16080 Chapters
  Title Author Publisher Format Buy Remix
Medium 9780253016881

The Bottle

Edited by Michael Martone and Bryan Furu Break Away Book Club Edition ePub

The Bottle

Something’s curled up in the bottle. I don’t want to look right at it.

Something makes the bottle knock.

It’s Tuesday afternoon and the weather’s asleep with its belly and long tail wrapped around the town. The curtains are hot with it.

I’m writing this yesterday.

I was going to write this from a distance, like I was God studying the classified ads of this town, old God scowling through his magnifying glass, God with long breaks for the bathroom, God sweating it out in polyester pants with the doors and windows locked against tweakers and Mexicans. God before he comes back in the second half as a long-haired teenager.

When we moved into this house the door was hanging from one hinge but the other side was heavy with bolts and chains just brushing the floor uselessly and the frame was busted. Someone had tried but couldn’t lock someone out. We stayed at my grandma’s till June, then moved after school ended. School’s important to Ma. But that means we showed up here with nowhere to go, all day not knowing anybody. Ma works the half day at Target and half as a checker at Martin’s and most nights she brings something home from the half-price barrel: hot dog buns, marshmallow fluff, Miracle Whip a day or two off. And you have to wait a long time for Miracle Whip to go off.

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Medium 9781780646862

3: Soil and Water

Finley, S. CABI PDF

3

Soil and Water

More than anything else, the key to enhancing resilience and promoting water availability for crop growth lies in the proper care of farm soils. In fertile regions, the native soil underlying forests, brush or grasslands tends to be naturally ‘healthy’, that is, rich in nutrients with good structure and organic matter content. When land is cleared for farming, soil can quickly lose its ‘healthy’ qualities, especially if farming practices employed do not encourage its regeneration. Without proper management, agricultural soils can become completely depleted in as little as a few decades or even a few years after clearing, depending on the nature of the land and its use.1

Some negative effects that agriculture can have on the soil include:

nutrient mining (continual removal of nutrients without renewal); breakdown of organic matter; loss of water holding capacity; compaction; erosion; surface sealing (crusting); and deterioration of natural habitat for soil organisms (microorganisms, insects, and worms).

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Medium 9781780646862

4: Plants and Water

Finley, S. CABI PDF

4

Plants and Water

Water availability is a principal limiting factor to plant development and crop yield. In laboratory studies, the total dry matter production of crop plants has been shown to have a linear relationship to water uptake: the more water used, the more yield produced, up to the point where the full plant water requirement is met.1

Water plays several roles in plant development and crop production:

1. Water is the principal transport mechanism for moving essential nutrients, minerals and dissolved carbohydrates through plant tissues. Water moves from regions of low to high potential, pulling it from the soil into roots, upward through plant tissues, and out through the leaf surface into the atmosphere in a continuous sequence driven by transpiration. As it moves through the plant, water delivers essential elements from roots to shoots and leaves where they are used in plant metabolic processes.

2. Water is a critical reactant in chemical reactions occurring in plant cells.

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Medium 9781786391445

17 Implication of Nanotechnology for the Treatment of Water and Air Pollution

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

17

Implication of Nanotechnology for the Treatment of Water and Air Pollution

R.K. Chaturvedi*

Center for Integrative Conservation, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical

Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan, China

17.1 Introduction

Due to the revolution in the development of science and technology at the nanoscale, there has been an increase in the ability to fabricate and manipulate the nanosized materials; by which we mean particles smaller than 100 nm. Interest in these nanomaterials has increased tremendously because they produce many opportunities to improve the performance of material. Metal-based nanoparticles, consisting of Cu, Au, Ag, etc., have been generally used as industrial electrode, magnetic materials, chemicals, catalysts and optical media. In agriculture, the use of nanoparticles has just started, but is increasing its dimensions. With the help of nanosciences, plant growth has been enhanced by using a wide range of applications of nanotechnology (Nair et al., 2010).

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Medium 9781780646862

2: Goals of Agricultural Water Management

Finley, S. CABI PDF

2

Goals of Agricultural Water

Management

Water is a vital component of every agricultural project. In addition to supporting plant growth, water is critical to maintaining soil health and promoting the overall ecological well-being of the land, which are essential in ensuring the long-term viability of the farm. In this book, the term soil and water management practices is used to designate the range of farming practices that influence the way in which water flows through the farm environment and is transformed into crop yields. This category includes methods of water application, but also cropping systems, soil management practices, and land use patterns. The purpose of this publication is to define and explain sound practices for managing water in the cultivation of field crops. While the management of soil and water resources is equally important in other agricultural categories such as livestock rearing, aquaculture and forestry, these remain outside of the scope of this book.

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Medium 9781780646862

12: Water Sources for Agriculture

Finley, S. CABI PDF

12

Water Sources for Agriculture

Especially in dryland environments, the fundamental prerequisite for irrigation

­development is a good and reliable source of water. When assessing a water source for use in agriculture, it is relevant to consider both the quantity and quality that will be accessible over time. If one of these factors proves to be insufficient, the harm caused by an irrigation project could outweigh its benefit in the long term.

This chapter addresses the character and quality of water sources commonly used to supply irrigation projects. It also introduces some water contaminants of special concern, and provides a brief overview of water-lifting devices traditionally employed on small farms.

Water Quantity

The quantity of water readily available from a blue water source is difficult to assess with accuracy, since water levels, stream size and groundwater flows fluctuate significantly over time. Climate, rainfall, and the activities of upstream users all have a strong influence on the quantity of water that will be accessible from a blue water source at a given point in time.

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Medium 9781780646862

8: Crop-focused Strategies: Using Available Water Wisely

Finley, S. CABI PDF

8

Crop-focused Strategies: Using

Available Water Wisely

The plant also has a role to play in water productivity. Crop management techniques can enhance the plant’s ability to use soil water efficiently, further reinforcing the benefit of the soil and water management practices described in

Chapters 6 and 7. Cropping systems can also be designed to encourage drought resistance and mitigate the harmful effects of dry periods. Drought resistance ultimately improves water productivity because it increases the potential for producing crop yields in seasons disrupted by dry spells.

Cropping patterns have a considerable impact on water productivity. Crop layouts and plant combinations can be calibrated to produce a maximum amount of product (or income) from within available water supplies. Often, this involves rotating between different plant varieties with complementary water and nutrient requirements.

Drought resistance can also be enhanced by selecting drought-resistant cultivars, and by training the physiological adaptation mechanisms of existing crops to access scarce soil water or improve the efficiency of the conversion process that transforms it into product.

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Medium 9781780646862

6: Soil-focused Strategies: Reducing Water Loss

Finley, S. CABI PDF

6

Soil-focused Strategies:

Reducing Water Loss

Chapter 2 introduced the concepts of productive and unproductive water uses within the overall farm water budget. Recall that the only fully productive use of water is crop transpiration (T), which is supplied by readily available soil water stored within the root zone. Typically, the percentage of rainfall that ultimately translates into transpiration is very low, in most cases between 15% and 30%.1 Unproductive water uses, including e­ vaporation, runoff, weed growth and deep percolation result in the loss of the remaining portion of the water budget. Loss percentages vary widely by context – in extreme cases, the combined forces of evaporation, runoff and deep percolation can consume more than 90% of the rainwater falling on the field.2

In order to improve rainwater productivity, farm management practices must seek to shift the way that water inputs from rain are partitioned among these competing uses. The goal is to promote infiltration and reduce water losses as much as possible, leaving more water available for use in crop transpiration.

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Medium 9781574412710

Water

Tim Johnston University of North Texas Press PDF

Water

She was a good sleeper, a dependable sleeper, but that night

Charlotte woke up with her heart whumping, like a young mother.

There had been something.

She lay in the dark, not breathing. At one window the drapes were shaped by faint light from the street, but at the other there was nothing, no light from the neighbors, no moonlight, and the effect was briefly frightening, as if the wall had fallen away into space, or a black sea.

She drew the alarm clock into focus: 1:36. She had a son who would stay out late, but when he came home he was like a cat, and if she heard him at all it was because she had gotten up to use the washroom, pausing by his door just long enough to hear him clicking at the computer in there, or humming to the iPod, or shhshing Ginny Simms, his girl.

She heard none of this now, nothing at all but the heat pumping invisibly, bloodlike, in the walls of the house. This was late

October, two nights before Halloween, the first truly cold night of the season.

She closed her eyes and the dream she’d been having eddied back to center—a dream of hands, the feel of them, the smell of them; muscle and tendon, palm and finger. Her body, under the bedding, still hummed. She breathed, she slowed, she drifted down.

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Medium 9781609949891

1. The Movements of Water

Capra, Fritjof Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Among the four classical elements, water held by far the greatest fascination for Leonardo. Throughout his life, he studied its movements and flows, drew and analyzed its waves and vortices, and speculated about its role as the fundamental “vehicle of nature” (vetturale della natura) in the macrocosm of the living Earth and the microcosm of the human body.1

Leonardo’s notes and drawings about his observations and ideas on the movement of water fill several hundred pages in his Notebooks. They include elaborate conceptual schemes and portions of treatises in the Codex Leicester and in Manuscripts F and H, as well as countless drawings and notes scattered throughout the Codex Atlanticus, the Codex Arundel, the Windsor Collection, the Codices Madrid, and Manuscripts A, E, G, I, K, and L.2 The sheer bulk of Leonardo’s writings on water duly impressed his contemporaries and succeeding generations of historians. In fact, water was the only subject, apart from painting, of which an extensive compilation of handwritten transcriptions from the Notebooks was made. This collection of notes, transcribed in the seventeenth century and comprising 230 folios, was published in 1828 in Bologna under the title Della natura, peso, e moto dell’acque (On the Nature, Weight, and Movement of Water).3

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Medium 9781626569737

5 The Amazing and Scary Rise of Artificial Intelligence

Wadhwa, Vivek; Salkever, Alex Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Many of us with iPhones talk to Siri, the iPhone’s artificially intelligent assistant. Siri can answer many basic questions asked verbally in plain English. She (or, optionally, he) can, for example, tell you today’s date; when the next San Francisco Giant’s baseball game will take place; and where the nearest pizza restaurant is located. But, though Siri appears clever, she has obvious weaknesses. Unless you tell her the name of your mother or indicate the relationship specifically in Apple’s contact app, Siri will have no idea who your mother is, and so can’t respond to your request to call your mother. That’s hardly intelligent for someone who reads, and could potentially comprehend, every e-mail I send, every phone call I make, and every text I send. Siri also cannot tell you the best route to take in order to arrive home faster and avoid traffic.

That’s OK. Siri is undeniably useful despite her limitations. No longer do I need to tap into a keyboard to find the nearest service station or to recall what date Mother’s Day falls on. And Siri can remember all the pizza restaurants in Oakland, recall the winning and losing pitcher in any of last night’s baseball games, and tell me when the next episode of my favorite TV show will air.

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Medium 9781780644479

4: Water-soluble Biodegradable Polymers for Drug Delivery

Kharkwal, H.; Janaswamy, S. CABI PDF

4 

Water-soluble Biodegradable Polymers for Drug Delivery

Bhanu Malhotra1, Harsha Kharkwal2,* and Anuradha Srivastava3

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and

Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar

­Pradesh, Noida, India; 3Biological Sciences and Geology, Queensborough

Community College, Bayside, New York, USA

1

Abstract

At the heart of polymer chemistry and biomedical applications lie water-soluble polymer drug conjugates for novel drug delivery systems. Designing multifunctional water-soluble polymer drug conjugates via copolymerization of bioactive compounds, and incorporating hydrophilic groups, makes them extremely water soluble and with improved biocompatibilities. Hydrophobic charged groups can be introduced into the polymers, which enable them to carry out specialized interactions and responses. Water-soluble polymer drug conjugates have the ability to store prodrugs (inactive drugs), facilitating the transfer of drugs passively or actively to the target site then activating them through cellular signalling cascades and bringing about the desired response. This chapter throws light on the advances made in natural and synthetic water-soluble polymer drug conjugates for various different biomedical applications.

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Medium 9781609949150

2 The Amazing AutoCorrector: Type Long Phrases in a Flash

Song, Mike Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub
Medium 9781609949198

3 The Path of Water

Foundation, Anasazi Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

I escaped the land of winding cliffs to the south.
And when I did so, I changed course from where
I initially had planned to go.

From that day, I no longer ran from my people
but merely persisted in staying away from them.

Days passed into months and months into years.

I grew into manhood without the companionship of
my father and without the worrying comfort of my mother.

The hills and the valleys raised me.

Then, as well as now, in my daily walking, I have sought
the answer to one question above all others:

Where will I find water?

Think about water for a moment.

Have you ever considered all it does for us?

I have learned to walk near water, for beside it the earth
springs forth to provide shade and refreshment.

I try to rest near water,
for I need it for nourishment and strength.

I bathe in water, for it cleanses and invigorates my skin.

My final destination at the end of each day has been
a pool of pure water.

And when traveling in dry places, each morning
I have set off with as much of that pool as I could carry.

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Medium 9780253002112

5 Obeidiyah: Water in the Desert

Hillel Bardin Indiana University Press ePub

While we were still working on Sur Bahir, and before my reserve duty in Jericho, Sarah invited me to join her and some members of the Citizens Rights Movement (CRM, or Ratz in Hebrew) to meet Palestinians from Obeidiyah, a village east of Sur Bahir. The Palestinians had a particular problem they wanted to discuss. Obeidiyah lies in the Judean desert, four miles southeast of my home in Jerusalem. I can see the village clearly from my dining room window, with the ancient Theodosius monastery and its several Muslim minarets.

We met in the office of Dr. Mubarak Awad, a Palestinian who had moved to the United States, married a Quaker, and recently returned to open a Palestinian Center for Nonviolence. This was still before the First Intifada, which he would try later to direct toward nonviolent actions. The villagers had come to Awad, who in turn had brought in Israelis from the CRM to help. The Israeli Civil Administration (part of the military organization that administers civilian affairs under the occupation) was refusing to connect the village to the piped water network, so the villagers, who lived in the desert, had to depend on cisterns and had to buy water, which was brought in tanker trucks. The reason that the villagers gave for this situation was particularly interesting.

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