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AC Circuits: Praxis Physics

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3. Break Your Patterns

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It always amazes me how little people know about their company, coworkers, or the world around them. Many otherwise intelligent people become stuck in the rut of their daily lives, doing the same things each day, driving the same route to work, eating the same breakfast, and so on, rarely deviating from their patterns. In fact, we are all most likely to frequent the same five to ten restaurants, even though many communities have fifty or more.

We tend to eat the same five or six vegetables, even though there are more than ten times that to choose from. We drive the same roads to and from work, school, and home, hang out with the same friends, and engage in the same social events. We listen to the same music, watch the same TV shows, and on and on. It’s no wonder people are bored.

If you want to have a happier, more interesting life at work and at home, start breaking your patterns. An added benefit is that you will be stimulating your creativity as a result. By changing your everyday patterns and habitual processes, you will be creating new neural connections in your brain.

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7. From the Camp to the Road: Representing the Evacuations from Auschwitz, January 1945

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Simone Gigliotti, Marc J. Masurovsky, and Erik B. Steiner

THEY DID NOT TELL US WHERE WE WERE GOINGTHEY just said to go–we saw thousands upon thousands of people–there were all these factories that surrounded Auschwitz and all these prisoners joined the march.”1 This commotion, according to Fela Finkelstein, was made all the more menacing by the guards’ threat that “anyone who does not walk, we will shoot, anyone who is weak, we will shoot.”2 From January 17 to 22, 1945, Finkelstein was among an estimated 56,000 Jewish and non-Jewish men, women, and children who were evacuated from forty camps in the Auschwitz camp complex. The conditions of the evacuation journeys, the health of the former camp prisoners, and guards’ abusive treatment of them blatantly contradicted the ostensible intention of their preservation and use as forced labor. Most evacuated prisoners walked between fifty and sixty kilometers to interim locations where they awaited rail transport to take them to concentration camps in the German Reich. The slow pace of the columns, moving at an average of no more than three kilometers per hour, made them more vulnerable to violence and Soviet military attacks. The relocation of Auschwitz prisoners had become urgent because January 12 marked the beginning of the Soviet Army’s Vistula-Oder Offensive, eight days ahead of schedule. After the fall of Kielce, Soviet troops entered the abandoned city of Warsaw on January 17. The liberation of Krakow occurred on January 19, following its encirclement by the Fifty-Ninth and Sixtieth Armies under Marshal Konev. Łódź fell on the same day. On January 20, Soviet forces entered Upper Silesia. Auschwitz’s evidence of life (the warehouses full of stolen goods, clothes, artifacts, immovable prisoners) and death (the crematoria and gas chambers) had to be erased. Time was running out.

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14. Be an Activist

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It is a proven fact: when we help others, we help ourselves. One of the best workouts for your soul, and a surefire way to add greater meaning in your life, is to become involved in a good cause or a charitable organization. The first step is to get up and get yourself moving. When you move, it literally changes your body chemistry. Studies have shown that antidepressant-type chemicals are created in your body when you walk and exercise. In addition, volunteers live longer, healthier lives. I remember when the AIDS epidemic started that those who were HIV-positive and who volunteered to help others stayed healthier longer.

When you become an activist or a volunteer, you are working to change more than your personal circumstances, and you will find yourself filled with energy. The rewards for your efforts extend from yourself and those you love to the entire world.

So get moving and get involved. What you do isn’t the issue, as long as you are doing something. You can camp in the top of a redwood to save the trees, or volunteer to help those in need in your town or on the other side of the world — do whatever has meaning for you. Quantum physicists tell us desire and intention can change the world.

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Chapter 6: First Peoples and Native Traditions

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Julian Burger explains (in The Gaia Atlas of First Peoples) that there is no universally agreed name for the peoples he describes as “first peoples”:

“... because their ancestors were the original inhabitants of the lands, since colonized by foreigners. Many territories continue to be so invaded. The book also calls them indigenous, a term widely accepted by the peoples themselves, and now adopted by the United Nations.”

p. 16

“‘Fourth World’ is a term used by the World Council of Indigenous Peoples to distinguish the way of life of indigenous peoples from those of the First (highly industrialized), Second (Socialist bloc), and Third (developing) Worlds. The First, Second, and Third Worlds believe that ‘the land belongs to the people’; the Fourth World believes that ‘the people belong to the land.’”

p. 18

NOTE: Texts and quotations by Julian Burger and the indigenous peoples are from The Gaia Atlas of First Peoples: A Future for the Indigenous World, by edited Julian Burger with campaigning groups and native peoples worldwide (London: Gaia Books Ltd., 1990). Some of what follows was written by representatives of indigenous peoples; some was provided by non-indigenous people.

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Chapter Three: Get Personal

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When I began writing this book, I shared it with my mother. She liked the idea, and she told me that in all her leadership positions, people asked her the key to . . . . . 54 . . . . . being such a good manager. At first, I didn’t hear her advice because I was too busy thinking of my mom as a leader. My mom? Dad was the one structuring billion-dollar deals overseas, not mom. What did she do? This was the woman who stayed at home with eight kids. She wasn’t some bigwig in some high-rise building. What management, Mom? The PTA? The church activities committee? How is that management?

Then it hit me, and I realized management doesn’t mean wearing a tie or a skirt with a long jacket, or getting special emails that you decide either to forward or not to forward. Management is a lot more than a special parking space. It is a lot more than having the power to hire and fire. Management can be found in homes, classrooms, and scout troops. My mom had to be one heck of a leader and manager to handle eight kids without going completely crazy, especially since one of those kids was me. In fact, I’d put my mother’s management skills up against those of any CEO managing a Fortune 500 company. Though her résumé looks a lot different, it is not any less impressive—her management skills were just applied in a much different sphere.

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3. The Pacific War, 1941–45

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A. The Road to Pearl Harbor. Tensions between Japan and the United States over the “China Incident” began to reach crisis proportions when France and the Netherlands fell before the German blitzkrieg in the spring of 1940 and Britain was forced to concentrate its forces at home and in the Middle East. The United States was left as the only major power that might check Japanese ambitions on British Burma and Malaya, French Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia), and the Dutch East Indies (Sumatra, Borneo, Java, and western New Guinea). This “Southern Resources Area,” as the Japanese termed it, was rich in rice, rubber, tin, bauxite, and oil; in Japan’s possession it could make the island-country self-sufficient in raw resources.

As early as May 1940, President Roosevelt ordered the United States Fleet (soon renamed the U.S. Pacific Fleet), then on maneuvers in waters off Hawaii, to remain indefinitely at its Pacific war station at Pearl Harbor instead of returning to its permanent base on the West Coast. But, despite the warning that the fleet’s presence was intended to convey, in the summer of 1940 Japan sent troops into northern Indochina, and in September signed the Tripartite Treaty with Germany and Italy. Roosevelt countered by adding scrap iron and aviation gasoline to a growing list of forbidden exports to Japan, a measure which seemed to work when the Japanese made no further moves into Southeast Asia for the time being. Actually, Japan’s councils were divided over what course to take. But in April 1941 Japan signed a nonaggression pact with Soviet Russia, securing Japan’s rear in the event of war with the United States, and that summer Japanese forces occupied southern Indochina. (The French administration there was left intact as long as it cooperated with the Japanese, the only such Western colonial government to survive in Southeast Asia until nearly the end of the war in the Pacific.) Roosevelt retaliated by severing nearly all trade relations with Japan and imposing a total embargo on oil shipments. The oil embargo was especially damaging, for Japan normally imported 90 percent of its needs from the United States. When the British Middle Eastern and Dutch Far Eastern oil companies joined the embargo, Japan was left with an oil reserve that could last only eighteen months. The American price for resumption of oil shipments and other trade with Japan was stiff: total withdrawal of Japanese forces from Indochina and China.

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Chapter 4 How Will We Respond When Some Students Don’t Learn?

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Marty Mathers, principal of the Puff Daddy Middle School (nickname: the Rappers), knew that his eighth-grade algebra teachers were his most challenging team on the faculty. The team was comprised of four people with very strong personalities who had difficulty finding common ground.

Peter Pilate was the most problematic teacher on the team from Principal Mather’s perspective. The failure rate in his classes was three times higher than the other members of the team, and parents routinely demanded that their students be assigned to a different teacher. Ironically, many of the students who failed Mr. Pilate’s class demonstrated proficiency on the state math test. Principal Mathers had raised these issues with Peter, but found Peter to be unreceptive to the possibility of changing any of his practices. Peter insisted that the primary reason students failed was because they did not complete their daily homework assignments in a timely manner. He refused to accept late work, and he explained that the accumulation of zeros on missed assignments led to the high failure rate. He felt strongly that the school had to teach students to be responsible, and he made it clear that he expected the principal to support him in his effort to teach responsibility for getting work done on time.

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Ch-12

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U NIX C OMMAND 103

Chapter

12

UNIX COMMAND

12.1 INTRODUCTION TO SHELL

The Shell is a program that provides an interpreter and interface between the user and the

UNIX Operating System. It executes commands that are read either from a terminal or from a file.

Files containing commands may be created, allowing users to build their own commands. In this manner, users may tailor UNIX to their individual requirements and style.

There are a number of different Shells. Each provides a slightly different interface between the user and the UNIX Operating System. There are three important types of shell in UNIX these are:

(i)

Bourne Shell

(ii)

C-Shell

(iii)

Korn Shell

There are other shells that are less widely used and not available on many machines. A command issued by a user may be run in the present shell, or the shell itself may start up another copy of itself in which to run that command. In this way, a user may run several commands at the same time. A secondary shell is called a sub-shell.

When a user logs onto the system, a shell is automatically started. This will monitor the user’s terminal, waiting for the issue of any commands. The type of shell used is stored in a file called passwd in the subdirectory etc. Any other shell may be run as a sub-shell by issuing it as a command. For example, /usr/bin/ksh will run a Korn shell. The original shell will still be running—in background mode—until the Korn shell is terminated.

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"B" Words: GMAT Advanced Vocabulary

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Appendix C

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Appendix C

Literary Devices and

Figurative Language

This appendix provides a comprehensive overview of literary devices and figurative language that authors select and employ to suit the purpose for which they are writing and enhance a work of narration. (Some sources include figurative language under the umbrella of literary devices, whereas I choose to give them equal attention.)

I share literary examples throughout this appendix; use them for your own professional learning, if needed, or embed them within lessons to share with students. Solicit students to find examples in texts they are reading independently or as part of classroom instruction. Encourage them to or expect that they will invent their own examples in writing they compose. When making decisions about which devices and types of figurative language to teach, defer and be accountable to your grade-level content standards. For activity, assessment, and lesson ideas around some of the material in this appendix, see chapters 3 (page 49) and 4 (page 55).

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7 Relationships: Endlessly Entangled

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Albert Einstein described our feelings of separateness as “a kind of optical delusion of consciousness. This delusion is a kind of prison for us, restricting us to our personal desires and affection for a few persons nearest to us.

Our task must be to free ourselves from this prison by widening the circle of understanding and compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature in its beauty. Nobody is able to achieve this completely, but the striving for such achievement is in itself a part of the liberation and a foundation for inner security.”17

Yet Einstein struggled his entire life with the entangled nature of this universe, a world where separateness is indeed an illusion. Einstein could not accept what quantum scientists were discovering, a world where seemingly discrete, separate particles acted as one, even when distant from each other. In rejecting this new quantum reality, Einstein labeled it as “spooky action at a distance.” First proved in 1964 with Bell’s theorem and then in subsequent experiments that continue to this day, quantum reality has been well established. When two separate particles are correlated and then separated, they continue to act as one. If one changes, the other does so instantly, faster than the speed of light. Entanglement, the term used in physics, is now accepted as the defining characteristic of this universe, not just at the quantum level but at the macroscopic world that we inhabit.18 “The universe,” as astronomer Sir James Jeans noted, “begins to look more like a great thought than like a great machine.”19

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Multicultural Team Building

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34

Multicultural Team

Building

Introduction

Gaining cooperation among people is critical to all team effectiveness, and dealing with a diverse work force requires special knowledge and sensitivity. It is important to remember that each culture has values and communication styles that may make a significant difference.

Teams are distinguished from groups by their very nature. While groups are only bodies of people, teams are created to accomplish certain objectives, utilizing available resources in a methodical manner.

Objective

The purpose of this team-building activity is to offer participants an opportunity to understand the elements of a successful team, as well as appreciate the impact that cultural diversity has on team effectiveness.

The exercise demonstrates certain types of culturally-related approaches to a team effort, and how the different approaches affect the success of the team assignment.

Such approaches may be based on values, perceptions, motivation and communication styles. It is important not only to recognize that there are cultural dimensions, but also utilize them as strengths.

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APPENDIX A

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Description

Orthomolecular medicine, pioneered since the 1950s by Dr Abram Hoffer and others, including Carl Pfeiffer, David O Horrobin, Harold Foster, and Linus Pauling (who coined the term orthomolecular), describes the practice of using the most appropriate nutrients, including vitamins, minerals, and other essential compounds, in the most therapeutic amounts, according to an individual’s particular biochemical requirements. Schizophrenia and psychoses are explained as a complex biochemical disorder that expresses itself in mental symptoms and originates from a vitamin-dependent condition. It is essential to discover the cause/s or triggers, which might be cerebral allergies; vitamin B-3 and B-6 dependencies; vitamin deficiencies; essential fatty acid deficiencies; mineral deficiencies, e.g., zinc; toxic reactions, e.g., to lead or to drugs.

Organizations

International Schizophrenia Foundation/International Society for Orthomolecular Medicine/Canadian Schizophrenia Foundation Started in 1968 with international affiliates, dedicated to raising the levels of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the schizophreniasand allied disorders. Over 300 publications; promotes and supports research; quarterly Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine; quarterly Nutrition and Mental Health newsletter; annual international conferences; meetings, and regional conferences; branches answer thousands of enquiries from people seeking information and help.

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6. First Friends

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First Friends

Sam slept until eight or nine in the morning, which gave me one or two precious hours to clean the house or get some arts council work done before caring for him consumed the rest of my day. I had to help him dress and make his breakfast. He could undress himself better than he could dress himself. He could feed himself, but he ignored his spoon and fork. Still, he ate a healthy breakfast—whole-grain pancakes or waffles, fresh berries, scrambled eggs, and smoothies.

For juice and smoothies, I bought a bottle-to-cup system I had seen in Japan. My mentor’s daughter, Akiko, was a toddler. I had enjoyed watching Akiko grow and change. Even though Akiko wasn’t quite two years old, Toru and Chieko had encouraged her to pick up grains of rice with chopsticks.

Akiko also liked to play with me. Occasionally, I understood her Japanese better than that of the adults, but she couldn’t pronounce my name. As I tried to learn Japanese myself, I figured out that my name didn’t fit in the natural building blocks of the Japanese alphabet. Akiko adapted by taking the sound of the first letter, P, and adding the honorary suffix, san, to be polite. My name was Pe-san when we played. Akiko’s favorite cup had been a short, sturdy one with white handles on both sides. Chieko showed me the different options for its top— with a quick twist, the cup changed from a bottle-style nipple to a sipper, to a straw, to a covered top with a small hole to slow down spills.

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