4816 Chapters
Medium 9781945349430

Appendix: Glossary of Tools and Terms

Meg Ormiston Solution Tree Press ePub

Appendix:
Glossary of Tools and Terms

This appendix includes a list of terms and resources we introduced and used throughout the book. Apps, programs, and websites are listed, as well as digital and academic terms that will aid you in lesson planning both NOW and in the future.

1:1 or one to one: Describes the number of technology devices (iPads, laptops, Chromebooks) given to each student in an academic setting; a 1:1 school has one device per each student

1:2 or one to two: Describes the number of technology devices (iPads, laptops, Chromebooks) given to each student in an academic setting; a 1:2 school means that one technology device is available for every two students in an academic setting; two classes may share one class set, or students may partner up to use devices

Adobe Spark (https://spark.adobe.com): A free website for designing graphics, images, videos, and webpages, with templates that make it easy for teachers and students to create projects

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Medium 9781934009437

Chapter 4: Tips for Promoting Greater Responsibility and Problem-Solving Abilities

Allen Mendler Solution Tree Press ePub

4 Tips for Promoting Greater Responsibility and Problem-Solving Abilities

The teachers at my school care about what we think. Students have lots of responsibilities, not just for themselves but for each other, also. The principal meets every few weeks with a group of students and asks for their opinions on things.

—Fred, age 12

FOCUS ON BUILDING THE FOUNDATIONS OF RESPONSIBILITY: AWARENESS, CHOICE, AND PLANNING

Students who handle responsibility poorly are nearly always lacking in one or more of the three main building blocks in teaching responsibility: awareness, choice, and planning. Some students simply do not reflect upon what they are doing before they act: impulsiveness characterizes their behaviors. Most mean no harm, but are so driven by their impulse that they do not stop and reflect before acting. These students lack awareness. Other students do not or cannot see the connection between the choices they make and the consequences of their actions. These students have problems with making good choices. Finally, some students present themselves in a disorganized, even chaotic way. Students who lack good planning skills are often very easily distracted and driven more by the events of the moment than they are by a comprehensive assessment of what is going on around them. As most educators know, many students who evidence little responsibility have gaps in more than one of these basic building blocks.

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Medium 9781936763894

Introduction: Starting the Conversation

Douglas Reeves Solution Tree Press ePub

Introduction

STARTING THE CONVERSATION

Whether you are a teacher or an administrator, parent or student, or policymaker or academic researcher, there are four essential questions to answer on the subject of grading. As previously emphasized, the elements of grading should be FAST—fair, accurate, specific, and timely.

•  How can we make grading systems fair? What we describe as proficient performance truly must be a function of performance and not gender, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status.

•  How can we make grading systems accurate? What we ascribe to students must be a matter of judgment as well as the consequence of evidence and reason.

•  How can we make grading systems specific? Telling a student he or she is “average” or a “C” does little to help students, parents, and teachers collaborate for improved learning. Students must receive detailed information about their performance so they can use the feedback to improve.

•  How can we make grading systems timely? Even if grades are fair, accurate, and specific, students cannot use feedback to improve performance unless the grades are provided in a timely manner.

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Medium 9781936763818

Chapter 8 Fast Pattern Reading

Ian Jukes Solution Tree Press ePub

Education has produced a vast population able to read
but unable to distinguish what is worth reading
.

—G. M. TREVELYAN

Learning Attribute 5

Digital readers unconsciously read text on a page or on a screen in an F or fast pattern. Most adults in the western world have been conditioned to unconsciously read text in a Z pattern. Today’s digital generations read in a pattern that’s very different from the way we learned in school.

First, some background: Images have the ability to quickly portray meaning. It only takes 150 milliseconds for the brain to process images and 100 milliseconds more to attach meaning to the images. The eye processes the content of photographs 60,000 times faster than the eye processes and interprets the content of text and words (Burmark, 2002). That’s why infographics are so popular—they’re engaging, colorful, and easy to digest, such as figure 8.1 (page 84).

As they scan and read the infographic, readers are drawn into a visual narrative; using predominantly images supported by text, digital readers quickly capture and interpret vast amounts of information (Estes, 2014).

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Medium 9781475811629

The Organizational Socialization of Assistant Principals

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

NORMA T. MERTZ

ABSTRACT:The purpose of the study was to describe the organizational socialization of assistant principals and consider how that socialization prepares them for becoming principals. Using a case study research design and social systems theory as the theoretical framework, 8 assistant principals in 2 different high schools were interviewed (as were their principals) and observed as they went about their work. The assistant principals were socialized in the position by what they lived as assistants, what they learned by the example of their principals and other assistants, and what was and was not reinforced in their practice. They learned to do school as it is currently being done and to see how it is currently being done as the way that it should be done. What they learned prepared them ill to lead schools in new ways when and if they became principals.

After a long period of neglect (Hartzell, 1993), the position of assistant principal is reemerging in the literature. Fueled by reports of an impending shortage of candidates (Educational Research Service, 1998; Fenwick, 2000; Jones, 2001; Malone & Caddell, 2000; Pounder, 1994), with “40% of the nation’s principals . . . nearing retirement” (Winter & Morgenthal, 2002, p. 319), it makes eminent, if not urgent, sense to look more closely and deeply at the position of assistant principal, “a ready source of potential leadership” (Daresh & Voss, 2001, p. 2), and the position from which the overwhelming majority of principals is drawn (Denmark & Davis, 2001). Adding piquancy to this renewed interest is the concurrent call for fundamental changes in the nature of principal leadership. Recognizing the critical importance of the principal to school effectiveness (Brookover & Lezotte, 1977; Duke, 1987; Edmonds, 1979; Fullan, 1982; Greenfield, 1987; Hallinger & Heck, 1996; Leithwood & Duke, 1998; Murphy, 1990; Purkey & Smith, 1983; Rowan, Bossert & Dwyer, 1983; Smith & Andrews, 1989), the current call is for principals who balance traditional managerial skills with instructional leadership to guide programs and personnel (Daft, 1999; Drake & Roe, 2003; Greenfield, Marshall, & Reed, 1986; Sergiovanni, 1989) and with transformational leadership to guide fundamental changes in schools (Foster, 1986; Hallinger, 1992; Murphy & Seashore-Louis, 1994; Norris, Barnett, Basom, & Yerkes, 2002; Sergiovanni, 1995).

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