|Teacher Education and Practice||R&L Education||ePub|
LINDA DARLING-HAMMOND AND GARY SYKES
ABSTRACT: In this article1 we address the “highly qualified teacher” provisions of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. We argue that the provisions’ intent is important and achievable, and we outline critical research on the issue of which teacher qualifications matter for student learning. Three questions frame the discussion: Does teacher quality matter? What qualifications make a difference? How does teacher certification matter? We address the issue of ensuring highly qualified teachers for all children, providing examples of policies that have enabled states and districts to recruit and retain qualified teachers. Finally, we propose a set of federal teacher initiatives that can support such policies nationwide.
For most of this country’s educational history, the federal government has served largely in a supporting role to states and localities, providing supplementary funds for students with special needs or for those who are a protected class under federal equity laws. While civil rights litigation and legislation have led to some federal mandates for educational services to particular populations, these typically have left to the states all major decisions about curriculum, assessment, teacher hiring, student assignment, and governance.See All Chapters
|Teacher Education and Practice||Rowman & Littlefield Publishers||ePub|
ANGELA FALTER THOMAS
ABSTRACT: This article examines professional development experiences from the National Board for the Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) in the United States. Ten National Board–certified teachers were interviewed on three separate occasions about their professional development from the NBPTS. The data analysis suggests that teachers who earn their National Board certification are empowered and actively involved in their profession. They self-report that the professional development from NBPTS has been engrained in them as a result of their participation, denoting that this professional development is ideal for teachers. With the recent focus on teacher performance and increased accountability, such examination provides an even deeper understanding of professional development for teacher educators through National Board certification.
The United States is in the midst of a vast and sweeping education reform. This reform has produced an environment in which the standards of accountability have been increased in the wake of policy initiatives such as the Common Core State Standards (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of State School Officers, 2010) and Race to the Top (U.S. Department of Education, 2009). This potent recipe for reform encompasses principal and teacher evaluations that will include student test scores, widespread adoption of rigorous academic content standards, and the development of high-stakes standardized tests that align with these new standards (Gulamhussein, 2013).See All Chapters
|Journal of School Public Relations||Rowman & Littlefield Publishers||ePub|
ABSTRACT: This study seeks to address whether past performance influences how districts pay principals in California and whether that relationship changes after accounting for wages of the principals’ regional labor market. Evidence from this study provided affirmations to both questions. Using multiple regression analysis on principal salaries, I found a positive relationship between principal salaries and past performance (b = .51, p < .001); furthermore, the salary premium falls when wages of the regional labor market for principals is accounted for. The coefficients for both past performance and the regional labor market wage remain significant after accounting for several control variables. This supports the theory that past performance and the regional labor market wages both have influences on principal salaries. Furthermore, the coefficient for past performance remains a significant predictor of salaries when additional prior years of performance are accounted for, suggesting the existence of a salary premium for not only performance level but growth as well. Recommendation for future research is provided.See All Chapters
|Patricia M. Cunningham||Solution Tree Press||ePub|
Guess Yes or No
In 1978, Harold Herber, a pioneer in the field of content-area reading, proposed that teachers focus students’ attention on key information in a text by presenting them with statements and having them guess which statements were true. Students then read the text, determined which of their guesses were correct, and turned false statements into true statements. Guess Yes or No is based on Herber’s anticipation-guide strategy, a prereading tool to engage students and build new knowledge.
In Guess Yes or No lessons, students learn to read closely to determine whether statements are true or false, make logical inferences, and cite textual evidence to support their responses. Before students read the text, they read the statements together, and the teacher helps them use context and morphemic clues when appropriate to determine word meanings. Using the gradual release of responsibility model of instruction, Guess Yes or No combines student trios and teacher-led conversations to discuss various aspects of the text’s content.See All Chapters
|Heather Frizielle||Solution Tree Press||ePub|
Although it is true that special education has created a base of civil rights and legal protections, children with special needs remain those most at risk of being left behind. The facts create a sense of urgency for reform that few can deny.
—President’s Commission on Excellence in Special Education
The sense of urgency in the President’s Commission on Excellence in Special Education (2002) report has not dissipated for our most at-risk students. In fact, progress toward closing this gap made under old standards and less rigorous accountability assessments has all but vanished. Schools and school districts across the United States are feverishly working toward the implementation of new, more rigorous learning standards for all students. This new, higher level of accountability has challenged schools that have stalled in improvement efforts as well as those that have been deemed high-performing. As the bar is raised, closing the gap feels further and further out of reach for our most disadvantaged students. But without sufficient support for the implementation of more rigorous learning standards, schools are in danger of letting students, especially those with special needs, fall through the cracks, setting them up for a cycle of low expectations, struggle, and failure. As educators, we know that for students who have historically struggled in school, an adult life full of financial and societal challenges likely awaits, so it is crucial schools ensure that learning for all includes students served through special education.See All Chapters