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Chapter Three: Pre-transference, transference, and countertransference

Eleftheriadou, Zack Karnac Books ePub

Zack Elefetheriadou

This chapter will outline the psychoanalytic concepts of pre-transference, transference, and countertransference in detail. They are such significant aspects of the clinical work that they warrant a detailed explanation alongside case material before further aspects of the clinical relationship are outlined. Although some of the issues discussed in this chapter relate to working with refugees, they also have their own unique dynamics; hence, issues directly related to refugees are discussed in separate chapters (see Chapters Nine and Ten).

From the first session, the therapist takes into account the dynamics of transference and countertransference. Transference and countertransference are psychoanalytic concepts that are used to describe the feelings evoked between the client and the therapist. Freud (1895d) was the first to talk about the concept of transference when he outlined his observations on how (as they were then described) “hysterical patients” were falling in love with their physicians. At first, he wrote about this as a hindrance, but he later realized that this could be useful in therapeutic work. Today, it is believed that this is part of every encounter, and clinically it is extremely informative about the client's emotional state and relationships. Transference includes the feelings a client holds for those who are most intimate to them (usually stemming from childhood relationships with their primary care-givers) and how they were treated by them. These are projected to (or placed on to) the therapist. Similarly, countertransference refers to the way the therapist may also place, or, in psychoanalytic terms, project, their own feelings on to the client, or the way in which their own feelings can be triggered by a similar emotional experience to that of their client. These feelings can often be intensified when the therapist belongs to the same culture as the person or their care-givers (Akhtar, 2006). Countertransference is such a useful tool, even with clients who are not fluent in the English language. Acquarone says,

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7. Using general concepts of structure to understand regression, transference, and the working alliance

Klein, Josephine Karnac Books ePub

Psychoanalytic theories have always tended towards anthropomorphic metaphors for psychic events, and towards phantasies in which parts of the mind or body are personalized to behave as you and I might behave:

The shadow of the object fell upon the ego. [Freud, 1920g]
The superego dips into the id. [(Fenichel. 1946)
The superego was to make it impossible for the child to rob her mother of the baby inside her, to injure or destroy her mother’s body, as well as castrate the father. [Klein, quoted in Britton. 1989]
The infant splits off and projects its feeling of fear together with envy into the undisturbed breast. [Bion, quoted in Meltzer, 1978]
In psychic reality the vitality of an object can also be returned to it, as the body to the soul in theological terms.
This can only be accomplished by the reparative capacity of the internal parents and their creative coitus. [Meltzer, 19731

Some, a very few, patients talk spontaneously in this way. For myself, I have never been able to think spontaneously in such metaphors. Moreover, this kind of personalizing can be a hindrance to accurate and logical theory-building because we get misled by what we project onto the processes these metaphors are meant to represent, insofar as they derive from our ideas of human behaviour. I find it safer as well as more congenial to think less floridly, and in this chapter I experiment with ways of understanding at least some people better in terms of a conceptual framework that suits me. I am giving myself the freedom for once to describe people in my own terms, not Freud’s or anyone else’s, though it is clear that I am indebted to a range of writers, mainly those I relied on in Our Need of Others. I am ialso, incidentally, hoping to get away from some currently used diagnostic categories that I personally have found not to lead to useful clinical action in a reliable way. Especially the designation “borderline” seems to me not a diagnostic category. People who display “borderline” characteristics—impulsivity, intolerance of uncertainty, faulty sense of reality—do make life difficult for the therapist, but that is often all they have in common in treatment, in my experience at least. I have not found any of the current theories of borderline dynamics useful in practice, i.e. in indicating what I should do.

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10 Ibrahim ibn Khidr al-Qaramani: A Merchant and Urban Notable of Early Ottoman Aleppo

Christine IsomVerhaaren Indiana University Press ePub

Charles Wilkins

THE OTTOMAN conquest of the Mamluk Sultanate in 1516–1517 constituted the single largest addition of territory to Ottoman domains in the empire’s history and held great importance for the empire’s evolution. The Mamluk sultans dominated Egypt, Syria, and Western Arabia (the Hijaz) and had governed a large population; protected major routes of communication between Europe, Asia, and Africa; and claimed legitimacy as upholders of Islamic law and tradition in the heartland of Muslim civilization. From an economic point of view, the joining of Mamluk and Ottoman lands under a single, powerful ruler after 1517 created a vast, secure, and relatively integrated single zone of trade that must have expanded commercial opportunity. Ottoman state practices in the economic sphere also differed substantially from those of the Mamluks. What did it mean to be an Ottoman merchant at this moment in history? This chapter considers the career of Ibrahim ibn Khidr al-Qaramani (d. 1557),1 an Anatolian Muslim trader resident in Aleppo, once a city of the Mamluk Sultanate and now incorporated into the Ottoman domains. Though hailing from a Turkish-speaking Anatolian town, al-Qaramani must have developed a hybrid cultural identity, because he lived much of his life in a predominantly Arabic-speaking city and married into at least one local family.

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ONE. Introduction

E. Paul Durrenberger University Press of Colorado ePub


There is a crime here that goes beyond denunciation. There is a sorrow here that weeping cannot symbolize. There is a failure here that topples all our success. The fertile earth, the straight tree rows, the sturdy trunks and the ripe fruit. And children dying of pellagra must die because a profit cannot be taken from an orange.

STEINBECK, 1939:477

Steinbeck was writing of California. We write about the world as the processes he described in The Grapes of Wrath have overtaken the planet. He outlined the processes (1939: 324–325):

And the great owners, who must lose their land in an upheaval, the great owners with access to history, with eyes to read history and to know the great fact: when property accumulates in to few hands it is taken away.

And that companion fact: when a majority of the people are hungry and cold they will take by force what they need. And the little screaming fact that sounds through all history: repression works only to strengthen and knit the repressed. The great owners ignored the three cries of history.

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Don't Touch Me There

Dani Burlison Petals & Bones Press PDF


an environment so far out of my comfort zone that I might as well be visiting Pluto was also a little horrifying. I needed some reassurance.

The information on the front page of the CuddleParty.com website is straightforward and nonthreatening. Yet I couldn’t erase the visions in my mind of middle-aged pony-tailed dudes cruising for young, pretty, affirmation-thumping

New Age women. As I poked around the internet, however, photos of past parties, revealing bare arms intertwining indistinguishably in a sea of flannel-pajama bottoms and overstuffed pillows, tapped into a deep fear inside of me.

Thoughts of germs and cold, clammy hands running lightly across my back while moaning and sighing mixed with enchanted dolphin music invoked visions of what I imagined would be not unlike an unwilling visit to a couple’s tantra retreat. My blood pressure rose. I laughed nervously. I decided that I needed to go and see for myself.

As we drove the streets of San Francisco, Skye already sporting his completely awesome glow-in-the-dark footie pajamas, I prayed that we would be lost for so long that they would not admit our late arrival. Being one of the most grounded and open-minded of my friends, Skye was there to calm my nerves and talk me down from the extreme anxiety I was experiencing.

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