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Medium 9781601323149

E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia: Acceptance and Implementation Difficulties

Hamid R. Arabnia, Azita Bahrami, Fernando G. Tinetti, Leonidas Deligiannidis, George Jandieri, and Ashu M. G. Solo CSREA Press PDF


Int'l Conf. e-Learning, e-Bus., EIS, and e-Gov. | EEE'14 |

E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia: Acceptance and

Implementation Difficulties

E. Makki, and L.-C. Chang

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, School of Engineering, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC, United States

Abstract - Despite the fast growing economy, the dramatically increasing internet usage and the significant purchase power of Saudi Arabia compared to other countries in the Middle East, the evolution of E-Commerce remains slow and is inconsistent with such growth nor with the growth of ECommerce in developed countries. This paper is conducted for exploration purposes to initially determine the most significant inhibitors of the acceptance and implementation of ECommerce in Saudi Arabia for both merchants and individuals in order to conduct further quantitative research.

A small sample of merchants and consumers is selected. The

Saudi merchants, individuals and Saudis in USA data collected for this research is used to analyze inhibitors of acceptance and implementation of E-Commerce in Saudi

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8: Increasing Nutritional Value by RNA Silencing

Dalmay, T. CABI PDF


Increasing Nutritional Value by RNA Silencing

Elsa Pons1,2 and Leandro Peña1,2*


Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas (Consejo

Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Universidad Politécnica de

Valencia), Valencia, Spain; 2Fundo de Defensa da Citricultura,

Araraquara, Sao Paulo, Brazil



The first generation of plant biotechnology products commercialized was crops focused largely on input agronomic traits whose value was usually opaque to consumers. Present and future trends are intended to continue improvement of agronomic traits; and, as value-added output characteristics such as improved nutrition and food functionality are of great interest to consumers, so biotechnology efforts go increasingly in those directions (Cressey, 2013).

Molecules in plants with dietary relevance can be grouped into four main sets: macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids (oils), fibre), micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, functional metabolites), antinutrients (substances such as phytate that limit the bioavailability of nutrients) and allergens (intolerances and toxins); the levels of the first two would need to be increased and the latter two need to be reduced or removed. Many macro- and micronutrients are produced by plants; therefore, approaches aiming to improve the availability of these nutrients involve the adjustment of endogenous plant metabolism (Capell and Christou, 2004). Several strategies can be applied to achieve this. One of the most widely used is to reduce a metabolic bottleneck by producing more of a rate-limiting enzyme. There are other ways to increase the level of beneficial compounds such as: (i) directing biosynthetic pathways towards certain directions by repressing competitive pathways; or (ii) reducing feedback inhibition by increasing or generating a metabolic sink that would lead to a higher level of the required product (reviewed in Zhu et al., 2013). In this regard, RNAi emerged as the most suitable strategy to enhance the nutritional composition of important crop plants. Moreover, RNAi can also be used to diminish the amount of antinutrients in the plant tissues we consume by suppressing the expression of genes producing such compounds (Tang and Galili, 2004; Tang et al., 2007; Katoch and

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8 Emerging Adulthood

Ruby payne Solution Tree Press ePub

Researchers have begun to define young adulthood as its own developmental period, referring to it as “emerging adulthood” or “the frontier of adulthood.” The daily routines that go with high school are over, and the “toddler” years of postadolescence have begun. It is becoming clear that a young man is not, at eighteen, the same person he will be at twenty-five. He doesn’t look the same, feel the same, think the same, or act the same.

While legally an adult, many males at this age are as emotionally fearful as infants. According to a study by the Young Adult Development Project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2008), “The years from 18 to 25 are a time of stunning accomplishments and chilling risks, as a roller coaster of internal and external changes, including brain changes, propels young adults from adolescence toward full maturity.” As a number of researchers have put it, the rental car companies have it right in not allowing anyone under twenty-five to rent a car. The brain isn’t fully mature at sixteen, when teens in many states are allowed to drive, or at eighteen, when we are allowed to vote, or at twenty-one, when we are allowed to drink. Age twenty-five, for many young adults, signals the dawning of a new level of maturity.

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Medium 9781934009604

6: Disability Issues

Kim Davis Solution Tree Press ePub

Disabilities can occur at any age and may or may not be obvious from birth. According to the Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2004):

developmental disabilities are a diverse group of severe chronic conditions that are due to mental and/or physical impairments. People with developmental disabilities have problems with major life activities such as language, mobility, learning, self-help, and independent living. Developmental disabilities begin anytime during development up to 22 years of age and usually last throughout a person’s lifetime.

In particular, when the central nervous system (CNS)—the spine and the brain—is compromised, it can impact every aspect of a child’s life. Disabilities that involve a central nervous system dysfunction include learning disabilities, cognitive delay, cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder, hearing impairments, visual impairment, and Down syndrome. We know the brain is the control center for everything we do, so when a child has a disability and the CNS is compromised, we can expect learning challenges. We might also expect that the child could behave in ways that, at face value, do not make sense. Teachers need to begin to look a bit deeper into what might be happening within the child and how disability, including the CNS component, impacts that child.

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Medium 9781608930449

13 Bristol

Publishers of Down East Down East Books ePub

Snowball Hill Road, 207-677-2754

Latitude: 43.8712

Longitude: -69.5195

Sand gets increasingly rare the farther north and east you travel on the Maine coast. That’s no secret. And it makes Pemaquid Beach, on the Pemaquid peninsula south of Damariscotta, something of a unique treasure. It’s one of the last best places to find a long stretch of white sand in the midcoast; even so, it’s nowhere near as packed on a hot summer day as the area’s other rarified strands, Popham and Reid state parks. Another classic beach-lover’s beach, Pemaquid boasts 575 yards of arcing white sand with all the amenities: changing rooms, showers, and snack bar.

The beach here is short and skinny compared to its cousins in the Bath area, fronting John’s Bay and its picturesque islands. Because it faces west, it doesn’t get the open ocean pounding that Reid does, and feels more like a harbor. (Leave the boards at home.) But the sand is soft and the swimming is great if you are of the warm-blooded sort—water temperatures are typically between 58 and 65 in the summer.

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