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Chapter 4: Providing Emotional Support

Boogren, Tina H. Marzano Research ePub

Chapter 4


Most beginning teachers reach a point in their first year when they struggle to keep up with their workload. When this happens, they might begin staying very late after school to work, even after all the other teachers have left the building. Beginning teachers may also spend Friday nights and Saturdays in their classrooms, trying to prepare effective lesson plans, catch up on grading and progress reports, and keep up with a flood of emails from parents and colleagues. They might even begin to have second thoughts about becoming a teacher and wonder how they will ever make it to the end of the school year.

From feelings of exhaustion, isolation, and self-doubt to feelings of stress surrounding the overwhelming number of practical tasks and amount of logistical information, the few first years of teaching can be fraught with emotional obstacles. A teacher who requires emotional support needs coping strategies for responding to these challenges in a healthy way and reassurance to promote self-confidence.

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Medium 9781943874965

10 Communicating High Expectations

Marzano, Robert J. Solution Tree Press ePub


Communicating High Expectations

The final component of developing an effective context for learning is to communicate high expectations for all students. The need for this focus comes directly from the literature on expectations. In the mid-20th century, researchers determined that teachers’ expectations about how well students were going to perform in their classes influenced how they treated them (see Rosenthal, 1956; Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1968). The greater teachers’ expectations for students, the more teachers challenge and interact with them. The lower the expectations, the less teachers challenge and interact with students. Unfortunately, it is difficult to be completely aware of one’s expectations. However, it is very straightforward to ensure teachers treat all students equally and equitably.

In effect, teachers must pay special attention to students for whom educators wittingly or unwittingly have developed low expectations. It is not so much that these students need dramatically different strategies to feel valued and respected, but sometimes teachers don’t use typical instructional strategies as rigorously or completely with these students as they do with other students.

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Medium 9781935542544

Part I: Will and Skill

Anthony Muhammad Solution Tree Press ePub





The question of how to improve schools has long plagued practitioners, researchers, policymakers, and community members. Some have argued that the problem with low-performing schools is cultural—related to the people within the system and their beliefs, norms, attitudes, and behaviors (Green, 2005). Others have argued that the problem is structural—related to the structure of our educational system and its policies, practices, and procedures. They believe that low achievement is the product of a bad system (Viadero, 2010). We assert that it is a combination of the two—not one or the other—that has led to poor outcomes for students, particularly for struggling and underserved students, many of whom are from minority groups.

With the passage of No Child Left Behind in 2001, closing achievement gaps among diverse student groups became a focus of the federal government in the United States, as schools and districts were required to disaggregate student test scores and other performance data by student characteristics. This legislation created both a greater awareness of racial disparities and a rising concern about other kinds of achievement gaps, such as socioeconomic. In the decade since the law passed, most achievement gaps have not been closed to an appreciable degree, despite the introduction of more targeted interventions for different groups of students.

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Medium 9781942496960

Chapter 8 Connection to the Schoolwide System

Tom Hierck Solution Tree Press ePub

Key 7: Connection to the Schoolwide System

Systems are in place to ensure that all other keys align with schoolwide expectations. The systems are secure enough to withstand staff changes, yet flexible enough to accommodate changes in situations and circumstances as they arise.

The previous chapters have covered a lot of ground and presented many opportunities for teachers to create positive learning environments in their classrooms. Here is what we have examined thus far.

Teachers should set and support high expectations for student behavior and articulate a focused set of common expectations.

Teachers should deliver targeted instruction to all students.

Teachers should positively reinforce and recognize appropriate behaviors when displayed by students.

Teachers should use data as evidence for adjusting, modifying, or reteaching specific skills. The focus is on learning, not earning.

Teachers should instill collaborative and creative ways of supporting and intervening with students as their needs indicate and as the tiers of support provide.

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Medium 9781935249573

Chapter 6: Phase V—Maintenance

Gottlieb, Margo Solution Tree Press ePub

Another flaw in the human character is that everyone wants to build and no one wants to do maintenance.


Over the last chapters, we have seen our vision for building common language assessment for English learners become a reality. As we enter the final phase of construction, maintenance, we consider how and where the data are to be stored and retrieved, as well as the overall technical qualities of the assessment. To ensure the endurance of our efforts, we integrate common language assessment into the general education system where, informed by fair and useful data, all students have opportunities to thrive.

Organizing Principle: Common language assessment consists of reliable and valid tools embedded in an assessment system that supports continuous teaching and learning.

Lead Question: How are data from common language assessment for language learners integrated into, managed, and maintained within the greater educational system?

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