43532 Chapters
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Part V: Avian and Human Health – Interactions, Opportunities and Threats



Avian and Human Health –

Interactions, Opportunities and Threats

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Food Safety: Prevention is Better than

Crisis Management

Patrick Wall* and Zhongyi Yu

University College Dublin, Ireland


Poultry meat and eggs are affordable sources of valuable protein and will be a large part of the solution to meeting the needs of the growing world population.

In addition, as human nutritionists increasingly address the requirements of people at different life stages, and different levels of activity, both poultry and eggs are bioavailable sources of high quality protein. Therefore the commercial opportunities for the sector are many, and the future is looking good, provided adverse publicity can be avoided associated with: (i) food safety; (ii) animal welfare; (iii) health and nutrition; and (iv) environmental impact. Public perception is often informed by sensational news coverage and items are placed higher on the agendas of policy makers as a result of the intensity of the media coverage of an issue. Policy makers and regulators are not consistent in how they address risk along the food chain, or in society at large, and often their response is in proportion to the media coverage rather than the risk to public health. At times the regulatory response can be disproportionate to the risk. In most instances there are several solutions to a crisis and the focus should be on delivering the optimum level of consumer health protection whilst doing the minimum damage to both commercial interests and consumer confidence. Sadly this is rarely the case, emphasizing the importance of focusing on prevention rather than crisis management.

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IU Press Journals Indiana University Press ePub

translated from French and introduced by Sarah Jessica Johnson

LITTLE ENOUGH IS known about Louis-Armand Garreau. His fictions tell us that he was an anti-slavery Frenchman and intimate examiner of antebellum Louisiana. His patchy biography reveals a man whose political writings necessitated a life of on and off exile from France. By the 1830s, Louisiana was a known and fairly stable haven for French and francophone refugees of many backgrounds; political outcasts were common contributors to the multilingual literary world of the newly American state. Garreau’s short story, “Bras-Coupé,” translated here for the first time into English, is a graphic and nuanced depiction of plantation slavery in New Orleans, capturing the multi-ethnic, multilingual, immigrant-saturated city and its environs.

Published in France in 1856, “Bras-Coupé” retells a popular local legend based on actual events of the 1830s: Then, a slave named Squire escaped from a plantation and lost an arm in the process. He continued to evade the police in a standoff that lasted years. Quickly dubbed “le Bras-Coupé” or “The Severed Arm,” Squire and his supposed “encampment of outlaw negroes near the city” resisted capture for enough time to reanimate intense local fears of slave revolt. Additionally—and importantly for this literary history—the continuous newspaper reporting of the prolonged stalemate built up a legend that would go on to be retold by late-nineteenth century authors George Washington Cable and Lafcadio Hearn. The former would feature Bras-Coupé’s story in two chapters of his magnum opus The Grandissimes: A Tale of Creole Life (1880), while the latter would respond to Cable in his newspaper column with a report meant to set the historical record straight, titled “The Original Bras Coupe” (1880).

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Medium 9781912567423

11. (1919) The Child Being Beaten (the Perversions)

Meltzer, Donald Harris Meltzer Trust ePub


The child being beaten (the perversions)

This is the most difficult chapter as far as I am concerned, because it touches on the real watershed period in Freud's work at the end of the First World War, and is followed by the great revolution in his thinking which was to build up during the 1920s and emerge as the Structural Theory. It is the most difficult chapter because it is extremely complicated: the evidence is difficult to comprehend and indeed I do not understand it very well, and so do not expect to be able to clarify it for anyone else. I would begin by emphasizing once more that the approach towards Freud in this book is through his clinical work and his clinical thinking, dealing with his theories – which are expressed as explanatory theories – as having essentially no explanatory power. It seems to me that the approach made to the mind which is based on trying to explain things, is a wrong one, and for this reason I shall take the theories as modes of thought which are intended to be useful in the consulting room and in thinking, writing and talking about one's clinical experience: modes of thought which are intended to gather together, to categorize and to help demonstrate the inter-relationships of the various phenomena that one meets in the consulting room while investigating people's minds. I am going to discuss a watershed period in relation to Freud's modes of thought, and it is very difficult to pick it out in the papers of this time; for we are in effect somewhere between the Wolf Man (whose clinical work was carried out between 1910 and 1914 and written up during the war) and ‘Beyond the pleasure principle’ of 1920, which contains the seeds of the new Structural Theory. Now while in the development of the concept of the ideal ego into that of the ego-ideal, which I demonstrated in the chapter on Mourning and Melancholia and the paper ‘On narcissism’, the formation of this Structural Theory was already under way, it was not yet dealt with as such, but rather as an agency in the mind. Freud does not remotely clarify the exact relationship of the structure to the developmental processes, nor easily convey his way of thinking about it. The period was during the war: he was fairly isolated from foreign and German colleagues alike (Ferenczi was in Budapest, Abraham in Berlin) ; the patients he had being few, he was left with a great deal of time for thinking and writing. The result was a group of little but terribly interesting papers; for although he did not write large quantities, what he did set down was absolutely loaded with thought. And it is this evidence of the real struggling that went on at that period that I wish now to try to highlight.

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1. From Hungary to Czechoslovakia: Jewish Transition to the Consolidating Czechoslovak State

Klein-Pejšová, Rebekah Indiana University Press ePub

Local residents in the northwestern town of Považská Bystrica, a short distance from Slovakia’s provisional capital in Žilina, forced their way into David Büchler’s general store.1 By the time they dispersed, every item in the store was destroyed. All the furniture, the cash register, and display cases lay ruined. The building itself sustained heavy damage. They also broke into his home and made off with bedding, linens, rugs, furnishings, and other belongings. Büchler’s store and residence were attacked on November 5, 1918, during the “November Pillages” that accompanied Slovakia’s chaotic integration into the newly established Czechoslovak state after the First World War. Hardly a Jewish community in Slovakia was spared.2

Eighty years later the youngest member of the Turzikov family, then nine-year-old Pal’ko, still remembered the crash of shattering glass outside as two neighborhood men appeared in their kitchen looking for the innkeeper Arnold Eisler’s wife, hidden in the adjoining room. “Nobody’s here! Go away!” shouted his grandmother. “Why did you come? We are poor, we don’t have men [chlapov].” She shamed them into leaving.3 Emboldened young men roamed from town to town looking for Jewish shops and inns to “visit.”4 Soldiers celebrated their joy at returning alive from the front by looting Jewish stores—there were no others around, a local history reminds us—and hunting for alcohol. They accused the Jews of bribing their way out of military service in order to remain working as “clever shopkeepers,” getting rich on the war economy while Slovaks bled on the battlefield and starved at home.5

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Medium 9781780645377

4 Natural Disasters, Extreme Events and Vector-borne Diseases: Impact on Urban Systems

Dhang, P. CABI PDF


Natural Disasters, Extreme Events and Vector-­borne Diseases: Impact on Urban Systems

Chester G. Moore*

Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Pathology, Arthropod-­ borne & Infectious Diseases Laboratory (AIDL), Colorado State

University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA


4.1  Introduction

It is generally accepted by the scientific community (IPCC, 2014) that climate change is, and has been, occurring for some time. The impacts of change are likely to continue and even to increase over time. Because the arthropod disease vectors (insects, ticks, and mites) are cold-­blooded organisms, they are greatly impacted by changing climatic conditions such as temperature and precipitation. Therefore, it is not surprising to expect that vector-­borne diseases will be impacted in various ways by changing local, regional or global climate. But what is the rationale for selecting natural disasters and extreme events as a focus area in the discussion of climate change? One of the major predictions of climate-­change models is that extreme environmental events will become more frequent (i.e. that the variance for any given class of events will increase according to model predictions (IPCC, 2013; Knutson et al., 2010; Elsner et al., 2015). Within the past several decades, there have been multiple natural disasters that provide examples for study and examination in terms of potential involvement of vector-­borne disease. This chapter makes an effort to answer the following questions.

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