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10 Communicating High Expectations

Marzano, Robert J. Solution Tree Press ePub


Communicating High Expectations

The final component of developing an effective context for learning is to communicate high expectations for all students. The need for this focus comes directly from the literature on expectations. In the mid-20th century, researchers determined that teachers’ expectations about how well students were going to perform in their classes influenced how they treated them (see Rosenthal, 1956; Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1968). The greater teachers’ expectations for students, the more teachers challenge and interact with them. The lower the expectations, the less teachers challenge and interact with students. Unfortunately, it is difficult to be completely aware of one’s expectations. However, it is very straightforward to ensure teachers treat all students equally and equitably.

In effect, teachers must pay special attention to students for whom educators wittingly or unwittingly have developed low expectations. It is not so much that these students need dramatically different strategies to feel valued and respected, but sometimes teachers don’t use typical instructional strategies as rigorously or completely with these students as they do with other students.

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Chapter 3: The Process of Change

Allen Mendler Solution Tree Press ePub

In most instances, the problem of discipline is conceptualized as a student who does something wrong in the classroom or some other place at school. An explicit or implicit rule has been broken, and the student has interfered with the teaching and learning process. Action is viewed as necessary so that order can be restored. In most cases, the actions taken are done to or with the student with the expectation that the student will change his or her behavior so that it is more appropriate. Detention, suspension, time-out, reminders, warnings, and action plans are some of these methods. All share in common the belief that it is the student who must change in order for things to get better. The expectation that it is the student who must change is referred to as “inside-out” change. All methods that teach responsibility by furthering one’s internal locus of control are inside-out methods. A student’s plan represents what he or she will do differently to avoid future difficulty. The onus of responsibility for change rests squarely and exclusively with the student.

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Chapter 3 Incubation

Try Gobble Solution Tree Press ePub

At this point in our team’s journey—after developing a sturdy foundation during the preparation phase—our team now enters the incubation phase. You might think about the incubation phase as a period of time when the idea is under construction, connections are being made, and ideas and considerations start to really come to mind and are listed as possibilities. Some find it useful to brainstorm during this phase. Some see it as a time for developing idea generation and questioning. It is similar to all of those activities, but incubation strives to go a bit deeper. During this phase, individuals and teams are making deeper sense of the possibility of a change and how it might integrate logically and significantly with the work of the individual or team. It marks the period when ideas percolate—both good and bad ideas. It is a thinking period of time, a chance for individuals to make sense of the resources and ideas from the preparation phase. This is the time when individuals and teams allow for ideas to bounce around; they consider, reconsider, question, mull over, and discuss. During this phase, individuals and teams are making sense of the new learning—thoughts might be simple in their construction or wildly divergent in their possibility. The individual or the team as a whole is trying to put shape around understanding and how to apply it.

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Chapter 10

Schimmer, Tom Solution Tree Press PDF



Reporting in Action

A standards-based report card identifies the specific learning goals within the curriculum so that the appropriate rigor can be ensured. It also communicates more detailed information about student learning progress with regard to those goals to bring about higher levels of success.

—Thomas R. Guskey and Jane M. Bailey


he full transformation to standards-based learning in action culminates with reporting by standards. The move to standards-based reporting is fundamentally optional in that schools could maintain a more traditional reporting construct (such as grades A to F) while changing everything else related to determining those grades. To be clear, however, we think that the final piece in fully transforming to standards-based learning is a move to a more modern, aligned reporting system.

When educators implement standards-based reporting at the school or district level, it is important that they invest the appropriate amount of time in changing teachers’, students’, parents’, and stakeholders’ mindsets first. After establishing those mindsets, then doors to standards-based reporting at the school or district level swing wide open.

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Appendix A: List of Figures and Tables

Kathy Tuchman Glass Solution Tree Press ePub

Table 1.1: Writing Types—Characteristics, Purposes, and Genres

Figure 1.1: Sample writing continuum

Figure 2.1: Argument revision sheet

Figure 2.2: Suggestions for parents or guardians in assisting student writers

Figure 2.3: Questions to ask when editing

Table 2.1: Proofreading marks

Figure 3.1: Unit-planning components of backward design

Figure 3.2: Unit map template

Figure 3.3: Excerpts of knowledge items from sample unit maps

Figure 3.4: Excerpts of essential understandings from sample unit maps.

Figure 3.5: Sample KUDs and guiding questions for a unit map excerpt (transitions)

Figure 3.6: Sample KUDs and guiding questions for a unit map excerpt (figurative language)

Figure 3.7: Sample KUDs and questions for a unit map excerpt (argumentation introduction)

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