Puerperal psychosis is regarded as a rare entity that analytic psychotherapists do not meet in their daily practice, and that is likely anyway to prove unamenable to analytic interventions. I hope to show in this paper why these attitudes and assumptions need reviewing.
One general problem in approaching understanding of any psychotic disorder is the great divide between general psychiatry and psychoanalysis. Each regards the other as removed from its sphere of interest and experience. As a psychoanalyst and general psychiatrist, I would say that there is essential information to be gleaned from both sides if we are to develop a better appreciation of psychotic states such as puerperal psychosis.
I will start with the psychiatric contribution. In the nineteenth century, puerperal psychoses were thought of as specific entities, different from other mental illnesses. Later psychiatrists, including Kraepelin and Bleuler, regarded puerperal psychoses as no different from other mental illnesses (ie depression and schizophrenia) - they just happened to occur in the puerperium. This is the current view and is reflected in the latest classification of mental disorders, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10 (World Health Organisation 1992). The ICD disapproves of making a diagnosis of puerperal psychosis, rather than a depressive illness or, more rarely, schizophrenia. It defines mental disorders associated with the puerperium as those commencing within 6 weeks of delivery.See All Chapters
|Donald Meltzer||Karnac Books||ePub|
Detailed clinical examples from a 5½-year analysis illustrate the nature of internal objects that underlies the tendency to regress from obsessional organizations to hypomarxia. The basis of mania in unconscious phantasy expresses itself by a tendency to turn against good internal objects with oral greed—due to unintegrated primal envy—with the aim of violently removing a structure integral to the breast felt to be penis-like, co-extensive with the nipple, and a source of strength, creativity, and Judgement in the mother. The breast-penis, because it is not retained after being stolen without becoming highly persecuting, is projected into father’s penis, which becomes idealized and an object of greed at all levels and zones. The breast, now reduced to being a passive container, is open to further attacks, since love and admiration for it have greatly diminished.
considerable body of knowledge has been built up on the metapsychology of cyclothymic states, in both the symptomatic (manic-depressive psychosis) and characterologic (cyclothymic character) forms, through the contributions of Freud, Abraham, Klein, Lewin, Helene Deutsch, Fenichel, and Schilder. to mention only a few of the major investigators who have taken a special interest in this area.See All Chapters
|Lonely Planet||Lonely Planet||ePub|
Paris has a huge choice of accommodation, from hostels through to deluxe hotels, some of which rank among the world's finest. Yet, although the city has in excess of 1500 establishments, you’ll still need to book well ahead during the warmer months (April to October) and all public and school holidays.
Book Your Stay Online
For more accommodation reviews by Lonely Planet authors, check out http://lonelyplanet.com/hotels/. You’ll find independent reviews, as well as recommendations on the best places to stay. Best of all, you can book online.
Hotels in Paris are inspected by government authorities and classified into six categories, from no star to five stars. The vast majority are two- and three-star hotels, which are generally well equipped. All hotels must display their rates, including TVA (taxe sur la valeur ajoutée; valued-added tax), though you'll often get much cheaper prices online, even on the hotels' own websites.
Parisian hotel rooms tend to be small by international standards. Families will probably need connecting rooms but if children are too young to stay in their own room, it’s possible to make do with triples, quads or suites in some places.See All Chapters
|Carrol Ann Krause||Quarry Books||ePub|
THE BROTHERS ENTER BUSINESS
AT THE BEGINNING of their new partnership, the brothers were careful and did not repeat the errors of their father. They found a business partner in storekeeper Frank Rogers, whose investment resulted in a short-lived incarnation of the company called Showers, Rogers & Co. The firm’s advertisement in the August 7, 1872 issue of the Bloomington Progress read:
Planing Mill and Furniture Manufactory. Showers, Rogers & Co., Smith & Tuley’s Block, Up-Stairs, in Smith & Tuley Hall, Bloomington, Ind., are prepared to fill orders for Furniture or Chairs, either at wholesale or retail. We have greatly enlarged and improved our manufactory, having added new machinery, and our facilities are such that we can sell as cheap at wholesale or retail, as any other house in the state. Carpenters and Builders are informed that we have procured the necessary machinery, and can now dress and rip lumber at very low prices. Good seasoned lumber always on hand and furnished very cheap.See All Chapters
|Thomas Reid||University of North Texas Press|
The Regiment is Reorganized
“Most of the boys seem to enjoy them selves ﬁne.”
—Lt. Andrew Smyth1
Early in May 1862, the soldiers of the 13th Texas Cavalry learned that the Confederate Congress had passed the Conscription Act on
April 16, 1862. The timing of the Act, one week after the huge losses at Shiloh, also followed declining enlistments. This law made all white males between the ages of eighteen and thirty-ﬁve subject to military conscription. Those under eighteen or over thirty-ﬁve were exempt from service but could voluntarily become substitutes for someone of eligible age. Existing units were required to discharge exempted soldiers and then “reorganize” with new elections being held for company and regimental ofﬁcers. Discharged soldiers could not participate in the elections, but they could be kept on active duty for ninety days if the unit was at less than full strength.2
The Act had a number of very negative consequences for the
13th Cavalry. Virtually all the enlisted soldiers with combat experience in the Mexican War were lost because of their age. Many family units, which had a stabilizing inﬂuence on the organization, were separated. The Confederacy sent an unfortunate and inaccurateSee All Chapters