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Medium 9788170088530

01_Chapter

Dr. B.C. Punmia ; Ashok Kr. Jain, Arun Kr. Jain Laxmi Publications PDF

1

CHAPTER

1.1

FUNDAMENTAL

DEFINITIONS AND

CONCEPTS

SURVEYING : OBJECT

Surveying is the art of determining the relative positions of points on, above or beneath the surface of the earth by means of direct or indirect measurements of distance, direction and elevation. It also includes the art of establishing points by predetermined angular and linear measurements.

The application of surveying requires skill as well as the knowledge of mathematics, physics, and to some extent, astronomy.

Levelling is a branch of surveying the object of which is (i) to find the elevations of points with respect to a given or assumed datum, and (ii) to establish points at a given elevation or at different elevations with respect to a given or assumed datum. The first operation is required to enable the works to be designed while the second operation is required in the setting out of all kinds of engineering works. Levelling deals with measurements in a vertical plane.

The knowledge of surveying is advantageous in many phases of engineering. The earliest surveys were made in connection with land surveying. Practically, every engineering project such as water supply and irrigation schemes, railroads and transmission lines, mines, bridges and buildings etc. require surveys. Before plans and estimates are prepared, boundaries should be determined and the topography of the site should be ascertained. After the plans are made, the structures must be staked out on the ground. As the work progresses, lines and grades must be given.

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Medium 9788170088837

01_Chapter_II

Dr. B.C. Punmia ; Ashok Kr. Jain, Arun Kr. Jain Laxmi Publications PDF

2  SURVEYING—II

A simple curve [Fig. 1.1 (a)] is the one which consists of a single arc of a circle. It is tangential to both the straight lines.

A compound curve [Fig. 1.1 (b)] consists of two or more simple arcs that turn in the same direction and join at common tangent points.

A reverse curve [Fig. 1.1 (c)] is the one which consists of two circular arcs of same or different radii, having their centres to the different sides of the common tangent. Both the arcs thus bend in different directions with a common tangent at their junction.

SIMPLE CURVES

1.2

DEFINITIONS AND NOTATIONS (FIG. 1.2)

1. Back tangent: The tan­gent

(AT1) previous to the curve is

V

D

(P.I.) called the back tangent or first tangent.

2. F o r w a r d t a n g e n t : T h e

C tangent (T2B) following the curve is called the forward tangent or second tangent.

T1

T2

D

(P.C.)

(P.T.)

3. Point of intersection: If the two tangents AT 1 and BT 2 are produced, they will meet A

B in a point, called the point of

R

R intersection (P.I.) or vertex (V).

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Medium 9780749473785

01 Finding consumer insight

Burkitt, Hugh Kogan Page ePub

CHAPTER 1
Finding consumer insight

Finding those great customer insights that are the bedrock of successful marketing campaigns takes both hard work and lateral thinking.

Both these case studies illustrate this. Mercedes-Benz had to turn around its brand image with the core 35-to-54 target group by making the brand feel more sporty and dynamic. But, rather than follow traditional routes to gathering actionable insights, Mercedes-Benz used the modern science of biometrics to gauge actual physical responses to driving the cars. It showed the strong emotional and physical response provoked by the car’s sound.

The subsequent multi-media campaign delivered the results by building on the insight that powerful sounds could trigger emotions such as excitement, happiness and nostalgia. A key element was to encourage users to create sound ‘mash-ups’ to share on social networks.

Insight was at the core of the campaign from Macmillan. It had set itself challenging and seemingly conflicting aims: create an urgency in people to donate but at the same time not let this appeal put off those it helped or prevent them from seeking help. It needed clearly-distinctive calls to action.

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Medium 9780749471217

01 History (now and then)

Taylor, Peter Kogan Page ePub

Chapter One

History (now and then)

To consider the ‘now’, and to look to the future, it is often of value to understand, as best you can, the past.

Project management has a great deal of history and has been around for a long time, but the state of ‘being’ a project manager and having this recognized as a ‘job’ and a ‘role’ have featured for a significantly shorter period of time, and the issue of professional status is an ongoing argument between the project community organizations.

A look back at the ‘accidental’ project manager

I am sitting on a patio overlooking the Aegean Sea, deep blue and sparkling, the sun is shining, the air warm this late September, and to my right I can see the ancient walls of the city of Dubrovnik off in the distance. With a caffe latte by my side I am enjoying this peaceful and idyllic moment.

This is an unusual way to start a book on project management perhaps, but there is a reason I am here in Croatia and that is as master of ceremonies for the International Project Management Association (IPMA) World Congress 2013. I have a great job these days, with a pleasurable mixture of writing (this book, for example), consulting, training, and speaking at events all around the world, such as this congress in Dubrovnik. It was a wonderful experience to be at the heart of a global conference with hundreds of project management professionals and academics from around the world. In the words of the IPMA website promoting the event:

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Medium 9780749471293

01 Inside the tent: the seven stages of life in an organising committee

Stephen Frost Kogan Page ePub

Paul Deighton, the highly capable and humorous former Chief Executive Officer of the London Organising Committee (LOCOG), summarised the process of staging the Games in a seven-stage model. He was paraphrasing one of his predecessors, Sandy Holloway, the Chief Executive of Sydney 2000. The stages were, in very specific order: celebration; shock; despair; search for the guilty; persecution of the innocent; celebration (again); and, finally, the inevitable glorification of the uninvolved.

This is actually a useful framework to attempt to explain the background and context of the London 2012 Games, and specifically to articulate and explain the animal that was the London Organising Committee. The nature of the organisation appears in some ways unique: its temporary nature with an immovable deadline, the level of scrutiny and limited resources being key factors. However, for the most part, it was simply an intensified experience of what persists in most organisations. Other more mainstream organisations simply do not have to endure the level of external analysis LOCOG was subject to. Most companies are not public experiments. Since LOCOG was, we can all learn from the experience.

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Medium 9780749459352

01 Introduction to logistics and distribution

Rushton, Alan Kogan Page ePub

01

Introduction to logistics and distribution

Introduction

The key components of logistics transport, inventory, warehousing have been fundamental elements of industrial and economic life for countless years, but it is only in the last 20 years or so that logistics has been recognized as a major function in its own right. The main reason that this recognition has only been relatively recent is the nature of logistics itself. It is a function made up of many sub-functions and many subsystems, each of which has been, and may still be, treated as a distinct management operation. Both the academic and the business world now accept that there is a need to adopt a more holistic view of these different operations in order to take into account how they interrelate and interact with one another.

The appreciation of the scope and importance of logistics and the supply chain has led to a more scientific approach being adopted towards the subject. This approach has been aimed at the overall concept of the logistics function as a whole but, importantly, includes the interrelationship of the individual subsystems as well. Much of this approach has addressed the need for, and means of, planning logistics and the supply chain, but has necessarily considered some of the major operational issues.

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Medium 9780749472481

01 Learning to drive

Miller, John Kogan Page ePub

01

Learning to drive

Whether you are a trainee instructor or an experienced ADI, you can always develop and improve your practical teaching skills by understanding:

When your pupils begin learning to drive they may be doing so for a variety of reasons, including:

Once they have passed the test your pupils will understand or appreciate how the other benefits gained will improve or enhance their quality of life by giving them:

When these benefits are considered, together with the fact that a driving licence is effectively valid for life, driving lessons can be regarded as extremely good value for money. These benefits can be outlined to the pupil right from the start of their lessons and in the context of the amount of training required for acquiring a life skill.

The main objective and motivation for most learners is to pass their test and obtain a full driving licence at the earliest opportunity, with the minimum of effort and at the least possible cost. In recent years, most young people have started their driver training as soon as they are old enough, but there are now some indications that a significant number of 17-year-olds are delaying their training and putting off lessons until they are slightly older. Some 10 years ago, about 50 per cent of all 17- to 21-year-olds held a full driving licence, but that figure has now dropped to about 26 per cent. It would appear that the cost of learning, combined with the escalating costs of insurance for young drivers, may be influencing their decision.

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Medium 9780749469276

01 Marketing and its limitations in understanding human intelligence

Patrick M Georges Kogan Page ePub

01

Marketing and its limitations in understanding human intelligence

Marketing represents an analytical tool, a state of mind, an approach, and technical expertise. As with a sporting event that one watches while comfortably seated in the stadium or in front of the television, its practice may, at first glance, seem simple, if not simplistic. This is a misleading illusion. Success is the result of patented professionalism as well as serious predispositions. Like high-level athletes, marketing professionals achieve success by learning good technical approaches and by developing their practice. The speed of performance linked to the switch from amateurism to professionalism largely depends on the acquisition of good marketing gestures. To acquire these gestures, marketing professionals must hone their skills in this discipline, and master the methods and tools, while being aware of their limitations. Neuroscience can enable them to push back these limitations to improve their efficiency. Its contribution to the marketing discipline leads to the emergence of a new discipline: Neuromarketing.

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Medium 9780749471088

01: Printing Press to World Wide Web

Grant Leboff Kogan Page ePub

When I became President in 1993, there were only 50 sites on the worldwide web – unbelievable – 50. When I left office, the number was 350 million and rising.

(PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON, 20011)

As alluded to by President Clinton, it is the pace at which change has taken place since the invention of the world wide web that has made understanding its effects so difficult. Many established companies failed to grasp quickly enough how the landscape was altering. Consequently, they have been left behind by new companies that have filled the void.

For example, Yellow Pages was a concept and brand known throughout the world for over 100 years.2 In whichever country you lived, it was often your first point of reference when looking for a product, service or supplier. Quite simply, Yellow Pages dominated search. Surely, therefore, any of the major companies that owned Yellow Pages were in the best position to establish themselves as the major search tool on the web. In the UK, Yellow Pages was owned by British Telecom,3a, 3b a huge company with vast resources. Yet, it was Google that became the major search brand online: a company with no history, launched in 1998 from a garage in California by two computer graduates.4

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Medium 9780749471064

01 Product

David Pearson Kogan Page ePub

01
Product

There are only three Ps in marketing: Product, Product, Product.

LORD SUGAR TO THE AUTHOR, 1995

Lord Sugar once told me that there were just three Ps of marketing: Product, Product, Product. He was of course echoing the motto of the estate agent – ‘location, location, location’ – or indeed Tony Blair’s soundbite of his three priorities in government: ‘education, education, education’. It’s a nice line and certainly Lord Sugar has had more than his fair share of product successes. He has built from nothing a billion-pound enterprise and is one of Britain’s best-known businessmen, known more now for his television appearances on Britain’s version of Donald Trump’s The Apprentice than for the fact that he did as much as anyone to popularize the personal computer in the UK and later was one of the founders of the satellite television industry.

But for all that, he is wrong on at least one count that I am sure he would acknowledge. What he means is that you have to get the Product right in order to have a chance in the game. But for Lord Sugar getting the Product right is, more than anything, getting the Price right. Price will be addressed in the next chapter, but for now let us assume that the Price point is right. How do we go about developing the Product?

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Medium 9780749472320

01: The great disconnection

Pickavance, Norman ePub

01

The great disconnection

We don’t see things as they are, we see them as we are. (ANAÏS NIN)

Are we learning the right lessons?

In order to understand the role that leaders could play in bringing business back into step with the wider needs of society and a changing world, we need to first produce a better diagnosis of both what has been happening inside our major organizations and why these organizations are seemingly causing as much harm as good. Without this, calls for an alternative route forward for business will always flounder.

This section therefore looks first at a number of the major business ‘failures’ that have occurred over recent years. In considering these examples, we will excavate a number of underlying causes or themes. These case studies and themes will form the backdrop to the book and will serve to frame our alternative model of Reconnected Leadership.

In our discussion of recent crises, we will draw on case studies across a wide cross-section of the economy:

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Medium 9780749463977

01 Trade risks and risk assessment

Anders Grath Kogan Page ePub

01

Trade risks and risk assessment

International trade practices

All forms of business contain elements of risk, but when it comes to international trade, the risk profile enters a new dimension. Internationally, you seldom have common laws that can support the transaction, as would be the case within one country. Instead, established trade practices and conventions are used to settle the undertakings made by the parties. The main sources for international trade practices are publications issued by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), which will be referred to many times throughout this book.

Successful trade transactions, therefore, depend on a knowledge of these established practices and ensuring that the undertakings in the individual contract are in line with such practices. This is why it is crucial for the seller to have started with a correct risk assessment before entering into the transaction. Sometimes, however, the circumstances in a particular case are so obvious that one hardly thinks of it as a risk assessment, whereas in other situations a thorough risk assessment needs to be done.

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Medium 9780749471170

01 Value for everyone

Jeroen Geelhoed Kogan Page ePub

01

Value for everyone

Talk to an entrepreneur for 10 minutes, or to a manager from an organization, and the terms value or create value will very likely pop up. Creating value is evidently highly important to organizations. Organizations, in fact, derive their raison dtre from the creation of value, as already argued by Schumpeter (1934) and Porter (1985). But what is that value actually? We can all sense it, but giving value a proper definition is another matter.

1.1 What is value?

Let us take a concrete example to bring the question into focus. Some time ago we organized a training programme at Nyenrode Business University, which is located in a castle. We found ourselves in the Wapenzaal, a real castle armoury complete with rough wooden floorboards, portraits of knights on the wall, a huge fireplace and stained-glass windows. A vase with tulips had been placed on the podium, next to a projector, laptop and a few banners. Since the training programme was about value creation, we asked ourselves the following question: Do these tulips create value? Was it a good investment to buy them? Someone replied: Ive just got off a flight from Spain. Those tulips give me the feeling that Im back home again. I feel positive as a result, but I cannot tell you how much value that provides. Someone else said: They create no value whatsoever for me. I didnt even notice them. Another person offered a different perspective: The value of these tulips has now increased, simply because we are talking about them.

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Medium 9788170088530

02_Chapter

Dr. B.C. Punmia ; Ashok Kr. Jain, Arun Kr. Jain Laxmi Publications PDF

2

ACCURACY

AND ERRORS

CHAPTER

2.1 GENERAL

In dealing with measurements, it is important to distinguish between accuracy and precision.

Precision is the degree of perfection used in the instruments, the methods and the observations.

Accuracy is the degree of perfection obtained.

Accuracy depends on (1) Precise instruments, (2) Precise methods and (3) Good planning.

The use of precise instruments simplify the work, save time and provide economy. The use of precise methods eliminate or try to reduce the effect of all types of errors. Good planning, which includes proper choice and arrangements of survey control and the proper choice of instruments and methods for each operation, saves time and reduces the possibility of errors.

The difference between a measurement and the true value of the quantity measured is the true error of the measurement, and is never known since the true value of the quantity is never known. However, the important function of a surveyor is to secure measurements which are correct within a certain limit of error prescribed by the nature and purpose of a particular survey.

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Medium 9788170088837

02_Chapter_II

Dr. B.C. Punmia ; Ashok Kr. Jain, Arun Kr. Jain Laxmi Publications PDF

2

CHAPTER

2.1

CURVE SURVEYING  II:

COMPOUND AND

REVERSE CURVES

ELEMENTS OF A COMPOUND CURVE

In Fig. 2.1, T1DT 2 is a two centred

B compound curve having two circular

(P.I.) D arcs T1D and DT2 meeting at a common point D known as the point of compound curvature (P.C.C.). T 1 is the point

TS of curve (P.C.) and T2 is the point of

TL tangency (P.T.). O 1 and O 2 are the

D

D1

2

D1

D(P.C.C.) D2 centres of the two arcs.

RS = the smaller radius (T1O1) tS

RL = the longer radius (T2O2) tL

D1D2 = common tangent

T1

∆1 = deflection angle between (P.C.) the rear and the common

A

D1

RS tangent

∆2 = deflection angle between the

O1 common and the forward

RL tangent

∆ = total deflection angle

D2 tS = the length of the tangent to the arc (T1D) having a

O2 smaller radius tL = the length of the tangent to

Fig. 2.1  Two Centred Compound Curve. the arc D T2 having a longer radius

TS = tangent distance T1 B corresponding to the shorter radius

TL = tangent distance BT2 corresponding to the longer radius

From Fig. 2.1, we have tS = T1D1 = D1D = RS tan tL = T2D2 = D2D = RL tan

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