the scale turns from the micro- to the nanoscale. The major differentiation is larger surface/volume ratio of nanoscale materials. Additionally, nanomaterials reaction to mechanisms, thermodynamics and optical and magnetic properties are different from the same materials at macro levels. Nanoparticles have a different surface structure and composition via different reactivity, according to redox reactions and adsorption mechanisms.

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18 Role of Nanotechnology in Insect Pest Management

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

18

Role of Nanotechnology in Insect Pest Management

Deepika Chauhan,1 N.N. Singh2 and Vijay Kumar Mishra2*

Department of Entomology, College of Horticulture, Uttarakhand, India;

Department of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology, Banaras Hindu

University, Varanasi, India

1

2

18.1 Introduction

A chief consideration for population development is the pertinent need for a boost in food production. A huge proportion of people living in developing countries face the problem of food scarcity as a consequence of ecological forces, namely, rainstorms, floods and droughts on agriculture (Joseph and Morrison, 2006).

Correspondingly, farming and agricultural production are hampered by a number of abiotic and biotic factors. For example, insect pests, diseases and weeds cause substantial injury to prospective agricultural production. Conversely, herbivorous insects, one of the major obstacles in sustainable food production, are said to be accountable for devastating one-fifth of the world’s total crop production annually and losses can occur in the field as well as during storage (Oerke, 2006).

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5 Multifarious Applications of Nanotechnology for Enhanced Productivity in Agriculture

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

5

Multifarious Applications of

Nanotechnology for Enhanced

Productivity in Agriculture

K.S. Subramanian,* K. Raja and S. Marimuthu

Department of Nano Science & Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural

University, Coimbatore, India

5.1 Introduction

Global agriculture underwent a series of metamorphoses that has led to the

­paradigm shift from traditional farming to precision agriculture. Such a shift is phenomenal in tropical agricultural production systems, particularly in India, where farming has faced a wide array of challenges. In the past decade, agriculture is being threatened by a burgeoning population, shrinking farmland, restricted water availability, imbalanced crop nutrition, multinutrient deficiencies in crops, yield stagnation and decline in organic matter. In order to overcome challenges ahead, people think of an alternate technology such as ‘nanotechnology’ to precisely detect and deliver the correct quantity of agri-inputs required by crops that promote productivity with environmental safety. Nanotechnology is highly exploited in energy, environment, electronics, medicine and health sciences while its application in agricultural sciences is yet to scratch the surface.

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